References: Magnets and Pain

Questions & Answers About Using Magnets to Treat Pain - Part 6

Reference Materials1. Ratterman R, Secrest J, Norwood B, et al. Magnet therapy: what's the attraction? Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners. 2002;14(8):347-353.

2.Bassett CA, Mitchell SN, Gaston SR. Pulsing electromagnetic field treatment in ununited fractures and failed arthrodeses. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1982;247(5):623-628.

3. Trock DH. Electromagnetic fields and magnets: investigational treatment for musculoskeletal disorders. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America. 2000;26(1):51-62.

4. Basford JR. A historical perspective of the popular use of electric and magnetic therapy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2001;82(9):1261-1269.

5. Macklis RM. Magnetic healing, quackery, and the debate about the health effects of electromagnetic fields. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1993;118(5):376-383.

6. Rao JK, Mihaliak K, Kroenke K, et al. Use of complementary therapies for arthritis among patients of rheumatologists. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1999;131(6):409-416.

7. Winemiller MH, Billow RG, Laskowski ER, et al. Effect of magnetic vs sham-magnetic insoles on plantar heel pain: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2003;290(11):1474-1478.

8. Collacott EA, Zimmerman JT, White DW, et al. Bipolar permanent magnets for the treatment of chronic low back pain: a pilot study. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2000;283(10):1322-1325.

9. Vallbona C, Richards T. Evolution of magnetic therapy from alternative to traditional medicine. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America. 1999;10(3):729-754.

10. Jacobson JI, Gorman R, Yamanashi WS, et al. Low-amplitude, extremely low frequency magnetic fields for the treatment of osteoarthritic knees: a double-blind clinical study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2001;7(5):54-69.

11. Pipitone N, Scott DL. Magnetic pulse treatment for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 2001;17(3):190-196.

12. Varcaccio-Garofalo G, Carriero C, Loizzo MR, et al. Analgesic properties of electromagnetic field therapy in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1995;22(4):350-354.

13. Kanda M, Mima T, Oga T, et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the sensorimotor cortex and medial frontal cortex modifies human pain perception. Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2003;114(5):860-866.

14. Pridmore S, Oberoi G. Transcranial magnetic stimulation applications and potential use in chronic pain: studies in waiting. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2000;182(1):1-4.

15. Lefaucheur JP, Drouot X, Nguyen JP. Interventional neurophysiology for pain control: duration of pain relief following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex. Neurophysiologie Clinique. 2001;31(4):247-252.

16. Migita K, Uozumi T, Arita K, et al. Transcranial magnetic coil stimulation of motor cortex in patients with central pain. Neurosurgery. 1995;36(5):1037-1039.

17. Pujol J, Pascual-Leone A, Dolz C, et al. The effect of repetitive magnetic stimulation on localized musculoskeletal pain. Neuroreport. 1998;9(8):1745-1748.

18. Smania N, Corato E, Fiaschi A, et al. Therapeutic effects of peripheral repetitive magnetic stimulation on myofascial pain syndrome. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2003;114(2):350-358.

19. Hulme J, Robinson V, DeBie R, et al. Electromagnetic fields for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2003;(3):CD003523.

20. Huntley A, Ernst E. Complementary and alternative therapies for treating multiple sclerosis symptoms: a systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2000;8(2):97-105.

21. Swenson RS. Therapeutic modalities in the management of nonspecific neck pain. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America. 2003;14(3):605-627.

22. Carter R, Hall T, Aspy CB, et al. The effectiveness of magnet therapy for treatment of wrist pain attributed to carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Family Practice. 2002;51(1):38-40.

23. Caselli MA, Clark N, Lazarus S, et al. Evaluation of magnetic foil and PPT insoles in the treatment of heel pain. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. 1997;87(1):11-16.

24. Weintraub MI, Wolfe GI, Barohn RA, et al. Static magnetic field therapy for symptomatic diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2003;84(5):736-746.

25. Hinman MR, Ford J, Heyl H. Effects of static magnets on chronic knee pain and physical function: a double-blind study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2002;8(4):50-55.

26. Alfano AP, Taylor AG, Foresman PA, et al. Static magnetic fields for treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2001;7(1):53-64.

27. Wolsko PM, Eisenberg DM, Simon LS, et al. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of static magnets for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: results of a pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2004;10(2):36-43.

28. Segal NA, Toda Y, Huston J, et al. Two configurations of static magnetic fields for treating rheumatoid arthritis of the knee: a double-blind clinical trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2001;82(10):1453-1460.

29. Thuile C, Walzl M. Evaluation of electromagnetic fields in the treatment of pain in patients with lumbar radiculopathy or the whiplash syndrome. NeuroRehabilitation. 2002;17(1):63-67.

30. Nicolakis P, Kollmitzer J, Crevenna R, et al. Pulsed magnetic field therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee: a double-blind sham-controlled trial. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift. 2002;114(15-16):678-684.

31. Blechman AM, Oz MC, Nair V, et al. Discrepancy between claimed field flux density of some commercially available magnets and actual gaussmeter measurements. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2001;7(5):92-95.

32. McLean MJ, Engström S, Holcomb R. Static magnetic fields for the treatment of pain. Epilepsy & Behavior. 2001;2:S74-S80.

33. Brown CS, Ling FW, Wan JY, et al. Efficacy of static magnetic field therapy in chronic pelvic pain: a double-blind pilot study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2002;187(6):1581-1587.

34. McLean MJ, Holcomb RR, Wamil AW, et al. Blockade of sensory neuron action potentials by a static magnetic field in the 10 mT range. Bioelectromagnetics. 1995;16(1):20-32.

35. Fanelli C, Coppola S, Barone R, et al. Magnetic fields increase cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis via modulation of Ca2+ influx. The FASEB Journal. 1999;13(1):95-102.

36. Martel GF, Andrews SC, Roseboom CG. Comparison of static and placebo magnets on resting forearm blood flow in young, healthy men. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 2002;32(10):518-524.

37. Ryczko MC, Persinger MA. Increased analgesia to thermal stimuli in rats after brief exposures to complex pulsed 1 microTesla magnetic fields. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2002;95(2):592-598.

38. Johnson MT, McCullough J, Nindl G, et al. Autoradiographic evaluation of electromagnetic field effects on serotonin (5HT1A) receptors in rat brain. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation. 2003;39:466-470.

39. Johnson MT, Vanscoy-Cornett A, Vesper DN, et al. Electromagnetic fields used clinically to improve bone healing also impact lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation. 2001;37:215-220.

NCCAM has provided this material for your information. It is not intended to substitute for the medical expertise and advice of your primary health care provider. We encourage you to discuss any decisions about treatment or care with your health care provider. The mention of any product, service, or therapy in this information is not an endorsement by NCCAM.

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)
National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, Maryland 20892 USA

NCCAM Publication No. D208
May 2004

Updated on: 01/05/16
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Questions and Answers About Using Magnets to Treat Pain
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Questions and Answers About Using Magnets to Treat Pain

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