Summary and References: Part 4
Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Spine Surgery
Endoscopic spine surgery has a high learning curve, but is within the grasp of every endoscopic surgeon with proper training. As with any new procedure, the complication rate may be higher during the learning curve, and may vary with each surgeon's skills and experience. The endoscopic technique is safer, as the patient remains conscious and is able to provide immediate input to the surgeon when pain is experienced. The surgeon's ability to perform the surgery without causing the patient undue pain self-selects for surgeons who can master the technique, which may evolve to the extent the surgeon prefers endoscopic over traditional surgery for the same condition. For most contained disc herniations and discogenic pain, the experienced endoscopic spine surgeon opts for the endoscopic approach as the treatment of choice for his/her patients.
1. Rauschning W. ISMISS Pioneer-Guest Lecture, 2001. Pain Mechanisms and Therapeutic Considerations in Segmental Spinal Dysfunction Proceedings of the International 19th Course for Percutaneous Endoscopic Spinal Surgery and Complementary Techniques, Zurich, Switzerland, January 25-26, 2001.
2. Hadjipavlou AG, Simmons JW, Pope MH, et al. Pathomechanics and clinical relevance of disc degeneration and annular tear: a point-of-view review. Am J Orthop 1999; 28:561-71.
3. Yeung AT, Tsou PM. Posterolateral endoscopic excision for lumbar disc herniation-surgical technique, outcome, and complications in 307 consecutive cases. Spine 2002; 27(7): 722-31.
4. Tsou PM, Yeung AT. Transforaminal endoscopic decompression for radiculopathy secondary to intracanal noncontained lumbar disc herniations: outcome and technique. The Spine Journal 2002; 2(1): 41-8.
5. Yeung AT. Minimally invasive disc surgery with the Yeung Endoscopic Spine System (YESS™). In: Szabó Z, Lewis JE, Fantini GA, et al., Eds. Surgical Technology International, VIII. San Francisco: Universal Medical Press, Inc.; 1999. P 267-77.
6. Yeung AT, Yeung, CA. Advances in Endoscopic Disc and Spine Surgery: The Foraminal Approach. In: Szabó Z, Lewis JE, Fantini GA, et al., Eds. Surgical Technology International, XI. San Francisco: Universal Medical Press, Inc.; 2003. (In press).
7. Yeung AT, "Intradiscal Thermal Therapy for Discogenic Low Back Pain" in The Practice of Minimally Invasive Spinal Technique - AAMISMS Education, LLC - First Edition 2000, 237 - 242.
8. Yeung AT, Tsou PM. Selective endoscopic discectomy and thermal annuloplasty for chronic lumbar discogenic pain: a new minimally invasive technique. Spine Journal, 2003. (In progress).
9. Ito M, Abumi K, Shirado O, et al. Transforaminal surgery for pyogenic thoracolumbar spondylodiscitis. Presented at the AAMISMS 3rd World Congress Phoenix, Arizona, December 8-11, 2002.
10. Yeung, AT. "Factors Affecting IDET Outcome: An Endoscopic Analysis of IDET" Western Orthopedic Association 2001 Annual Meeting - San Francisco, California - September 22, 2001.
11. Yeung, AT. "Minimal Invasive Techniques in the Lumbar Spine: Evolving Methodology since 1991. Magisterial Speaker International 20th Jubilee Course for Percutaneous Endoscopic Spinal Surgery and Complementary Techniques Zurich, Switzerland - January 24 - 25, 2002
12. Knight MTN, Goswami AKD. Endoscopic laser foraminoplasty. In: Savitz MH, Chiu JC, Yeung AT, Eds. The practice of minimally invasive spinal technique, 1st Ed. Richmond, VA. AAMISMS Education, LLC. 2000; 42:337-40.
13. Yeung AT, Porter J, Merican C. The value of neuromonitoring in selective endoscopic discectomy: the Arizona experience. Presented at the AAMISMS 2nd World Congress, Las Vegas, Nevada, December 6-9, 2001.
14. Zhu P. Electrodiagnostic studies of radiculopathies+intraoperative neuromonitoring. Presented at the AAMISMS 3rd World Congress, Phoenix, Arizona, December 8-11, 2002.