Spinal Research Archives for Professionals

Chronic Pain Update: Ziconotide - A New Class of Pharmacologic Agent

Ziconotide is the first FDA-approved agent in a promising class of drugs called the conotoxins. Its release carried the specific indication for intrathecal use in chronic pain patients.

Indications, Risks, and Contraindications: Epidural Corticosteroid Injections

A review of the indications, risks, and contraindications for epidural steroid injections including study results.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Screw Plate Fixation

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash. View the posterior screw-plate fixation of a breast cancer metastasis that had caused severe pain in a 57-year old woman.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Pedicles of L2, L3, L4

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the coronal section thorugh the pedicles of L2,L3,L4.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the axial section thorugh a vertebra at the mid-pedicle level.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Posterior Screw Plate Fixation

Post-operative cervical articular anatomy in an elderly man who underwent spinal fixation, dynamic decompression plate and 3.5mm cancellous screws.

DePuy Spine

Download information about DePuy Spine's Expedium (tm) Spine System.

Idiopathic Scoliosis: Anterior Thoracoscopic Correction

Anterior thoracoscopic correction of idiopathic scoliosis. A complete description for patients and parents dealing with this disease.

Idiopathic Scoliosis: Rod Measurement and Placement

Detailed explanation and figures illustrate rod measurement and their placement during anterior thoracoscopic correction of idiopathic scoliosis.

Idiopathic Scoliosis: Discectomy

An excellent description of the exposure and discectomy performed as a part of the anterior thoracoscopic correction of idiopathic scoliosis.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Disc Protrusions

Doctor Wolfgang Rauschning’s grading system for disc protrusions based on the assessment of normal specimens and actual disc herniations.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Multiple Disc Ruptures at C5-C6

Multiple disc ruptures at C5-C6 that extend into the nucleus pulposus with the annulus fibrosus avulsed from the apophyseal rim.

Novel Radiation-Free Assessment of Scoliosis and the Cobb Angle

Cobb angle measurement is essential in scoliosis diagnosis and monitoring, and other spinal deformities. The Ortelius800® is a 3D, radiation-free imaging system that non-invasively measures the spatial positions of the spinous processes.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Endplate Avulsion

Cervical Spine Injuries,Fractures and Whiplash. View the cartilaginous endplate avulsion of the C6-C7 disc from the body of C7.

Decisions and Expectations with Osteotomy Surgery for Fixed Sagittal Imbalance Syndromes: Smith-Petersen vs Pedicle Subtraction

Decisions and Expectations with Osteotomy Surgery for Fixed Sagittal Imbalance Syndromes

Cervical Anatomy and Pathology - Midlumbar Spine

Midsagittal section through the midlumbar spine of a 64–year–old female cadaver. The spine portion had been frozen in situ during routine autopsy in the supine position. The veins posterior to the spine are engorged with cruor mortis.

The Anatomic Background of Low-Back Pain

Learn about the anatomic background of low back pain including the progression of the pain tracts, pain-fighter path, and the specificity of low back pain.

Cervical Spine Approaches by Metrix

Cervical spinal approaches by Metrix. The technical possibilities in reaching the cervical spine by videoendoscopy through the anterior and posterior approach are shown.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - T1-Weighted MR Image

Cervical Spine Injuries,Fractures and Whiplash. View the gadolinium enhanced, T1-weighted MR image.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - 77 Year Old

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the sagittal section thorugh a moderately degenerated lower lumbar spine of a 77-year old man.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - S3, S4

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the axial section through the right sacroiliac (SI) joint and the lesser pelvis at the level of S3-S4.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Odontoid Process Fracture

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash. View the odontoid process fracture.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Thoracolumbar Spine, Young Female

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the sagittal section in the midline through the thoracolumbar spine of a young female adult.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Mid Pedicle Level L5

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the lower lumbar spine at the mid-pedicle level of L5.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - 70 Year Old

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the degenerated lumbar spine of a 70-year old man with a history of long-standing low back pain.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Uncovertebral Injuries

Cervical Spine Injuries,Fractures and Whiplash. View the multiple-level uncovertebral injuries between C2 and C5.

Cervical Anatomy and Pathology - Spinal Canal

Closeup of the spinal canal in the cervical spine.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Avulsions at C5

Cervical Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the coronal section through a serverely degenerated lower cervical spine of a 70-year old female.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Anterior Plate Fixation

Cervical Spine Injuries,Fractures and Whiplash. View the posttraumatic insatbility and myelopathy in a 82-year old man.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - C6, C7 Sagittal Closeup

Cervical Spine Injuries,Fractures and Whiplash. View a sagittal closeup section at C6-C7 showing a screw that transgresses and partially fractures the inferior articular proscess of C6

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Right S1 Joint

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View a axial closeup of the right SI joint.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Isthmic Spondylosis of L5

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the Iithmic spondyloysis of L5 in a 29-year old woman.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - L4 L5 Disc Degeneration

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the lower lumbar spine with pronounced disc degenerations L4-L5 and L5-S1.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Spinal Stenosis

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the severe degenerative spinal stenosis at the L4-L5 level in a 70-year old.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Burst Fracture

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View a 32-year old carpenter who had sustained a typical burstfracture of L1.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Facet Joint

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the sagittal high power photograph of the L4-L5 facet joint and foramen in the spine.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Cancer

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash. View breast cancer metastasis of C6 with a pahtological Fracture.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Upper Sacrum

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the axial section through the upper sacrum Icm caudal.

The Role and Timing of Decompression in Acute Spinal Cord Injury

Abstract concerning conservative care and preventive measures of acute spinal cord injury.

Nerve Blocks: Part 2

Part 2 is a discussion of different types of blocks including peripheral and sympathetic nerve blocks.

The Discography Controversy: Discussion

Risks of discography include discitis, neurologic and visceral injury, dye reactions, and spinal headache. Spinal cord injury, vascular injury, prevertebral abscess, and subdural empyema have been reported post-discography.

Outcomes of Allogenic Cages in ALIF and PLIF: Discussion

A number of studies have examined the outcome of interbody fusions. It should be realized that there are many types of spinal surgical techniques and healing processes.

Radiographs, CT Scans, Myelography, MRI, Bone Scan, Electrodiagnostic Tests and Discography

Plain radiographs of the spine can identify deformity, most fractures, destructive lesions, spondylolisthesis, and spondolytic changes but are less sensitive for soft tissues.

Imaging: Lumbosacral Fusion

Current imaging techniques are suboptimal in evaluating spinal interbody fusion.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Sacroliliac Joint

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the axial section through the sacroiliac (SI) joints of a 29-year old female.

Spine Foundation and Spine 10x25 Initiatives Focus on Reducing Spine-Related Disability

The goal of the Spine Foundation and Spine 10 x 25 Initiative is to reduce spine-related disability by 10% by the year 2025. Learn more about these organizations.

A Health Professional's Guide to Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Spinal Surgery(VATS)

video assisted thoracoscopic surgery information for healthcare professionals

Deformity Problems in the Young - Case Discussion

Doctor Suken Shah's presentation, Case Discussion of Deformity Problems in the Young is featured. This video is from the Pediatric Spinal Deformity: On the Cutting Edge spine-related CME meeting.

Anterior is the Approach of Choice

Doctor Robert Dickson's presentation, Anterior is the Approach of Choice, from the Pediatric Spinal Deformity: On the Cutting Edge spine-related CME meeting, is featured.

Posterior is the Approach of Choice

Doctor Michael O'Brien's presentation, Posterior is the Approach of Choice, from the Pediatric Spinal Deformity: On the Cutting Edge spine-related CME meeting, is featured.

Reduction of Congenital (Isthmic Dysplastic) Spondylolisthesis in Children and Adolescents

Doctor Ruben Jensen's presentation, Reduction of Congenital (Isthmic Dysplastic) Spondylolisthesis in Children and Adolescents, from the Pediatric Spinal Deformity: On the Cutting Edge spine-related CME meeting, is featured.

Recurrent L4 L5 Herniation Video

Video from Medtronic Sofamor Danek and the Hughston Sports Medicine Foundation. Professionally oriented video discusses the procedure.

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Video

Professional surgical video from Medtronic Sofamor Danek discusses technique for Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

Laparoscopic Bone Dowel System

A professionally oriented video from Medtronic Sofamor Danek discusses a Laparoscopic Bone Dowel System.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Craniocervical

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash. View the gross disruption at the craniocervical junction.

Posterior Occipitocervical Instrumentation and Fusion for Ventral Compression in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Case Report

Case Report for posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion for ventral compression in rheumatoid arthritis.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Partial Collapse of the L1 Vertebra

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the partial collapse of the L1 Vertebra due to a superior endplate failure.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Degenerated L3 L4 Disc

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the axial section thorugh a severely degenerated L3-L4 disc.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Midlumbar Vertebra

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the pathological fracture of a midlumbar vertebra.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Upper Sacrum (Young Female)

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the sagittal section through the pedicles of the same specimen as in the normal lower lumbar spine and upper sacrum of a young female.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - C5 C6 Herniation

Cervical Spine Injuries,Fracture and Whiplash. View the large disc herniation at C5-C6.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Spinal Canal, Foramina, L5-S1 Disc

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the axial section through the spinal canal and foramina of the L5-S1 disc.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Multiple Facet Joint Ruptures and Fractures

Cervical Spine Injures, Fractures and Whiplash. View the multiple facet joint ruptures of the transverse processes from C4 to C6.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Occipital Condyle Fracture

Cervical Spine Injuries,Fractures and Whiplash. View the Occipital condyle fracture.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Midlumbar Spinal Canal through L4-L5

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View a closeup view of the midlumbar spinal canal in a severely degenerated and stenotic specimen.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Degenerated L5 Disc

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the sagittal closeup of the posterior half of a moderately degenerated L5-S1 disc at the lateral recess level.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Root Canal

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the same specimen as in number 16 of the index,this section is through the L4-L5 neuroforamen.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Severely Degenerated Lower Lumbar Spine

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the severely degenerated lower lumbar spine.

Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF): Technical Feasibility and Initial Results

An abstract describing the use and results of minimally invasive TLIF techniques.

Psychological Factors that Influence Elective Surgical Outcome for Chronic Pain Patients

Pain relief is the primary reason why patients undergo elective surgery in the United States. There are a number of psychological factors that should be considered before elective surgery is considered with patients experiencing persistent or chronic pain.

Fusion Versus Disc Replacement for Discogenic Pain

The ultimate treatment for symptomatic disc degeneration should be disc arthroplasty instead of arthrodesis.

Idiopathic Scoliosis: Surgical (OR) Setup and Equipment

View the set up of equipment in the operating room for an anterior thoracoscopic correction of idiopathic scoliosis.

Idiopathic Scoliosis: Pre-op Planning

In this multi-part article, the author discusses a surgical technique for anterior thoracoscopic correction of idiopathic scoliosis.

Idiopathic Scoliosis: Surgical Results

A review of the patients who underwent anterior thoracoscopic correction of idiopathic scoliosis, the complications and conclusions.

Idiopathic Scoliosis: Surgical Compression and Closure

Compression and closure discussion and photos of an anterior thoracoscopic correction of idiopathic scoliosis.

Idiopathic Scoliosis: Surgical Screw Placement

Description with excellent images of screw placement in an anterior thoracoscopic correction of idiopathic scoliosis.

Idiopathic Scoliosis: Graft Harvest for Fusion

The graft harvest stage of an anterior thoracoscopic correction of idiopathic scoliosis.

Anterior Surgery for Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures: Rationale and Technique

Thoracolumbar burst fractures occur after the thoracolumbar spine fails in axial compression, which may result from trauma.

Precision Injection Techniques for Diagnosis and Treatment of Lumbar Disc Disease: The Next Step

Precision spine injections are potentially powerful tools for both diagnosing and treating the anatomic source of chronic spinal pain.

Epidural Corticosteroid Injections: Technical Considerations - Part B

Various routes for administration of epidural steroids are discussed; figures included.

Epidural Corticosteroid Injections: Technical Considerations, Part A

Fluoroscopic guidance and contrast medium greated increase the accuracy and safety of epidural steroid injections.

Epidural Corticosteroid Injections: Conclusion

Epidural steroid injections have a role in radicular pain, as proven with some controlled and many uncontrolled studies, including meta-anaylses.

References: When, How, and Why to Use Epidural Corticosteroid Injections: An Overview

References for the article "When, How, and Why to Use Epidural Corticosteroid Injections."

Procedural Safety Guidelines for Cervical Epidural Steroid Injections: Appendix 1: Part A

Safety guidelines for cervical epidural steroid injections.

When, How, and Why to Use Epidural Corticosteroid Injections: An Overview

Spinal epidural steroid injections are commonly utilized in the treatment of acute spinal pain and may provide diagnostic confirmation of a specific "pain generator."

Procedural Safety Guidelines for Cervical Epidural Steroid Injections: Appendix 1 - Part B

Part B of Appendix 1 that outlines safety guidelines for cervical epidural steroid injections.

Selective Epidural Injection: Section 1

A selective epidural injection is a variation of the selective nerve root injection.

Selective Epidural Injection: Section 2

A selective epidural approach ensures that the injection incorporates all the sites where pathology can affect the nerve.

A Discussion of the Trans1 AxiaLIF

Doctor Larry T. Khoo, CoDirector of the Comprehensive Spine Center in Santa Monica discusses the Trans1 AxiaLIF® surgical procedure.

References: Direct Lateral Transpsoas Approach

The list of References to Dr. Reginald Knight's article about the minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion procedure, DLIF or Direct Lateral Transpsoas Approach.

Discussion: Direct Lateral Transpsoas Approach

Direct lateral transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion may prove to be an important improvement in our methods of handling degenerative conditions affecting the lumbar spine.

Direct Lateral Transpsoas Lumbar Approach

A less invasive direct lateral transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine has proved to be an effective method of managing patients requiring interbody fusion of the mid-lumbar spine.

Results: Direct Lateral Transpsoas Approach

DLIF complications that altered the discharge plan or patient function, occured in 10 out of 38 patients. Two tables detail these complications.

Procedure Description: Direct Lateral Transpsoas Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Doctor Reginald Knight describes the direct lateral transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion procedure. Included are several intraoperative images.

TLIF: Bone Grafts and Structural Implants

There are various devices that can be used as structural grafts and implants. However, the ideal standard of care is to provide an interbody fusion with iliac crest bone graft harvested from the patient at the time of surgery.

TLIF: Distraction, Annulotomy, Endplate Preparation, and Interbody Template Use

A review of the surgical distraction techniques, annulotomy and endplate preparation, and interbody template use.

TLIF: Indications for Pseudoarthrosis

The risks of distrction involve an inadvertent injury to the dorsal root ganglion, fracture of the bony anatomy, and neural injury to the midline dura due to manipulation.

Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF): Advantages

One of the greatest advantages of TLIF is the working zone within the disc space.

Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF) Technique

The added biological advantage of an interbody fusion technique with compression across a structural fusion cage or apparatus will add to the success of a lumbar arthrodesis procedure.

Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Spine Surgery: Introduction - Part 1

Endoscopic spine surgery is evolving rapidly due to improvements in surgical technique, endoscopic design, and instrumentation.

Potential Complications and Avoidance: Part 3

As with arthroscopic knee surgery, the risks of serious complications or injury are low; approximately 1% or less in the author's experience.

Summary and References: Part 4

Endoscopic spine surgery has a high learning curve, but is within the grasp of every endoscopic surgeon with proper training.

Indications for Foraminal Endoscopic Surgery: Part 2

Most disc herniations are amenable to endoscopic disc excision and the timing of surgical treatment is similar to transcanal discectomy.

Rationale: How, When, and Why to Use Epidural Corticosteroid Injections

There is an ongoing trend toward non-surgical management of disc herniations with or without radiculopathy.

Thoracic Screw Placement in Deformity: Technique Pitfalls, Complications, Results

Thoracic Screw Placement in Deformity: Technique Pitfalls, Complications, Results

The Discography Controversy

Discography, also called 'provocative disk injection', has been used as a diagnostic modality for spine pain since the middle of the 20th century. This article summarizes the beliefs in lumbar and cervical discography.

Surgical Technique: Cervicothoracic Junction Arthroplasty

This case covers several controversial areas in the field of arthroplasty spine surgery.

Cervicothoracic Junction Arthroplasty

Case report of a 25-year-old woman who elected to have a Bryan disc cervical prosthesis placed after decompression at two levels.

Spinal Trauma Intervention: MAST Fusion

Case report of an elderly patient offered percutaneous pedicle screw fixation using MAST, Minimal Access Spinal Technology.

MAST Fusion Discussion: Spinal Trauma

Case report demonstrates the application of minimally invasive spinal fusion technology to spinal trauma for fracture stabilization.

MAST Fusion for Spinal Trauma

Case report about an elderly patient's spinal trauma subsequent to a fall.

Posterior Occipital Cervical Fixation

The evolution of occipitocervical fixation with advancing technology and progressive construct stability has allowed treatment of more complex craniocervical instabilities with a higher success rate...

References: Cages, Screws or Both?

References for the article "Cages, Screws or Both" by Rick Sasso, M.D..

References: 51 through 102

References 51 through 102 for Dr. Rick Sasso's article Lumbosacral Fusion: Cages, Dowels and Pedicle Screws.

References: 1 - 50 Lumbosacral Fusion

References 1 through 50 for Rick Sasso, M.D.'s article Lumbosacral Fusion: Cages, Dowels and Pedicle Screws.

Complications: Lumbosacral Fusion

The majority of complications associated with cylindrical anterior interbody fusion devices are a result of the operative approach, as opposed to specific device-related problems.

Clinical Studies: Lumbosacral Fusion

Many authors have reported excellent results with the use of threaded cylindrical devices for anterior lumber interbody fusion.

Patient Selection: Lumbosacral Fusion

Appropriate patient selection is critical to the clinical success of anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

Biomechanics: Lumbosacral Fusion

The greatest strength of the vertebral body is present in the subchondral bone of the cortical endplate.

Laparoscopic Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Technical Note

A case study from Emory University on the use of anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

Discussion: Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: Reduction vs. In-Situ Fusion?

A discussion of the SOCON Spondylolisthesis Reduction System.

Clinical Series of Spondylolisthesis Reductions

The outcomes of a clinical series of spondylolisthesis reductions utilizing the SOCON Spondylolisthesis Reduction System.

Evaluation of Neural Tension at the Time of Spondylolisthesis Reduction

An illustrated discussion of the evaluation of neural tension by means of cadaveric study.

Surgical Treatment of Isthmic Spondylolisthesis

Most surgeons utilize pedicular fixation where arthrodesis of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis is undertaken.

Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: Reduction vs. In-Situ Fusion?

Isthmic spondylolisthesis is an extremely common cause of lumbar symptomatology and remains one of the most common indications for lumbar reconstruction.

Lumbar Interbody Fusion Devices: A Comparative Study

Preliminary report on a prospective randomized concurrently on-going IDE study comparing the clinical outcomes of several metal cage fixation devices.

Outcomes in Allogenic Cages in ALIF and PLIF: Interbody Spacer

A posterior lumbar interbody (PLIF) spacer is a contoured, wedge-shaped cortical allograft that comes in five anterior heights.

Outcomes of Allogenic Cages in ALIF and PLIF: Biological Fusion Cages

The aim is to provide mechanical support to the segment being fused with biocompatible implant material and to allow the use of autogenous bone to promote spinal fusion.

Outcomes of Allogenic Cages in ALIF and PLIF: Anatomy and Biomechanics of Interbody Fusion

Interbody fusions provide the most logical solution to diseases of the spine's intervertebral discs.

Outcomes of Allogenic Cages in ALIF and PLIF: History

Spinal fusion can be accomplished by various techniques such as posterior and/or anterior procedures with and without internal fixation.

Outcomes of Allogenic Cages in Anterior and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

This article provides a review of two newly developed biological cages; the femoral ring allograft (FRA) space and the posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) spacer.

Outcomes of Allogenic Cages in ALIF and PLIF: Outcomes

Outcome discussion of a total of 179 FRA Cages utilized for anterior spinal reconstruction in 137 patients from March 1998 to July 2000.

Fusion vs Disc Replacement for Discogenic Pain: Part 3

We are at the beginning of another period of technology explosion in the field of spine surgery, which can be compared to the "Charnley era" in the development of hip arthroplasty.

Fusion vs Disc Replacement for Discogenic Pain: Part 2

The unique demands on spine arthroplasty implants necessitate that the intervertebral disc is not a true joint and serves a double function of mobility and damping with load repartition properties.

Scoliosis and the Cobb Angle: Novel Radiation-Free Assessment

The Ortelius800® system instantaneously creates a graphical reconstruction of the spine, displaying calculated angle of deformity (Cobb angle), leg length discrepancy, and data on the patient's torso in real time.

Abstract Placement of Pedicle Screws in the Cervical Spine: Comparative Accuracy of Cervical Pedical Screw Placement Using Three Techniques

A method of cervical pedicle screw placement based on topographic anatomy was developed as a result of this analysis.

Thoracoscopic Anterior Instrumentation For Scoliosis

Correcting a patient with Scoliosis using Thoracoscopic Anterior Instrumentation.

Lumbosacral Fusion: Cages, Dowels and Pedicle Screws

Spinal fusion has become a widely used option in the treatment of degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine.

Screws, Cages or Both?

Currently, there are a wide number of available interbody fusion devices of varying design and material, not all of which have gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the setting of a stand–alone device. A review of the choices.

Lumbosacral Fixation Techniques and Indications

Indications for a fusion to the sacrum in primary patients include lumbar curves with substantial disc degeneration.

Options of Thoracic Idiopathic Scoliosis Fixation and Fusion

Options of Thoracic Idiopathic Scoliosis Fixation and Fusion

Fractures of L4 and L5 (Low Lumbar Fractures).

The treatment of low lumbar fractures (L4 - L5) must be individualised and the recommendations for thoracolumbar trauma management cannot necessarily be transferred to low lumbar fractures.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Upper Sacrum

Lumbosacral and spinopelvic anatomy and pathology. View the upper sacrum from an old man who had been bed-ridden for several years after a stroke.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - L5 and Upper Sacrum

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. Coronal section through the lower portion of L5 and the upper sacrum.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Lumbar Spine

Lumbosacral and spinopelvic anatomy and pathology. View the lower lumbar spine through the lateral recess.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - T12 thru L2

Thoracolumbar spine anatomy and pathology. View the coronal section through a normal thoracolumbar junction between T12 and L2 through the pedicles.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Degenerated Lumbar Spine

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View the sagittal section thorugh a degenerated lower lumbar spine of a 68-year old man.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Spondylolisthesis

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. A cadeveric study conducted by Professor Rauschning

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Posterior Contour of the Vertebral Body

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology. View a few millimeters above the level of the severe degenerative spinal stenosis picture at L4-L5 level in the 70 year old.

Cervical Anatomy and Pathology - Upper Cervical Spine, 34 Year Old Male

midsagittal section through the upper cervical spine

A Morphometric Study of the C2 Pedicle and Pars - Part 1

To provide anatomic and clinical information about the pertinent surgical anatomy for C2 pedicular vs. pars screws.

Cervical Spine Injuries, Fractures and Whiplash - Uncovertebral Osteophytosis

Cervical spine anatomy and pathology. View the coronal section through a serverely degenerated lower cervical spine of a 70-year old female.

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology - Isthmic Spondylosis (Female)

Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Anatomy and Pathology. View the isthmic spondylolsis of L5 in a 29-year old woman who had been completely asymptomatic.

Thoracolumbar Spine Anatomy and Pathology - Lower Lumbar, Upper Sacrum

Thoracolumbar spine anatomy and pathology. View the sagittal section through a normal lower lumbar spine and upper sacrum of a young female through the lateral portion of the thecal sac.

Pediatric Spinal Deformity: On the Cutting Edge - Presentations

View the highlights from the Pediatric Spinal Deformity: On the Cutting Edge; a spine-related CME meeting held during April 2007 in Miami, Florida.

Pediatric Spinal Deformity: On the Cutting Edge - Sessions

Information about the session presentations at the Pediatric Spinal Deformity: On the Cutting Edge spine-related CME meetings is featured.

Pediatric Spinal Deformity: On the Cutting Edge - Meeting Support

The Pediatric Spinal Deformity: On the Cutting Edge spine-related CME meeting was sponsored by Medical Education Resources, Inc. and planned by BroadWater.

Pediatric Spinal Deformity: On the Cutting Edge - Faculty

Listed is the prestigous faculty of the Pediatric Spinal Deformity: On the Cutting Edge spine-related CME meeting held during April 2007 in Miami, Florida.

Preliminary Results Using A New Anterior Hybrid Cervical Plate System

The authors present a retrospective series of 51 cases of cervical myelopathy and/or radiculopathy...
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