Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Type of Spinal Inflammatory Arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a type of inflammatory arthritis affecting kids ages 16 years and younger. It’s a rare condition, affecting about 1 in every 1,000 children1. JIA can cause pain and stiffness in joints throughout the body, including the facet joints (the joints of the spine).

What Types of Arthritis Fall Under the Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Umbrella?

JIA was previously known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, but it’s not a child version of adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA). JIA is a group of several different types of arthritis. When your doctor diagnoses JIA, he or she will determine the type.

Different types of JIA include:

  • Systemic JIA
  • Oligoarticular JIA
  • Polyarticular JIA
  • Undifferentiated JIA
  • Psoriatic JIA
  • Enthesitis-related JIA

JIA that affects the spine is enthesitis-related JIA. Learn more about enthesitis JIA and other types of juvenile idiopathic arthritis here.


Young girl holding her neck with a pained expressionJuvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is uncommon and affects children ages 16 years and younger.

Understanding More About How JIA Affects the Spine

To better understand how juvenile idiopathic arthritis affects your spine, it helps to decode some of the medical terminology associated with enthesitis-related arthritis.

  • Enthesitis: Inflammation of the entheses, which is the area where tendons and ligaments connect to bone.
  • Spondyloarthritis: A type of arthritis that attacks the entheses in the spine. Ankylosing spondylitis is an example of spondyloarthritis.

While the joints in your neck (cervical spine) are among the most common spinal joints attacked by JIA, spondyloarthritis may cause pain and stiffness in the low back (lumbar spine).

What Treats Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Your doctor may recommend a multi-disciplinary approach to treating your JIA—that is, he or she may prescribe several types of therapies aimed at stopping disease progression and instilling healthy habits to help prevent future back pain.

Medications 
As with the more common osteoarthritis (spondylosis), treatment often begins with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (eg, naproxen). Your doctor may also prescribe a corticosteroid to control inflammation. Although most patients' symptoms respond well to anti-inflammatory medication, these drugs do not treat the underlying disease.

Unlike osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis’ progression may be controlled by certain medications. For example, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) can slow the disease’s progression. Also, TNF-blocking drugs may help block a protein called tumor necrosis factor that can cause inflammation. Etanercept (Enbrel) and adalimumab (Humira) are examples of TNF-blockers that may prevent the disease from progressing. You may read more about TNF-blocking drugs for JIA here.

Physical therapy and therapeutic exercise 
Physical therapy stresses proper posture, joint mobility, and deep breathing. Some patients may develop forward posture; therefore, postural training and extension exercise is helpful. Stretching and range of motion exercise helps keep the facet and rib joints mobile. Additionally, deep breathing expands the chest (rib joints) and aids lung function.

This is not an all-encompassing list of the possible treatments your doctor may use to manage JIA. Depending on the type and severity, your doctor may recommend other approaches not mentioned here (including spine surgery). You can read more about the various treatments doctors prescribe for JIA in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Treatment.

Resources to Help You Learn More About Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

If you or someone you love has been diagnosed with JIA in the spinal joints, it’s important to learn as much as you can about the disease—including ways to combat it. Plus, being informed about your disease will encourage you to be empowered and engaged throughout the treatment process. Below are some resources to help you develop a strong knowledge base about spine-related juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

 

Updated on: 08/07/18
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Complications of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)
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Complications of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)

The disease process of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) varies by type, disease activity, and severity. Usually, severity of symptoms fluctuates in a series of flares and remissions.
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