How Do You Know When Back Pain Is Serious?

Back pain usually goes away on its own, but what if it doesn’t? How do you know if your back pain is serious? Look for these red flags.

Spine Injuries from an Accident: Get the Basics

Car accidents are a rising trend in spine injuries. Here’s what you need to know about accident-related injuries, treatment, recovery, legal issues and more.

Surgery for Sciatica

If you’ve tried every conservative sciatica treatment under the sun with no relief, it may be time to consider surgery. Here’s how to prepare and how to recover from sciatica surgery.

Spinal Meningitis: Your Questions, Answered

Meningitis: It’s not just for the brain. Spinal meningitis affects the protective lining of the spinal cord. Learn how to recognize it, and how it’s treated.

How to Tell if Your Sciatica is Actually Piriformis Syndrome

When Your Sciatica Just Won’t Quit You Might Have a Misdiagnosed Case of Piriformis Syndrome

Alternative Treatments for Spinal Stenosis

Symptoms of spinal stenosis may be treated using complementary, integrative and alternative therapies, such as acupuncture and massage.

The Ultimate Guide to Back Spasms

Ever had a charley horse? Fun, right? Now imagine it’s in your back. That’s a back spasm. Here’s why they happen and what you can do to get rid of it.

Sciatica and Sciatic Nerve Pain

Sciatica is pain that radiates from the lower back along the sciatica nerve. You can probably relieve sciatica without surgery, but surgery can be effective too. Learn your options here.

Battling Bertolotti Syndrome: What You Need to Know

Bertolotti syndrome might not be a usual suspect in lower back pain, but diagnostic detective work can uncover this common congenital condition.

Sciatica Self-care: 5 At-home Remedies for Low Back and Leg Pain

These 5 at-home sciatica therapies are good options for people who recently started experiencing sciatic nerve pain or whose low back and leg pain is not severe.

Can IBS Cause Back Pain?

Can IBS cause back pain? How are the two related? What are the treatments for IBS—and can those therapies help ease discomfort in your back? Find out here.

Treating Adult Onset Scoliosis Starts with Nonsurgical Approaches

Scoliosis doesn’t just affect kids. Scoliosis in adults is often due to degenerating discs in the spine. Nonsurgical treatment usually works well.

6 Leading Causes of Sciatica and Sciatic Nerve Pain

Sciatica, also called lumbar radiculopathy, is mild to intense pain that radiates from the low back into the left or right leg. Sciatic nerve pain symptoms include numbness, tingling sensations, and weakness.

Sciatica Exercises: 4 Stretches for Sciatica Pain

These 4 sciatica exercises may help you reduce your sciatic nerve pain in your low back and leg. Each low-impact exercise is demonstrated in narrated videos and written instructions are provided to help you fine-tune your sciatica home exercise program.

Spondylosis (Spinal Osteoarthritis) Center

Spondylosis, or spinal osteoarthritis, is a painful condition that's caused by aging and wear-and-tear on the spine. There's no cure but it can be managed.

Non-surgical Treatment of Spondylosis (Spinal Osteoarthritis)

Most people with spinal osteoarthritis do not need surgery. Many of the common nonoperative treatments are featured in this article.

Cervical Spondylosis: Patient History and Case

Cervical spondylosis is spinal osteoarthritis affecting the neck. This patient case reviews the evaluation and treatment of a woman who developed spondylosis as a result of a car accident.

Exams and Tests for Spondylosis

To make an accurate diagnosis of spondylosis, your doctor will do physical and neurological exams. You'll need to have x-rays, CT scans, or MRIs, too.

Causes of Spondylosis

Spondylosis is often a result of aging and is a type of arthritis called spinal osteoarthritis. Aging and wear and tear contributes to degenerative changes in the spine causing neck and back pain.

Spinal Arthritis: Symptoms

Spondylosis is arthritis of the spine or spinal osteoarthritis. Common spondylosis symptoms include pain and stiffness in the neck, mid back and low back (lumbar spondylosis).

Axial Spondyloarthritis Is Inflammatory Spinal Arthritis

Axial spondyloarthritis types, symptoms, how diagnosed and treated. AxSpA is spinal inflammatory arthritis; an underlying cause of back pain and neck pain.

Symptoms of Upper Back Pain

Common upper back pain symptoms include muscle stiffness, tightness, and tenderness. Upper back pain is often related to muscle or soft tissue problems. Learn more.

Upper Cervical Spine Disorders: Anatomy of the Head and Upper Neck

Head and upper neck disorders may be called craniovertebral or craniocervical junction abnormalities (CVJ). This information can help you understand key anatomical structures in the skull and spine.

Thyroid Disorders Can Raise Risk for Osteoporosis and Spinal Fracture

Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are thyroid disorders that increase risk for osteoporosis and painful spinal fracture, such as vertebral compression fractures.

Epidural Corticosteroid Injections and Low Back Pain

Epidural steroid injections may be part of a treatment program that includes an active exercise program and may assist in avoiding the need for surgical intervention.

Coccydynia is Tailbone Pain

Coccydynia is the medical term for tailbone pain in your coccyx. Coccydynia symptoms can make sitting painful and uncomfortable.

TENS Reduced Fibromyalgia Pain and Fatigue in Women

TENS, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, reduced movement-related fibromyalgia pain and fatigue in women according to study findings.

Cervical Herniated Disc or Ruptured Disc

A cervical herniated disc is a common cause of neck pain that may radiate into the shoulders and arms often resulting from spinal nerve compression. Sensations of numbness and tingling are typical symptoms, and some patients experience muscle spasms. Movement can aggravate and intensify neck pain.

Anatomy of a Herniated Disc

Why do most herniated discs happen in the low back or lumbar spine? Learn about the anatomy of a herniated disc as well as why it can cause symptoms such as low back pain and leg pain.

Sciatica Cause Not Always Spine-Related

Sciatica nerve pain and related sciatic symptoms are not always caused by low back disorders in the lumbar spine.

Retrolisthesis Differs From Spondylolisthesis

Retrolisthesis happens when a vertebral body slips backwards; this uncommon spine condition is the opposite of spondylolisthesis.

I Have Osteoporosis and Need Spine Surgery, What’s Next?

Osteoporosis and low bone density is a risk for complication in back and neck spine surgery. Orthopaedic spine surgeon shares his surgical expertise about low bone density and spine surgery.

Osteophytes (Bone Spurs)

Osteophytes are smooth bony overgrowths called bone spurs that may develop in older adults in response to degenerative spinal changes.

Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis

Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disorder that affects nerve cells in the spinal cord responsible for muscle movement and control.

Common Herniated Disc Questions

What causes a herniated disc? Will you need surgery to treat a herniated disc? Get answers to these and other common herniated disc questions.

Facts and Tips about Ankylosing Spondylitis

Who gets ankylosing spondylitis more frequently: males or females? Is exercise a good idea if you have AS? Learn the answers to those questions, plus read other facts and tips about this spinal condition.

Could Slipping Rib Syndrome Be Causing Your Back Pain?

Slipping rib syndrome is a painful and rare disorder also known as floating rib syndrome, lost rib syndrome, costal chondritis or costochondritis, and Tietze syndrome.

How Common are Cell Phone-Related Head and Neck Injuries?

Study reports cell phone-related head and neck injuries are on the rise, especially since release of the first iPhone.

Sciatica Pain, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Doctor written sciatica article explains sciatica symptoms, causes, how the cause of sciatica is diagnosed and treatment option.

Scheuermann's Kyphosis (Scheuermann's Disease): Abnormal Curvature of the Spine

A normal, healthy spine should have curves in it. When you look at it from the side, you should see these curves. However, too much curvature in the thoracic spine (mid-back) can be problematic. That’s a condition called kyphosis.

Osteoporosis and Chiropractic Care

What you need to know about chiropractic care if you have osteoporosis. If you’ve been diagnosed with osteoporosis and/or have suffered a spinal fracture, it is important to coordinate your care with your primary care physician (PCP), orthopaedist and/or other medical professional involved in your osteoporosis care.

Upper Back Pain Causes

Nine potential causes of upper back pain include some you can avoid.

What You Need to Know About Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

Failed back surgery doesn’t suggest that you or your surgeon have failed. Many different factors can lead to failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS, FBS, post-laminectomy syndrome) are out of your control.

Whiplash Center

Whiplash is the term for a neck sprain or strain resulting from hyperextension and hyperflexion of the head and cervical spine. Neck pain may travel into the upper back and shoulders.

Upper Back Pain Center

Pain in the upper and/or mid back is less common than lower back or neck pain. The upper back is the region below the cervical spine (neck) and above the low back (lumbar spine).

Back Sprains and Strains Center

Back sprains and back strains are a common cause of low back pain that can be acute. A sprain is caused when a spinal ligament becomes overstretched or torn. A back sprain involves a spinal muscle or tendon.

Spondylolisthesis Center

Spondylolisthesis occurs when one vertebra slips forward over the vertebra below it. The term is pronounced spondy-low-lis-thesis and is derived from the Greek language: spondylo means vertebra and listhesis means to slip. There are several types or causes of spondylolisthesis.

Spinal Tumors Center

The SpineUniverse Spinal Tumors Center provides a wide variety of information about spinal tumors written by physicians and experts. Here you can learn about different types of spinal tumors, the diagnostic process, and treatment options.

Spinal Stenosis Center

Visit the SpineUniverse Spinal Stenosis Center for doctor-written and reviewed information on lumbar and cervical spinal stenosis.

Spinal Fractures Center

Learn about various treatment options, including how to control your pain and if you will need surgery.

Spinal Cord Injury Center

Spinal cord injury involves much more than damage to the spinal cord. After the primary injury, a cascade of secondary events can occur.

Sacroiliac Joint Pain Center

Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common cause of low back pain.This condition can make daily activities, such as sitting, standing, walking, and even sleeping difficult.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Center

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can affect the spine; it's most common in the cervical spine. In the SpineUniverse Rheumatoid Arthritis Center, you'll learn the symptoms and signs so that you can recognize RA.

Osteoporosis Center

Osteoporosis, which means porous bone, is a serious disease that causes you to lose too much bone, make too little bone, or both.

Neck Pain Center

You have to know what spinal condition is causing your neck pain before you can know how to treat it.

Low and Lower Back Pain Center

Low and lower back pain can vary from dull pain that develops gradually to sudden, sharp or persistent pain felt below the waist.

Kyphosis Center

Kyphosis can refer to the normal curvature of the spine. However, this information is about abnormal kyphosis, which is spinal curvature causing a hunchback or slouching posture.

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Center

The SpineUniverse Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Center provides you with important information about JIA, including its types, potential causes, and treatments.

Herniated Disc Center

Herniated discs are typically caused by overuse injuries or trauma to the spine; however, disc conditions can also develop as a result of the normal aging process.


Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder that affects millions of Americans each year—primarily women—and can be both physically and emotionally distressing.

Degenerative Disc Disease Center

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is typically associated with aging. As you age, your discs, like other joints in the body, can degenerate (break down) and become problematic.

Chronic Pain Center

The SpineUniverse Chronic Pain Center provides access to information about chronic back or neck pain, including diagnosis, treatment and living with chronic spine pain.

Back Pain Center: Upper, Mid Back, Low and Lower Back

Back pain is one of the most common reasons people self-treat and seek medical care. It can be described as low back pain or lower back pain and affects 3 in 4 adults. Back pain symptoms may include numbness, tingling sensations, achiness and stiffness.

Ankylosing Spondylitis Center

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a form of inflammatory arthritis that affects the spine. In severe ankylosing spondylitis, the disease causes new bone formation causing bones in the spine to fuse together.

Scoliosis Center

SpineUniverse's Scoliosis Center offers accurate information about the diagnosis and treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, adult spinal scoliosis, and degenerative scoliosis.

Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Type of Spinal Inflammatory Arthritis

Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory spinal disease characterized by spinal joint pain and progressive stiffness in the neck and low back.

Medications to Treat Ankylosing Spondylitis

Though medicine cannot cure ankylosing spondylitis, it may reduce your pain and enable you to more fully participate in the activities you enjoy.

Common Ankylosing Spondylitis Questions

Spinal surgeon who answers questions about ankylosing spondylitis causes, AS pain and symptoms, and treatment options.

Traveling with Sciatica: Tips to Ward Off Low Back and Leg Pain

Sciatica pain radiates through the lower body from the low back to the hips, buttocks, and down the legs. This means that flights and driving that anchor you to a seat can aggravate your sciatic nerve pain.

Why Does My Back Always Hurt?

Article from physical therapists on 4 things you can do today to reduce or prevent low back pain. Small changes can make a difference in your pain relief.

Chronic Low Back Vertebrogenic Pain Involves the Spinal Vertebral Endplates

Chronic low back pain research shows the lumbar vertebral endplates can cause vertebrogenic pain and involve the basivertebral nerve (BVN). How BVN pain is diagnosed and treated using BVN nerve ablation.

Alternative Treatments for Sciatica: Acupuncture, Acupressure, Biofeedback, and Yoga

Many patients report alternative treatments help relieve sciatica and low back and leg pain. Read how acupuncture, acupressure, biofeedback, and yoga are used to treat sciatica pain and related symptoms.

Pregnancy and Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis and pregnancy raises questions about potential complications and need to adjust treatment before and after birth.

Exams and Tests for Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is often a preventable bone disease that increases your risk for fracture, such as a spinal fracture or vertebral compression fracture.

Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Cervical Spine

Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease that can affect C1 and C2; the cervical spine's atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints in the upper neck. C1-C2 allow your head to pivot, look up, down and side to side. RA of the upper cervical spine is rare, but potentially serious.

Causes of Lower Back Pain When Sitting, Standing, and Walking

Lumbar spinal stenosis and spondylolisthesis are common lower back pain conditions that can make sitting, standing, and walking painful and difficult.

Pregnancy, Back Pain and Sciatica

Back pain and sciatica during pregnancy: what can you do about it? Advice from SpineUniverse on preventing and treating sciatica when you're pregnant.

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction Causes

Arthritis and pregnancy are common causes of sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction. But what else can cause SI joint pain? This article explains other possible sacroiliac joint dysfunction causes.

Spinal Trauma: Beyond Spinal Cord Injury

Overview of 6 types of spinal trauma beyond spinal cord injury includes diagnosis, treatment and next steps after serious neck or back injury.

Surgery for Spondylosis

Article lists scenarios where surgery is recommended and details the types of surgery used.

Keeping Your Back Healthy as You Age

Five ways to help keep your back and neck healthy as you grow older.

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

Lumbar spinal stenosis causes low back and leg pain. Both back and leg pain often worsens with activity, such as walking. Degenerative disc disease and spondylolisthesis are two different spinal disorders that can cause or contribute to spinal stenosis.

Obesity and Degenerative Disc Disease

Can obesity cause degenerative disc disease? Learn why extra pounds can put extra strain on the spine and why the symptoms of degenerative disc disease may be worse if you're significantly overweight.

Axial Neck Pain Symptoms, Causes and Treatments

Axial neck pain is different from cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy. Axial cervical pain is also called uncomplicated neck pain, whiplash, neck strain, or cervical strain, and refers to pain along the back of the neck.

What Triggers Acute Lower Back Pain?

Acute lower back pain usually starts suddenly with severe pain that lasts a short time. Seven common causes and 4 self-help treatments.

Chiropractic Care for Neck Pain

Chiropractic care includes the diagnosis and treatment of many different types of neck (cervical) problems.

Back Pain and Neck Pain: Diagnosis and Treatment

A spine specialist explains how back pain and neck pain is diagnosed, and what treatments you can try for your pain. Article also covers back pain and neck pain prevention.

Managing Chronic Back or Neck Pain

Treating chronic pain is a challenge, but you have many options: injections, surgery, spinal cord stimulation, and more.

Young Adults, Women at Risk for Neck Pain from Tablet Computers

Study reveals young adults and especially women are at risk for neck pain from tablet use, such as an iPad. Technology can lead to back and neck pain when proper posture is not practiced.

Is the Weather Worsening Your Back Pain?

How changes in the weather may cause back pain to increase, and 6 tips to help you keep seasonal and weather-related pain at bay.

John F. Kennedy’s Chronic Back Pain Conflicts Revealed

The medical care John F. Kennedy received for chronic back pain is compared to non-operative and surgical treatments he may have received today.

John F. Kennedy’s Life-long Struggles With Chronic Back Pain

President John F. Kennedy's story illustrates the difficulty and complexity in diagnosing and treating spinal disorders and chronic back pain.

Physical Therapy for Degenerative Disc Disease

Physical therapy for degenerative disc disease (DDD) can include exercises to stretch and strengthen your spine. Find out more about how physical therapy helps treat DDD.

How to Talk to Your Doctor about Osteoporosis and Spinal Fracture

You've made the decision to talk to your doctor about osteoporosis. Perhaps now you are concerned that you might forget to tell the doctor something during the appointment, or forget to ask all of the questions you have right now! Included is information to help you get the most from your doctor's visit!.

Symptoms of a Herniated Disc

Learn about herniated disc symptoms, which can include pain, weakness, tingling, and sciatica (leg pain).

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Treatment

Many medications and other treatment options are available to help control inflammation, symptoms and enhance quality of life.

How to Communicate to Gain Your Doctor’s Trust

Tips to help you talk about your chronic back pain with your doctor. Based on a research study about the way you communicate can influence how your doctor perceives you.

Spinal Tumors: Benign and Malignant Types

There are several types of benign and malignant spinal tumors. These abnormal growths generally develop slowly and may worsen over time unless treated.

Synovial Cysts in the Spine

Synovial cysts in the spine are benign (not cancer), fluid-filled sacs that develop in the facet joints of the lumbar spine as a result of degeneration. A synovial cyst in the low back is pictured and a spine surgeon explains how a cyst is diagnosed and treated.

A Closer Look at Lordosis

Swayback is often caused by lordosis; an abnormal inward curve of the lumbar spine.

Decompressive Lumbar Laminectomy

Low back spinal stenosis may be surgical treated with decompressive lumbar laminectomy. Spine surgery may be recommended if non-surgical treatment is not effective, bowel and/or bladder problems occur, leg weakness worsens, or walking is difficult.

Osteoporosis: Glossary of Terms

This easy to use glossary includes common terms associated with osteoporosis, its diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

Drugs and Medications for Osteoporosis

There are several osteoporosis treatment options, including drugs that slow down bone loss and one drug that speeds up bone formation.

Calcium and Vitamin D to Build Bone

If you have osteoporosis and are prone to fractures, it's important to get enough calcium. How much calcium you need depends on many factors.

Ankylosing Spondylitis and Spine Surgery

Surgical treatment of ankylosing spondylitis is recommended to treat unstable spinal fractures, progressive spinal deformity (kyphosis), and/or neurological problems, such as abnormal reflexes and extremity weakness.

Spondylolisthesis and Pars Fractures

A pars fracture occurs when the bony pars interarticularis breaks. This type of spinal fracture causes spondylolisthesis; a forward slip or slide of one vertebral body over the one beneath.

Some Medications May Harm Your Bones

Some drug types interfere with bone health. If you’re a long-term user of certain medications such as oral steroids, diabetes insulin drugs, or blood thinners, you may be putting yourself at risk for osteoporosis and spinal fracture.

Spinal Stenosis: Lumbar and Cervical

Spinal stenosis compresses the spine's nerves and/or spinal cord. Lumbar spinal stenosis affects the low back and cervical spinal stenosis causes symptoms in the neck. Back or neck pain is the foremost symptom.


Spondylosis is spinal osteoarthritis, a degenerative disorder associated with aging and causes changes in the spine's facet joints altering function and causing neck or back inflammation and pain.

Whiplash: Neck Trauma and Treatment

Whiplash is a cervical spine injury known to cause severe neck pain that may radiate into the upper back and shoulders. The sudden whipping of the head and neck forward and backward injures the neck's soft tissues, such as the ligaments and muscles.

Degenerative Disc Disease and Low Back Pain

In this discussion, we address degenerative disc disease in the lumbar (low back) spine.

Non-Surgical Treatments for Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis seldom requires spine surgery. Many nonoperative treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, aquatic therapy, stretching, exercise, and posture training.

Ankylosing Spondylitis: Description and Diagnosis

Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis condition that can affect the spine. Spine expert-written article on ankylosing spondylitis and how it's diagnosed.

Sprains - Strains - Soft Tissue Injuries

Back and neck sprains and strains are common soft tissue injuries that affect the spine's muscles (sprain) and ligaments (strain). These injuries can cause acute back pain, often limit movement and seldom require spine surgery.

Rest to Relieve Fibromyalgia Pain

Sleep can be elusive when you have fibromyalgia: get 7 tips on getting a better night's sleep with fibromyalgia.

Exams and Tests for Degenerative Disc Disease

The diagnosis of degenerative disc disease involves a thorough neurological and physical exam along with imaging tests to confirm the extent of the spinal problem, such as herniation or spinal stenosis.

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Type of Spinal Inflammatory Arthritis

The type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis that affects the spine is ankylosing spondylitis. JIA is uncommon and may affect children ages 16 years and younger.

Causes of Spondylolisthesis

There are different types of spondylolisthesis. What type you have all depends on the original cause.

Chiropractic Care for Spondylolisthesis

If you have spondylolisthesis, learn how the various chiropractic techniques can help relieve your back pain.

The Best Exercises for Low Back Pain

A spine expert discusses the types of exercises that can be beneficial and which ones to avoid.

Physical Therapy to Relieve Neck Pain

Learn about the various types of physical therapy that can help you get rid of neck pain. How will physical therapy help you find neck pain relief?

Video Series: Exercises for Spondylolisthesis

Video series to learn easy back stretches to help with spondylolisthesis (when one vertebra slips forward over another one). Three simple stretches and exercises that may help reduce spondylolisthesis related back and leg pain.

Video Series: Exercises for Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

These 4 video low back exercises and stretches may help people with lumbar degenerative disc disease to reduce back pain and build core strength.

Video Series: Exercises for Cervical Spondylosis

Three video neck stretches and exercises to help relieve a stiff neck caused by spinal osteoarthritis also called cervical spondylosis.

Video Series: Exercises for Cervical Spine Degenerative Disc Disease

These 3 neck stretches and exercises may help you relieve pain and stiffness related to cervical degenerative disc disease.

Chiropractic Treats Sacroiliac Joint Pain and Dysfunction

Dysfunction of the sacroiliac joint is a common cause of SI joint pain, which may involve sacroiliitis, inflammation of one or both joints.

Arthritis: Medications to Relieve Pain

Medications and prescription drugs may help relieve arthritis pain in your neck and/or back. Learn about options to treat painful osteoarthritis or spondylosis, other names for spinal arthritis.

Is Your Low Back Pain Mechanical?

The cause of low back pain can be categorized as being either organic or mechanical. What’s the difference and why is the answer noteworthy to someone with lumbar spine pain?

Back Pain Exercise Video: Pelvic Tilt

The pelvic tilt exercise is one of the most important exercises for your low back. Helps with degenerative disc disease, sciatica, and spinal stenosis. Learn how to do it well in this video.

Interventional Chronic Pain Management

Interventional pain management specialists offer an array of treatment options for chronic pain sufferers.

Is Back Pain Ruining Your Golf Game?

Some golfers find their lower back body-swing connection causes back pain. Here are common swing faults that may contribute to lower back pain.

Chronic Pain Research and Treatment Updates

Article includes links to current chronic pain research and treatment updates.

Is Acupuncture Effective in Treating Lower Back Pain?

A recent study set out to explore the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating low back pain. Read the latest findings on this topic here.

Benefits of the McKenzie Method

The McKenzie Method has one major benefit: patients can learn self-care techniques that can reverse their back pain and prevent further painful episodes. Learn the other benefits in this article by a McKenzie clinician.

The Importance of Performing Test Movements Repeatedly in the McKenzie Evaulation

In a McKenzie examination, you'll do multiple end-range movements: e.g., arching your back as far as you can. This is to try to find your directional preference-- the movement direction that relieves pain. It's the first step in the McKenzie Method.

The Origin of the McKenzie Method

The McKenzie Method was created by Robin McKenzie. Get the full story of how he developed this back pain treatment option, which he discovered by accident.

Rapidly Reversible Low Back Pain and the McKenzie Method

Dr. Donelson believes some forms of back pain are rapidly reversible-- you can relieve your pain with the McKenzie Method. He explains how and who benefits most from McKenzie.

Trusted Osteoporosis Resources on the Web

When first diagnosed with osteoporosis, many people turn to the Internet to find out more information. What websites do you trust? Who has the most thorough information? Recommendations for good osteoporosis resources.

Current Research on Ankylosing Spondylitis

Researchers are hard at work trying to better understand ankylosing spondylitis: what causes it? Is there a genetic connection? How does understanding the causes help us better treat the disease? Covers recent research developments.

Is It Back Pain or Hip Pain? Getting to the Root of the Problem

It’s easy to mistake back pain for hip pain and vice versa. How your doctor diagnoses the cause of lower back pain and if it originates in the back or hips.

Scoliosis in Children

Scoliosis is a medical term taken from a Greek word meaning curvature. This disease often develops during childhood, and it causes the spine to curve laterally (to the side) to the left or right.

Symptoms of Scoliosis

Scoliosis symptoms in children and adults are similar. Included is a list of potential signs that a scoliosis is developing.

Is Sciatica a Symptom or a Spinal Disorder?

Sciatica is a symptom of sciatic nerve compression often caused by a bulging or herniated disc in the low back. Leg pain is the hallmark of a sciatic nerve compression disorder.

FAQs about Flatback Syndrome

A loss of normal low back lordosis or actual kyphosis in the lumbar spine may produce a symptom called flatback syndrome.

How Disc Herniation Changed the History of the Apollo 11 Spaceflight

Astronaut Michael Collins was part of the Apollo 11 mission that landed the first man on the moon. Little known about this story is Mr. Collins’ disc herniation and cervical myelopathy; compression of the spinal cord in the neck causing pain, numbness, and weakness in the arms and legs.

Physical Therapy to Relieve Sciatica

Sciatica treatment may include passive and active physical therapies to reduce low back and leg pain. Ultrasound, moist heat and massage are types of passive physical therapy, while active physical therapy involves stretches and exercise.

Discitis is a Spinal Disc Infection and Inflammation

Discitis is usually caused by an infection in the disc and/or disc space between two vertebral bodies, and affects the intervertebral disc.

Cervical Radiculopathy: Radiating Neck Pain

Cervical radiculopathy occurs when a pinched or compressed spinal nerve in the neck causes pain to radiate down to the shoulders, arms and fingers.

Types of Spinal Fractures

There are many ways to classify spinal fractures, and this article goes through the generally used classifications.

Cervical Radiculopathy: Treatment for Radiating Neck Pain

Cervical radiculopathy treatments include nonsurgical therapies such as anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy and epidural steroid injections. Spine surgery may be recommended if conservative treatments do not manage radiating neck pain symptoms.

Alternative Treatments for Herniated Disc

Alternative and complementary treatments such as acupuncture, acupressure, and massage may reduce pain associated with a herniated or bulging disc.

Physical Therapy for Spondylosis

A physical therapy program is individualized and may include active treatments, such as an exercise program.

Alternative Treatments for Upper Back Pain

Learn about acupuncture and massage and find out how they can help you deal with upper back pain.

Drugs, Medications, and Injections for Upper Back Pain

Drugs, medications, and injections work to control and relieve your upper back pain. Your doctor will help figure out which medication is right for you. Options include acetaminophen and muscle relaxants.

What is Whiplash?

Learn more about the causes and symptoms of whiplash and why you should see a doctor after a neck injury--even if you do not feel any pain.

Whiplash Prevention

Before buying a new car, truck, or van, do your research to make sure that you're getting the best protection for your neck.

Video Series: Exercises for Whiplash

Three easy neck stretches and exercises to help ease neck pain and stiffness sometimes causes by a whiplash injury.

Drugs and Medications for Whiplash

Over-the-counter medications may help reduce your pain. However, if your pain continues, your doctor may prescribe stronger treatments.

Physical Therapy for Whiplash

In whiplash, the soft tissues in your neck are damaged. A physical therapist can work with you to restore proper function to those tissues.

Surgery for Whiplash

Very few patients with whiplash end up needing cervical spine surgery. If your doctor recommends it, though, there are several options.

Physical Therapy for Chronic Pain

Chronic pain comes in many forms, so effectively treating your pain requires a plan just for you. A physical therapist will develop a personalized treatment plan.

Surgery for Upper Back Pain

Surgery for upper back pain is a last resort treatment option. The exact procedure is determined by your diagnosis, but this article explains several common procedures for upper back pain, including decompression and fusion.

How to Prevent Upper Back Pain

Learn tips, including an exercise you can do every day, for upper back pain prevention.

Trigger Point Spinal Injections for Low Back Pain

If you have muscle-related lower back pain, your doctor may recommend a trigger point injection. How will it work? How many will you need? Find answers here.

Surgery for Spondylolisthesis

Most patients do not need spondylolisthesis surgery. A spine surgeon thoughtfully explains different grades of severity, why surgery may be necessary, and the surgical procedures.

Drugs and Medications for Spondylolisthesis

Learn about treatments for spondylolisthesis, including over-the-counter medications (such as Tylenol), prescription medications, and epidural steroid injections.

Isthmic Lumbar Sacral Spondylolisthesis in Adults

Isthmic spondylolisthesis involves the breakage of a bone in the low back that allows the vertebra to slip forward. Read this article to understand the causes of isthmic spondylolisthesis. Several illustrations show you how it develops.

Pediatric Spinal Cord Tumors

Spinal cord tumors in children are rare, but they do happen. In fact, tumors of the nervous system are the most common type of solid tumors (those not originating in the blood or bone marrow) found in children. Spinal cord tumors can be life threatening if left untreated.

Spinal Tumors: Descriptive Overview

Spinal tumors are rare. However, when they develop the foremost symptom usually is back pain.

Spinal Bracing: A Treatment Option for Spinal Fractures

After a spinal fracture, your doctor may recommend that you wear a brace. It will support your spine and muscles as the bone heals.

Drugs and Medications for Spinal Fractures

Spinal fractures may cause pain, so to help you deal with that pain, you may need to take medications. Your doctor will work with you to figure out the best medications and dosages for your pain.

Physical Therapy for Spinal Fractures

A physical therapist will develop an individualized plan that helps you return to normal and/or work around your limitations.

Osteoporosis and Compression Fractures

Sometimes the first symptom of osteoporosis is a painful spinal compression fracture caused by simple daily activities. Until then, you may not realize your bones are weakening and losing density. Treatments include pain medications and bed rest.

A Promising Future: Spinal Cord Injury Clinical Trials and Drug Therapy Update

Spinal cord injury clinical trials and information about innovations in medication therapies, cellular transplantation, spinal cord stimulation, and robotic devices.

Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury's Secondary Injury Cascade

Within a few hours after spinal cord injury, a series of changes called the secondary injury cascade begins and may continue months past the initial SCI.

Diagnosis of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

Diagnosing traumatic spinal cord injury may begin at the scene by first responders and emergency medical technicians.

Spinal Cord Injury Classification and Syndromes

Spinal cord injury is classified by type and severity. The American Spinal Injury Association or ASIA impairment grading system is a diagnostic tool doctors utilize to classify SCI.

Complications After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

Common spinal cord injury-related complications include local and systemic types of disorders. While people with SCI are living longer, complications can hurt quality of life.

Spine Surgery After Spinal Cord Injury: Why Timing Matters

Decompression spine surgery soon after a spinal cord injury can be beneficial and improve long-term functional and sensory outcomes.

Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Prognosis: What You Need to Know

The first 48 hours following traumatic spinal cord injury are critical to a patient’s prognosis; their sensory and functional outcomes.

Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation: What to Expect

Rehab after a spinal cord injury can be challenging, but you are not alone as several specialists will help reduce your pain and improve your function.

Regaining Your Quality of Life After Spinal Cord Injury

How doctors measure quality of life after spinal cord injury, and factors that may improve or harm QOL.

AST-OPC1 Stem Cell Therapy May Offer New Hope for Spinal Cord Injury

An investigational treatment called AST-OPC1 (oligodendrocyte progenitor cells) may give new hope to people with a recent spinal cord injury.

I'm an Adult: Why Do I Have Scoliosis Now?

To help shed light on the distinctions between adult and childhood scoliosis, SpineUniverse spoke with Kevin R. O’Neill, MD, MS, a spine surgeon who specializes in both adult and pediatric scoliosis.

Causes of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis can have several causes, some of which are hereditary and some of which come from your lifestyle.

Video Series: Exercises for Sciatica (Caused by Spondylolisthesis)

3 low back pain and leg pain exercises to manage sciatica symptoms caused by spondylolisthesis.

Osteopenia and Osteoporosis: Is There a Difference?

While most people experience some loss of bone mass as they age, osteopenia and osteoporosis are not inevitable parts of the aging process.

Causes of Spinal Stenosis

There are several causes of spinal stenosis, including aging, osteoarthritis, and a herniated disc. Spine surgeon-reviewed article explaining in clear language what could be causing your back pain or neck pain.

Drugs and Medications for Spinal Tumors

In treating spinal tumors, your doctor may have you take various drugs and medications. These are not to treat the tumor; they treat the accompanying pain and/or the side effects of other treatments.

Anatomy of Spinal Stenosis

To get an idea of why spinal stenosis is causing you back pain or neck pain, it helps to understand spinal anatomy. Includes detailed drawings of the spine, vertebrae, and spinal nerves to help you understand how your spine is affected by spinal stenosis.

Surgery for Spinal Tumors

There are many factors a surgeon will take into consideration before doing surgery for a spinal tumor. Review a list of circumstances that may warrant surgery.

Spina Bifida: A Neural Tube Defect

Spina bifida, which means “split spine”, is a common neural tube defect that occurs when the baby’s bones around the spinal cord failed to close properly during the first month of pregnancy.

Common Spinal Tumor Questions

A spinal tumor diagnosis raises a lot of questions. We've put together answers to frequently asked questions, including questions about radiation.

Cervical Spinal Stenosis: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Cervical spinal stenosis is a nerve compression problem in your neck. Compressed, pinched nerves cause inflammation, pain and neurological symptoms like numbness, tingling sensations and weakness.

Osteoporosis and Erectile Dysfunction in Men

The connection between osteoporosis and erectile dysfunction (ED) is confirmed by research. Men with osteoporosis should be evaluated for ED and men with erectile dysfunction should be screened for low bone mass density.

Surgery for Kyphosis

Surgery is rarely used in cases of kyphosis, but there are some instances where the doctor will recommend it. When? What are the risks and benefits? How long will it take to recover? Find answers here.

Types of Kyphosis

Kyphosis, an extreme outward curve in the spine, has several types. The doctor will need to determine what type you have because that influences treatment options.

Common Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Questions

Four common questions about Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis are answered here.

Facet Joint Syndrome

Facet Joint Syndrome. The facet joints are a common cause of spine-related pain. When the facet joints are affected in the neck or cervical spine it typically causes pain in this area as well headaches and difficulty rotating the head. The facet joints allow the spine to move forward (flexion) and backward (extension).

Alternative Treatments for Spinal Tumors

To help deal with pain caused by a spinal tumor, you may wish to try complementary or alternative treatments, such as acupuncture, aromatherapy, and tai chi.

Chemotherapy for Spinal Tumors

Chemotherapy is the first thing many people think of when facing cancer. Side effects. Hair loss. Weakness. Learn when chemo is used to treat spinal tumors and how it can help you.

Physical Therapy for Spinal Stenosis

Treatment for spinal stenosis may include physical therapy to relieve back or neck pain and other spinal stenosis symptoms. Passive and active therapies may be combined.

Spinal Stenosis Diagnosis: Exams and Tests

After a physical and neurological examination, your doctor may recommend an x-ray, CT scan, MRI or other test to diagnose the cause of cervical and lumbar spinal stenosis symptoms.

Trochanteric Belts: Supportive Braces for Sacroiliac Joint Pain

A trochanteric belt, like a sacroiliac belt, is a spinal brace that helps treat sacroiliac joint pain and low back pain. Read this article to learn more about this type of spinal brace, and find out if this treatment might help reduce your SI joint pain.

Alternative Treatments for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Many people with rheumatoid arthritis find pain relief from alternative, complementary, integrative therapies that may include acupuncture, massage, relaxation therapy, and mind-body exercises like yoga.

Causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis

The exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not yet known, although scientists have identified factors that contribute to the disease.

What's the Difference Between Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis?

Patients connect rheumatoid arthritis with osteoarthritis because the conditions both have arthritis in their name. Arthritis is a term that encompasses many disorders. RA and osteoarthritis both fall under that term, but they are very different.

Symptoms of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is sometimes called the "silent disease" and with good reason.

Exams and Tests for Neck Pain

Learn about the imaging tests (x-ray, MRI, CT scan) your doctor may order to help diagnose the cause of your neck pain.

Pinched Nerves Can Cause Back and Neck Pain

People commonly talk about having a pinched nerve, but what is a pinched nerve?

Does Drinking Alcohol Lead to Lower Back Pain?

Can alcohol worsen back pain or can it help reduce pain? It depends on a lot of things, such as how much you’re drinking, and if you have a spine condition that could worsen with alcohol consumption.

5 Quick Tips to Help Prevent Lower Back Pain

Prevent lower back pain (or reduce your pain) with these 5 quick tips from a spine surgeon.

Lumbar Spine Surgery: Will You Need Surgery for Your Lower Back Pain?

You have lower back pain: Will you need surgery? Detailed article to help you understand spinal anatomy, lower back pain treatment options, including surgical procedures.

Kyphosis: Treatment and Recovery

Early treatment of kyphosis is especially important to the adolescent patient. Left untreated, the curve progression can lead to significant problems later during adulthood.

Scheuermann's Kyphosis: Non-Operative and Surgical Treatment

Treatment for Scheuermann's kyphosis depends on the patient's age, severity of the curve, and the presence of neurological problems.

Posture and Kyphosis

Postural kyphosis is caused by poor posture, so if you've been diagnosed with it, you need to make a conscious effort to improve how you stand and sit. Follow these quick tips for good posture.

Exams and Tests for Kyphosis

Making an accurate diagnosis of kyphosis involves several steps. The doctor will do physical and neurological exams, but he or she will also probably order imaging tests, such as x-rays or MRIs to help see how the kyphosis is affecting your spine.

Anatomy of Kyphosis

Easy-to-understand explanation of normal spinal anatomy and how kyphosis can change parts of the spine. Article explains why we have curves in our spine and the different complex components of the spine, such as vertebrae, discs, and nerves.

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Potential Causes and Diagnosis

What is known about JIA is that it is a group of autoimmune disorders and that at least 2 factors are believed to be involved in the development of these diseases.

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Symptoms May Include Painful, Swollen, Stiff Joints

The hallmark symptoms of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) are painful, swollen, stiff joints. In the spine, this type of inflammatory arthritis may affect the cervical spine; the neck.

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Does It Affect Physical Appearance?

What happens to children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)? This article explains how JIA can affect physical appearance.

Complications of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)

The disease process of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) varies by type, disease activity, and severity. Usually, severity of symptoms fluctuates in a series of flares and remissions.

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Different From Adult Rheumatoid Arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, JIA, causes painful joint inflammation throughout a young person's body, including the joints in the spine. JIA is not a child's version of rheumatoid arthritis that affects adults.

Anatomy of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Learn about the parts of joints, including how cartilage helps your bones move more easily (especially important to know for JIA).

Common Kyphosis Questions

This quick reference helps answer some of the most common kyphosis questions.

Drugs, Medications, and Spinal Injections for Herniated Discs

There are many types of medications to help you manage the pain and symptoms often associated with a herniated disc in the neck or low back.

Video Series: Exercises for Sciatica (Caused by Herniated Disc)

Three video sciatica exercises and stretches when the cause of sciatic pain is a herniated disc or bulging disc. Written step-by-step instructions with illustrations.

Exercise and Herniated Discs

Exercise and stretching can help relieve your herniated disc pain and other symptoms. But what kind of exercise is best? Find out in this spine expert-written article.

Electrical Stimulation Offers Hope for People with Severe Spinal Cord Injury

Electrical stimulation is giving new hope to people with severe spinal cord injury. Study showed young men with paraplegia were able to move their legs on their own with the help of electrical stimulation of the spine.

Steps to Prevent Complications Following Spinal Cord Injury

New research highlights ways to avoid complications following a spinal cord injury, as well information on recovery expectations.

Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures

Spinal cord injury facts and figures for 2019 include the top five causes of traumatic spinal cord injuries, lifetime costs and life expectancy.

How Psychologists Help Fibromyalgia Patients

Living with fibromyalgia can lead to depression or anxiety: get advice from a pain specialist on handling the emotional effects of fibro.

Avascular Necrosis: Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment

Avascular necrosis of the spine is called vertebral osteonecrosis or Kummell disease. It is a rare condition usually affecting the thoracic spine.

Drop Foot (Foot Drop) and Steppage Gait (Footdrop Gait)

Drop foot is a symptom of an underlying spinal condition, such as spinal stenosis or a herniated disc. It can be associated with sciatica. If the sciatic nerve is being pinched at a certain place, you may be unable to raise your foot at the ankle.

Inflammation of the Sciatic Nerve: Sciatica

Sciatica is described as shooting pain that travels from the low back into one or both legs. Pressure or pinching of the sciatic nerve causes inflammation and radiating pain that may include numbness and tingling sensations.

Video Series: Exercises for Sciatica (Caused by Piriformis Syndrome)

Piriformis syndrome can causes sciatica (pain that radiates down your leg), but there are some easy exercises and stretches you can do for pain relief. Watch this video series to learn how to lessen your pain and other symptoms.

Sciatica Relief: Epidural Steroid Injection or Oral Steroids?

Sciatica treatment may include a steroid medication to reduce inflammation that causes low back and leg pain. An oral (by mouth) steroid pill (prednisone) may be prescribed or medication may be administer by spinal injection called an epidural or transforaminal steroid injection.

Sciatica in Winter: Does Cold Weather Make Back and Leg Symptoms Worse?

Do cold temperatures worsen sciatica? Most people with sciatica pain say that winter makes sciatic symptoms worse. But is that just anecdotal or are there solid reasons why your sciatica acts up when the mercury goes down?

Sciatica and Radicular (Nerve Related) Back and Leg Pain

Do you have lower back pain or buttock pain that runs down into one thigh or below the knee into the leg? If so, you may have sciatica, a term doctors use to describe compression of the sciatic nerve.

What You Need to Know About Sciatica Now

Spine surgeon discusses sciatica symptoms, causes, diagnosis and non-surgical treatments that manage back pain and leg pain.

How Aging Affects Your Cervical Spine

Neck pain may be age-related and caused by cervical degenerative changes coupled with everyday spinal wear and tear. Why neck pain may develop, diagnosing the cause and treatments to reduce cervical symptoms.

Types of Chronic Pain

Neuropathic pain and nociceptive pain are two types of chronic pain caused by nerves or nerve receptors that are damaged and not functioning properly.

Psychologists Help Chronic Pain Patients

If your doctor refers you to a psychologist, it means that he or she is well-aware of the emotional effects chronic pain can have.

Symptoms of Degenerative Disc Disease

Back or neck pain is a common symptom of degenerative disc disease. Where pain is felt depends on the region of the spine affected by DDD.

Chiropractic Care for Degenerative Disc Disease

Chiropractors can diagnose and treat pain and other symptoms related to degenerative disc disease affecting the neck and back. How chiropractic doctors diagnose the cause of DDD and manual therapies, such as spinal manipulation, and how chiropractic care may manage spinal degeneration.

Smokers With Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease Have Surgery Earlier and More Often

Smoking and tobacco use disorder is tied to increased rates of spine surgery in people with cervical degenerative disc disease and myelopathy.

Fibromyalgia Diagnosis

A fibromyalgia diagnosis is more a process of elimination because there are other conditions with similar symptoms, including rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and lupus.

Fibromyalgia Causes

Researchers have not yet determined the exact cause of fibromyalgia, but this article summarizes current research on fibromyalgia causes.

Role of Trigger Points (Myofascial Pain Syndrome) in Neck Pain

Neck pain can be caused when trigger points, also called myofascial pain syndrome develop in the muscles of the cervical spine, shoulders and upper back.

Fibromyalgia Treatments

List of all fibromyalgia treatments to try to find pain (and other fibro symptoms) relief. Includes links to doctor-reviewed and approved articles on specific fibromyalgia treatments.

Fibromyalgia Medications

The FDA has approved three medications to treat fibromyalgia, but they are not your only options to help relieve widespread pain. Learn more in this article.

Physical Therapy for Fibromyalgia

You may try physical therapy to manage your fibromyalgia. Get the scoop on how physical therapy can help bring pain relief from this chronic pain condition.

Exercise and Fibromyalgia

Exercise is an essential part of fibromyalgia treatment. Here's how to develop an exercise program that's effective at managing your symptoms.

Stress Management for Fibromyalgia

Manage your stress levels to help you manage your fibromyalgia. Get stress relief tips in this pain management specialist-reviewed article.

Herniated Discs: Definition, Progression, and Diagnosis

This informative article explains herniated discs in easy-to-understand language. Learn what a herniated disc really is, how we develop them, where we can feel pain from them, and how doctors diagnosis them.

Lumbar Herniated Disc

Symptoms of a herniated disc may include dull or sharp pain, muscle spasm or cramping, sciatica, and leg weakness or loss of leg function.

Congenital Upper Cervical Disorders

Congenital upper neck disorders are those present at birth, and include achondroplasia, chiari malformation, syringomyelia, and atlantoaxial instability.

Fibromyalgia Study: It's a Real Disease

A French study published in November 2008 suggests that there's a correlation between blood flow in the brain and how fibromyalgia patients experience pain. Does this lead to a better understanding of this chronic pain disorder?

Fibromyalgia Tender Points

Fibromyalgia is known for painful tender points throughout the body. These tender points are often confused with trigger points, but this article clearly explains what these tender points are.

5 Things About Spinal Stenosis You Need to Know

Five important things you need to know about spinal stenosis that can cause neck or low back pain that radiate into your arms or legs.

Minimally Invasive Treatment of Vertebral Compression Fractures: Vertebral Augmentation Implant, Kyphoplasty, Vertebroplasty

Vertebroplasty, balloon kyphoplasty and a vertebral augmentation device are minimally invasive surgical procedures performed to treat vertebral compression fractures (VCFs).

Video Series: Exercises for Herniated Disc

Lumbar herniated disc treatment may include extension exercises to help you ease pain while strengthening low back muscles. Video features three extension stretching movements: prone on elbows into press-up, upper back extension, and opposite arm and leg extension.

Physical Therapy for Herniated Discs

Your spine specialist may prescribe physical therapy (PT) as part of treatment for a herniated disc. Your PT program will usually begin with passive treatments. But once your body heals, you will start active treatments that strengthen your body and prevent further pain.

Causes of a Herniated Disc

Article clearly explains 3 most common causes of a herniated disc. Includes illustration showing the 4 stages of a herniated disc (or bulging disc).

Exams and Tests for a Herniated Disc

Detailed description of the physical exam and imaging tests (x-rays, MRIs, CTs) used to diagnose herniated discs (also called bulging discs or ruptured discs)

Seven Myths About Back Pain Debunked

Seven common back pain myths are demystified by Neel Anand, MD, an orthopaedic spine surgeon. Consider, is back pain unavoidable with aging, does exercise cause back pain, is the firmest mattress the best choice if you have back pain?

Physical Therapy for Kyphosis

Physical therapy is an effective way to deal with kyphosis, especially postural kyphosis. Read what a physical therapist can help you learn about correcting your posture and strengthening your back muscles.

Spine Surgery for Upper Cervical Disorders

If an upper cervical neck disorder compresses the spinal cord, surgery will be part of the treatment discussion.

Exams and Tests for Ankylosing Spondylitis

The diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) requires an in-depth review of your medical and family history, physical and neurological examinations, blood tests, and imaging studies, such as x-ray or MRI.

Turning Back Pain and Sciatica Upside Down

Inversion tables are a non-surgical treatment option for many people with low back pain, leg pain and sciatica symptoms. Inversion table therapy helps decompress the spine and may help relieve back pain and related symptoms.

Chiropractic Treatment of Sciatica

Chiropractic care is non-invasive treatment for sciatica symptoms. Chiropractors diagnose the cause of sciatica, low back pain, leg pain, and offer drug-free therapies based on the philosophy that restricted spinal movement leads to pain and reduced function.

Exams and Tests for Sciatica

Some tests, such as CT scans and MRIs, may be necessary to help diagnose sciatica or piriformis syndrome.

Sciatica: Symptoms and Possible Causes

Sciatica is a symptom of a lumbar spinal disorder in the low back causing compression of the sciatic nerve. Leg pain is the most common symptom that may be accompanied by leg numbness and tingling sensations.

Sciatica Symptoms

Sciatica is among the most recognizable spinal disorders because of the symptoms it produces. Sciatica’s telltale signs include numbness, muscle weakness, burning, and electric shock-like nerve pain that radiates from the low back down the leg.

Degenerative Cervical Spine Disorders

Neck pain can be caused by spinal degeneration (the process of aging and wear and tear). Learn which degenerative spinal conditions lead to neck pain.

Discogenic Low Back Pain

As we age, our bodies undergo many changes.The topic of today's discussion is discogenic low back pain; a degenerative condition.

Chronic Back Pain Mind Games

Despite the recent surge in criticism against them, opioids are among the most commonly prescribed treatments for chronic back pain. But, could extended use actually create more pain?

Back Pain During Pregnancy

Pregnancy-related back pain is often localized to a specific area of the spine and tends to arise between the 5th and 7th months of pregnancy, though it can begin much earlier.

Does Obesity or Extra Weight Cause Low Back Pain?

The risk of low back pain among adults who are extremely obese is four times greater than among normal-weight adults.

5 Causes of Back and Neck Pain or Discomfort

Five common causes of back and pain are explained by Robert Talac, MD, PhD, an orthopaedic spine surgeon.

6 Causes of Mechanical Back Pain

The cause of most back and neck pain is mechanical—meaning the source of the pain may be triggered by movement the spine.

Ankylosing Spondylitis and Posture

People with ankylosing spondylitis need to focus on maintaining good spinal alignment. Square your shoulders, and keep your head relaxed and facing straight ahead. When standing, imagine your ears, shoulders, hips, knees, and ankles falling in a straight line.

Ankylosing Spondylitis: Treatment and Recovery

Treatment for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is aimed at relieving the patient's symptoms and preventing spinal deformity.

Exercise for Ankylosing Spondylitis

If you have ankylosing spondylitis, avoid the the “no pain, no gain” philosophy. Low- or no-impact activities, such as yoga, swimming, walking, or cycling are best for people with joint pain.

Symptoms of Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic disease that develops slowly.

Anatomy of Ankylosing Spondylitis

A solid understanding of your spinal anatomy will help you understand how ankylosing spondylitis (AS) affects your spine. Learn about the different spinal regions where AS can cause inflammation and fused bones.

Neck Pain Treatments

If you have developed neck pain, you have several treatment options.

Spine Doctor's Treatment for Moderate Low Back Pain

Doctor Gerard Malanga gives an inside look at his care philosophy of a patient with moderate low back pain.

How the Alexander Technique Relieved My Sciatica Pain

How the Alexander Technique relieved Evelyn Hess‘ sciatica pain. Her struggles with radiating leg pain and her journey to a pain-free life.

How Doctors Treat Spondylolisthesis

Sometimes spondylolisthesis doesn't require treatment. However, if you do need surgery, here's important information that you need to know.

Osteoporosis: Calcium and Magnesium

Calcium is one of the most important minerals involved in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.

Exams and Tests to Diagnose Chronic Pain

Your doctor will need to run several exams and tests, and through all of it, he or she will be trying to figure out what's causing your chronic pain.

Spinal Stenosis Symptoms

Pain, numbness, and tingling are common spinal stenosis symptoms that can affect the neck and low back and radiate into the arms or legs.

Chiropractic Care and Back Pain: Non-Invasive Treatment for Bulging, Ruptured, or Herniated Discs (Slipped Discs)

Chiropractic care is a non-surgical treatment option for herniated discs. But what is a chiropractor's approach to treating a herniated disc?

Christy’s Journey with Sacroiliac Joint Pain

Christy lived with sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction and shares her important story, including symptoms, causes and that some doctors don't consider SI joint dysfunction as part of the diagnostic picture.

How to Avoid Neck Pain at the Office

Eight important tips from an ergonomics' expert about avoiding neck and upper back pain while working at a computer.

Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS) Causes

There are many potential causes of failed back surgery syndrome and most times neither the patient nor the spine surgeon is to blame.

Bracing for Spondylosis

A brace can provide support to your spine and help limit your spine's motion.

Symptoms of Spondylolisthesis

Some people live with spondylolisthesis (forward slip of a vertebra) without knowing it. Article lists the common symptoms associated with spondylolisthesis.

Alternative Treatments for Neck Pain

Alternative treatments, such as acupuncture, capsaicin cream, or yoga, may be a part of your treatment plan for neck pain. Learn about other alternative treatments to help ease neck pain.

Exercise and Physical Therapy for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

Exercise and physical therapy can significantly help you manage sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction.

Drugs and Medications for Rheumatoid Arthritis

There are many drugs and medications available to treat your rheumatoid arthritis, but they won't cure it. Over-the-counter drugs, including NSAIDs, and prescription medications, such as DMARDs, will help reduce joint pain and inflammation.

Non-Surgical Treatments for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Most patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be treated without spine surgery. The treatment plan is designed to control the disease, alleviate pain, and maximize quality of life.

Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Type of Spinal Inflammatory Arthritis

Information about spinal rheumatoid arthritis and treatment is featured.

Surgery for a Herniated Disc

Five common surgical procedures performed to treat herniated discs are presented. Plus, helpful tips how to get in good physical shape for your surgery!

Causes of Chronic Pain

Chronic pain can be caused by so many things: Read this article to learn the general categories of chronic pain causes.

Osteoporosis: Trace Elements - Boron and Silicon

Taken as supplements, certain trace elements can promote bone formation and help to prevent osteoporosis.

Causes of Spinal Tumors

We've put together answers to the most common questions about spinal tumors, including questions about radiation.

Spinal Tumors: Diagnostic Process

Radiographs (x-rays) are initially obtained and a bone scan may be ordered early to rule out tumors or infections.

Piriformis Syndrome

Piriformis syndrome involves the piriformis muscle a target for repetitive motion injury especially in people who are runners. Piriformis symptoms include buttock pain and if the sciatic nerve is compressed, sciatica.

Talking to Your Doctor About Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

Low back pain caused by sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a diagnosis that may be overlooked by your doctor. Tips how to talk with your doctor.

Cannabis Patch Targets Fibromyalgia Pain

The cannabis patch will deliver high-potency cannabinoid extract through a transdermal adhesive patch.

How to Start Your Osteoporosis Prevention Plan Today

Osteoporosis is a preventable bone disease. Even if you have been diagnosed with osteoporosis, there are steps you can take with your doctor's help to help manage low bone mineral density and prevent spinal fracture.

Ergonomics and Degenerative Disc Disease

Learn some basic ergonomic principles on how to adapt your work environment to protect your spine and prevent your back pain from getting worse.

Ergonomics and Chronic Pain

Practicing good ergonomic principals on the job may enable you to control your pain.

Fall Prevention: Be Proactive

Information to help you to take a proactive approach to preventing falls and preventing vertebral compression fractures. Especially if you have osteoporosis (low bone density), you should be aware of how to prevent falls.

Spinal Fracture Prevention

Spinal fracture prevention is about taking precautions when doing certain activities. For example, you should always wear your seat belt when driving.

Common Chronic Pain Questions

The term chronic pain is generally used to describe pain that has lasted for more than six months. It isn't always clear what causes chronic pain. There are several possibilities.

Fall Prevention:

See how flooring, furniture and footwear play an important role in the prevention of falling in your home or office.

Kyphosis: Description and Diagnosis

Read about possible causes of kyphosis and tests that doctors use to diagnose kyphosis.

Common and Uncommon Causes of Back Pain

Muscle spasms may be the most common cause of back pain, but there are other common causes patients with back pain need to know about.

Can a Poor Diet Cause Back Pain?

Can a diet high in sugar and processed fat cause back pain?

Excess Fat in Bones Makes Anorexics Prone to Osteoporosis

People with anorexia have high amounts of fat in their bone marrow, and this makes them prone to osteoporosis. The findings show that malnutrition causes stem cells to become fat cells instead of bone-forming cells. Learn more in this article.

Grandfathers' Fractures Could Raise Osteoporosis Risk for Grandsons

Fractures in grandfathers may mean their grandsons will have bone health issues. This study focused on hip fractures, but it highlights the genetic implications of low bone mass and osteoporosis. And that affects spinal compression fractures risk.

Osteoporosis Drugs May Reduce Breast Cancer Risk

Women who took bisphosphonates had 32% fewer breast cancer cases.

Anatomy of Spinal Fractures

Spinal fractures can occur anywhere on the vertebrae, so to understand fractures, you should understand spinal anatomy.

Can Inversion Tables Help Your Low Back Pain?

Inversion table therapy may help relieve back pain, sciatica, muscle tension, muscle spasms caused by degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, herniated disc, or facet syndrome. Always talk with your doctor before trying an inversion table.

Exercises for Spinal Stenosis

If you have spinal stenosis, should you exercise? If so, what type of exercise is safe and won't cause you pain?

Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis

A characteristic of RA is it can affect any of the body’s joints, and symptoms range from mild to severe, and vary from episodic to chronic.

Exams and Tests for Spondylolisthesis

Most people find out they have spondylolisthesis when they have an x-ray for another problem, and it reveals a slipped vertebra.

Lumbar Back Sprains and Strains

A common cause of low back pain is a lumbar sprain or strain. These soft tissue injuries can affect the spine's supporting structures; muscles, tendons and/or ligaments.

Non-surgical Treatments for Upper Cervical Disorders

Spinal traction, bracing and medications are types of conservative treatments often used in combination to treat an upper neck disorder.

Klippel-Feil Syndrome: Short Neck and Congenital Cervical Spine Disorder

Klippel-Feil syndrome occurs when two or more cervical vertebrae in the neck are abnormally fused together causing a short neck and limited ability to bend and twist the neck. The genetics, causes, symptoms and treatments of this rare congenital disorder are explained.

Signs and Symptoms of Upper Cervical Disorders

Neck pain and headache are the most common symptoms related to an upper cervical spine disorder.

Upper Neck Disorders

Overview of head and upper neck disorders your doctor or spine surgeon may refer to as a craniovertebral junction abnormality or craniocervical disorder.

Neck Pain or iPad Neck and Tablet Habits

Neck pain was a common complaint among iPad and tablet users in a research study. Mesmerized by a game, social media, or other information, tablet users gaze down, slump, or find other awkward positions in which to stare at their screens, and later, report neck stiffness, soreness, aches and pain.

5 Ways to Manage Back Pain

Low back pain is common, but if you have it, know that it does not have to control your life. Find out 5 quick and easy ways to relieve back pain today.

Causes of Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative disc disease is a progressive age-related spinal disorder that can lead to disc herniation or a bulging disc and contributes to spinal stenosis causing back pain.

Lumbago: Mild to Severe Low Back Pain

Lumbago is a seldom used term to mean mild to severe low back pain. The pain can be acute or chronic and affects both young and old.

Whiplash: 5 Things You Should Know

Whiplash, also called neck sprain or neck strain, is an injury to the soft tissues of the neck. Here are five important things you should know about this injury.

Recovery from Scoliosis Surgery

If you're getting ready for scoliosis surgery, read these recovery tips from a spine surgeon. You'll learn what will happen at the hospital just after surgery and what will happen at home.

Compression and Wedge Fractures: Treatment and Recovery

Osteoporosis may cause vertebral compression fractures and spinal wedge fractures. Balloon kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are minimally invasive spine surgical procedures that are used to treat vertebral fractures, stabilize the spine and reduce back pain.

Cauda Equina Syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare but serious low back disorder that causes bladder and/or bowel dysfunction requiring immediate medical attention.

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is genetic condition that may cause sacroiliac joint hypermobility, potential joint dysfunction and low back pain.

Tarlov Cysts and Back Pain

Tarlov cysts, also called perineural and sacral nerve root cysts, can compress a spinal nerve root causing back pain, weakness and numbness that may radiate into the legs.

Chronic Pain Prevention

Can chronic pain be prevented? Especially chronic back pain: is it possible to prevent pain? A pain management specialist tells you how you can work to prevent chronic back pain.

Sciatica Prevention and Relief

Are you looking for ways to prevent sciatica or manage it with conservative therapies? These wellness tips may help you to prevent or manage an episode of sciatica.

When Should You Visit a Doctor for Herniated Disc Pain?

Herniated disc symptoms that warrant medical attention may include neck or low back pain, tingling, numbness and weakness that extends into the arms or legs.

Paget’s Disease and Your Spine

Paget’s disease is the second most common bone disorder in the United States, behind osteoporosis.

Spinal Disorders May Cause Neurogenic Bladder Disorder or Dysfunction

Spinal disorders or injuries that cause nerve compression or damage may cause Neurogenic Bladder Disorder (NBD); also termed Bladder Dysfunction. NBD means the patient has problems with urination.

Spondylolisthesis: Back Condition and Treatment

This in-depth discussion about spondylolisthesis explains what causes a vertebra to slip and what the different grades (eg, grade 1 spondylolisthesis) look like.

Lumbar Back Sprains: Treatment and Prevention

Lumbar sprains and low back strains are a common cause of back pain. Because the pain may develop suddenly and feel severe or acute, some people fear the worst.

Chiari Malformation: A Basic Overview

Chiari malformation is a condition that causes brain tissue to settle into the spinal canal. It develops where your skull and neck (cervical spine) come together.

Lumbar Back Sprains: Diagnostic Steps

How doctors diagnose a low back sprain or lumbar strain; both a common cause of inflammation and swelling of soft tissues that leads to pain, tenderness and stiffness.

Intervertebral Disc Infection: Discitis and How it Affects Children

Discitis, or disc space infection, is an inflammation of the intervertebral disc.This rare disease, which impacts 1 out of every 100,000 people, can occur in adults but is more common in children.

Love Your Spine: Common Causes of Back Sprain and Prevention Tips

It turns out that lower back pain is very common among tennis players. Dr. Andrew Hecht provides information about 3 causes of back sprain along with tips for prevention.

What is Syringomyelia?

Syringomyelia occurs when a fluid-filled cyst or syrinx forms within the spinal cord. As the cyst progressively grows larger, the spinal cord is compressed and be damaged.

Spinal Infection: Epidural Abscesses

The symptoms of an epidural abscess can be subtle, and symptoms vary based on the location of the abscess.

Why Is Sciatica So Painful?

Sciatica is among the most painful types of nerve pain affecting the legs. Sciatica patients often ask, Why is sciatica so painful?

Spine Surgery for Adult Scoliosis

Surgical treatment of adult scoliosis involves decompression, correction and fusion. Together, these procedures relieve nerve compression, reduce the size of the scoliosis or spinal deformity, and permanently stabilize the spinal curves.

Compression and Wedge Fractures

Spinal vertebral compression fractures and wedge fractures are often caused by trauma such as sustaining a fall or motor vehicle accident. These fractures can affect the neck or back, are very painful and require urgent medical attention.

Food and Osteoporosis

There are ways to prevent osteoporosis, and eating a healthy diet is one of the easiest and most enjoyable.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Surgery

Spine surgery may become necessary in patients with rheumatoid arthritis if RA causes extreme pain, severe weakness and spinal instability. A leading spine surgeon explains.

Symptoms of Spinal Fractures

Following a traumatic event such as a car accident, you may not know that you have a fracture. That's why it's important to have a thorough examination by a doctor after a traumatic event.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Glossary

Being diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can mean learning a whole new vocabulary: subluxations, osteophyte, vertebral end plate, and more. Use this list as a handy reference for medical terms related to RA.

TENS Not Effective for Chronic Low Back Pain

Guidelines released from the American Academy of Neurology state that transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, known as TENS, is not effective at treating chronic low back pain. Read this article to learn more about this major recommendation.

Fibromyalgia Symptoms

Six common fibromyalgia symptoms include body tender points, widespread pain, pain that is worse in the morning, fatigue, sleeping problems, and anxiety and depression.

What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most debilitating type of arthritis because it can cause deformity and disability. RA may affect the cervical spine and cause the facet joints in the neck to become inflamed and painful.

Who Treats Fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia may be diagnosed and treated by your primary care doctor, rheumatologist, neurologist and/or a pain management specialist.

Back Pain and Its Impact on Sexual Satisfaction conducted a national survey on how back pain affects sexual satisfaction. Hint: it doesn't make sex better. Another hint: back pain doesn't mean you can't have sex anymore. Read the full survey results here.

Chiropractic Care for Kyphosis

Chiropractic treatment of kyphosis may help improve posture, increase range of motion and reduce inflammation, muscles spasms, and back pain.

Lumbar Herniated Disc with Sciatica

Sciatica is a type of nerve pain that can be caused by a lumbar (low back) herniated disc compressing the sciatic nerve that originates in the spine and extends down the leg. Lumbar disc herniation can cause sciatica leg pain, tingling or burning sensations, and muscle spasms.

Cervical Sports Injuries: The Stinger

Burners and stingers are cervical injuries that occur when the head and/or neck is forcefully hit and moved to one side causing the shoulder to be pulled in the opposite direction. Stinger injuries are often associated with playing sports such as footfall, basketball or soccer.

Burst Fractures: Defined and Diagnosed

A burst fracture can result from spinal injury or trauma that causes the affected vertebral body to be crushed or severely compressed, altering the normal shape and height of the spinal bone.

Avascular Necrosis: What is it?

Kummel disease is a rare variation of avascular necrosis (AVN) that can affect the spine’s vertebrae, usually the thoracic spine (mid back) region. Osteonecrosis, aseptic necrosis and ischemic bone necrosis are other names for this bone disease.


Arachnoiditis is a debilitating condition characterized by severe stinging and burning pain and neurologic problems. It is caused by an inflammation of the arachnoid lining; one of the 3 linings that surround the brain and spinal cord.

Adult Scoliosis

Adult scoliosis is abnormal curvature of the spine to the left or right. Scoliosis in adults may develop as a result of a childhood scoliosis or degenerative spinal changes.

Bracing for Osteoporosis

A spinal fracture is a serious thing, and as your body heals, your doctor may recommend a back brace..

4 Strange Sciatica Causes

4 unusual causes of sciatica pain include specific types of clothing and shoes, and explains how severe sciatic leg pain may result.

Understanding Acute Flaccid Myelitis (AFM)

Acute flaccid myelitis is a rare disease; in fact, fewer than one in a million people will develop it. Anyone, from children to adults, can get AFM. Be informed about the symptoms and prevention.

Causes of Whiplash

Whiplash is a common neck injury caused by car accidents, such as being rear-ended by another vehicle. Other causes include football spearing, soccer, falling, roller coaster rides, and violence, such as being punched or shaken.

Spinal Nerve Disorders

While aging, general health, and lifestyle may influence the development of some conditions, most spinal disorders are known to result from soft tissue injury, structural injury, and degenerative or congenital conditions.

Cervicogenic Headaches Start in the Neck

A cervicogenic headache starts in the cervical spine, your neck. Sometimes these headaches mimic migraine headache symptoms.

Exercise and Chronic Pain

Why exercises is important if you have chronic back pain offers 4 benefits and how to get started.

Low Back and Leg Pain is Lumbar Radiculopathy

Lumbar radiculopathy refers to pain in the lower extremities in a dermatomal pattern. A dermatome is a specific area in the lower extremity that has nerves going to it from a specific lumbar nerve.

Exercises for Sciatica Caused by Spinal Stenosis

Three home exercises to manage sciatica pain caused by lumbar spinal stenosis in the low back.

Video Series: Exercises for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

Exercise video demonstrates three low back home exercises that may help reduce back pain caused by lumbar spinal stenosis and spinal nerve compression.

Video Series: Exercises for Lumbar Spondylosis

Video lumbar spine stretches and exercises to help reduce low back pain and stiffness that can be caused by spinal osteoarthritis, also called lumbar spondylosis.

Drugs, Medications, and Spinal Injections to Relieve Sciatica

Painful sciatica may be treated using certain medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or an epidural steroid spinal injection. The lumbar (low back) epidural injection may help reduce nerve inflammation that causes leg pain.

Ergonomics and Sciatica

Reduce sciatica symptoms by applying 6 simple ergonomic tips that can help you manage low back pain and leg pain at work.

Sciatica: Treatment Options

Sciatica pain is often caused sciatic nerve compression created by a herniated disc or spinal stenosis in the low back. Non-surgical or surgical sciatica treatments are recommended based on the patient's diagnosis or cause of sciatica symptoms.

6 Little-known Facts About Sciatica

Sciatica is leg pain that starts in the low back (lumbar spine) and travels down the sciatic nerve in one leg sometimes below the knee affecting the foot. It is a lumbar radiculopathy with severe leg pain described as burning, stinging or electric-like shock.

Chiropractic Care for Whiplash

Chiropractic care for a whiplash injury involves evaluation of your entire spine and whole-body health. A chiropractor’s exam of whiplash or cervical spine injury includes an x-ray or MRI to assess the condition of the neck’s soft tissues, vertebrae and spinal joints.

Symptoms of Spondylosis

The symptoms of spondylosis, also known as spinal osteoarthritis, vary depending on where your spine is affected.

Drugs, Medications, and Spinal Injections for Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a nerve compression disorder that causes low back pain and neck pain. Lumbar or cervical spinal stenosis pain often can be treated without spine surgery using medications and spinal injection therapies.

Spinal Inflammatory Arthritis Glossary

Spinal arthritis glossary of medical terms defines words doctors may use when discussing inflammatory spinal arthritis and related tests and treatment options.

2008 Presidential Election: The Candidates on Health Care

Health care is one of the top issues in the 2008 election. SpineUniverse asked Senators Obama and McCain 5 questions about their health care plans. Learn how their plans will affect you as you make treatment decisions for your back and/or neck pain.

What Parents Need to Know About Pediatric Anesthesia and Scoliosis Surgery

A pediatric anesthesiologist is a key member of your child's surgical team when undergoing spine surgery for early onset scoliosis, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis or other spinal deformity. Important information for parents and guardians.

How to Prepare for Scoliosis Surgery

Three tips how to prepare for scoliosis surgery from an orthopaedic spine surgeon who specializes in treating scoliosis. To understand your potential surgical risk factors know about the types of pre-operative testing you may undergo.

Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis and Degenerative Scoliosis

Adult scoliosis occurs when an abnormal side-to-side spinal curve of 10-degrees or greater is diagnosed in a person age 18 or older. Adult idiopathic scoliosis and adult degenerative scoliosis are covered in this article.

Pediatric Scoliosis Surgical Technologies: Growing Rods, Growth-Guided Devices, Vertebral Body Tethering

Traditional and magnetically controlled growing rods, growth-guided devices, and vertebral body tethering (fusionless correction) are explained and shown in many pre- and postoperative x-rays.

Pediatric Scoliosis Surgery Guide

Pediatric Scoliosis Surgery Guide provides information about curve correction in young patients, including spinal and in-situ fusion, instrumentation, and hemivertebra removal.

Spinal Bracing: A Treatment Option for Scoliosis in Children

Spinal bracing for scoliosis in children is a common non-surgical treatment. The overarching goal is not to permanently correct scoliosis, but rather to stop or slow the progression of the curve,

Childhood Testing for Scoliosis

For some parents and children, it's a school nurse who first notices the scoliosis. Early diagnosis and treatment is the best way to prevent curve progression.

Flatback Syndrome (Kyphosis): Possible Scoliosis Surgery Complication

Patients who had Harrington rods implanted to correct scoliosis may develop flatback syndrome (kyphosis). What is this spinal condition? See images in this article.

Osteomyelitis: Vertebral Infection

Vertebral osteomyelitis is the most common form of vertebral (spinal bone) infection, though it’s a relatively rare disease.

Vertebral Osteomyelitis: Rare Spinal Infection Can Cause Severe Back Pain

Vertebral osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone usually caused by bacteria. In the spine it is commonly found in the vertebrae, although the infection can spread into the epidural and intervertebral disc spaces.

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis, Brace Treatment and Spine Surgery

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis affecting children and teenagers. Experts from the Scoliosis Research Society discuss bracing and spine surgery.

Thoracoscopy in the Treatment of Scoliosis

Thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive spine surgery performed to treat thoracic scoliosis. Thoracoscopy combines the science of endoscopy (video-assisted surgery) with thoracotomy (access to chest, or thoracic spine).

Early Onset Scoliosis in Children

Early onset scoliosis (EOS) is an abnormal sideways curvature of the spine found in children under the age of 10 years. Scoliosis expert explains EOS diagnosis and treatment.

Degenerative Spondylolisthesis of the Lumbar Spine

Low back pain is a common degenerative spondylolisthesis symptom. This article covers non-surgical treatments for spondylolisthesis, including exercise, bracing, and medications. It also discusses surgery, although few patients will actually need surgery for spondylolisthesis.

Understanding Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome

Thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS) is rare and develops in young children with congenital scoliosis, which is when a baby is born with an abnormal spinal curve.

Could the Alexander Technique Relieve Your Chronic Back and Neck Pain?

The Alexander Technique involves human touch and the teacher uses his or her hands to gently adjust you into a proper upright position to help you release pressure in your head, neck, shoulders, and upper back.

The Schroth Method: A 3-Dimensional Treatment for Adolescent and Adult Scoliosis

The Schroth Method is a type of exercise for treating adolescent and adult scoliosis. Therapeutic spinal exercises focus on muscular balance, proper posture and breathing.

Scoliosis and the Swimmer: How Robotic Spine Surgery Kept a Teen’s Olympic Dreams Afloat

Adolescent scoliosis did not end this swimmer’s quest to fulfill dreams of swimming at the Olympic Games. How robotic spine surgery facilitated her scoliosis surgical procedure.

Causes of Scoliosis

There are many types of scoliosis such as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and adult degenerative scoliosis. Causes of scoliosis can be congenital, syndromic, neurological, muscular and sometimes not known, which is called idiopathic.

Common Questions about Scoliosis Surgery

Five questions patient ask about scoliosis surgery answered by a spine specialist include pregnancy and potential allergic reaction to spinal instrumentation.

4 Scoliosis Questions Answered

This list may not cover all your scoliosis questions, so keep the lines of communication open with your medical team and reach out to them about your specific scoliosis care plan.

Is a Revision Spine Operation After Failed Back Surgery Right for Me?

Why your doctor may recommend non-surgical treatments to treat failed back surgery syndrome, and what types of spinal conditions causing FBSS need spine surgery first.

Physical Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Physical therapy can help you manage your rheumatoid arthritis symptoms with a variety of passive therapies (such as head and cold therapy) and active therapies (including aerobic exercise).

Exams and Tests for Rheumatoid Arthritis

To diagnose rheumatoid arthritis, the doctor will run through several exams and tests.

Anatomy of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects joints, and it can be present in the spine.

Acquired Upper Cervical Disorders and Your Spine

Upper cervical or neck disorders include basilar invagination, degenerative arthritis, pseudogot, synovial cysts, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Take Charge of Your Upper Back Pain

The upper back, or thoracic spine, is the area between the neck and low back. Stiffness, muscle spasms, and pain are common upper back symptoms.

Failed Back Surgery Treatments: Spinal Pumps and Spinal Cord Stimulation

Failed back surgery syndrome symptoms may be treated using a spinal pain pump or spinal cord stimulator. Either neuromodulation device may be implanted after a successful trial period to help manage back and/or neck pain and related symptoms

Revision Neck Surgery After Failed Back Surgery

When is a second neck surgery or cervical revision spine surgery needed? 10 things to know, the purpose of revision surgery, surgical procedures and questions to ask

Interventional Treatments for Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: Radiofrequency Ablation and Adhesiolysis

Failed back surgery syndrome treatment may include radiofrequency ablation to help manage nerve and/or joint back pain. Adhesiolysis may be performed remove scar tissue.

How Physical Therapy Treats Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

Physical therapy or physiotherapy is often part of a multidisciplinary program to treat failed back surgery syndrome, FBSS. Treatment includes passive and active therapies to help manage back pain and other symptoms

Medication Treatment for Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

Over-the-counter drugs, prescription medications and medical marijuana may be part of your multidisciplinary plan to treat failed back surgery syndrome pain and symptoms.

Diagnosis of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

Diagnosis of failed back surgery involves a comprehensive physical exam and neurological evaluation and in-depth review of your back or neck pain, symptoms and medical history.

Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS) Symptoms

Back pain after spine surgery is common, but how can you tell if it’s beyond the typical pain of recovery? Failed back surgery syndrome symptoms and signs.

Adjacent Segment Disease and Back Pain

Adjacent segment disease, a known complication of spinal fusion, can also be caused by degenerative changes in the back and neck.

Treatments for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

From over-the-counter medications to physical therapy and exercise, these sacroiliac joint dysfunction treatments can help reduce or even prevent your low back pain.

Surgery for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

Surgery for sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is rare, but if non-surgical treatments, such as exercise and medications, haven’t worked for you, surgery may help you manage pain.

Minimally Invasive Treatment of Chronic Sacroiliac Joint Pain

Bipolar Radiofrequency Neurotomy, also known as Radiofrequency Ablation, is a minimally invasive procedure that disables and prevents nerve from transmitting pain signals to the brain. This procedure may help relieve sacroiliac joint pain.

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction Medications

There are several medications that can help you manage sacroiliac joint (SI joint) dysfunction. The medication you take will depend on your symptoms as well as the cause of your SI joint pain.

Sacroiliac Joint Injection Information

A sacroiliac joint injection serves several purposes. First, by placing numbing medicine into the joint, the amount of immediate pain relief you experience will help confirm or deny the joint as a source of your pain. Learn how the procedure is performed and what you may expect afterward.

Up to 30% of Low Back Pain May Be From the Sacroiliac (SI) Joint1

Dr. Amish Patel discusses SI joint pain and how the cause is diagnosed. “In my practice, the prevalence of sacroiliac joint pain is quite high. In patients presenting with a chief complaint of low back pain, I've seen as high as 30% have pain arising from the sacroiliac joint."

Exams and Tests for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is challenging to diagnose. Several physical maneuvers, imaging studies, and SI injections help to confirm an accurate diagnosis.

Symptoms Related to Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

One of the main symptoms of sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is low back pain. But with SI joint pain, you can also have pain in your hips and buttocks.

Sacroiliitis and Sacroiliac Joint Pain

Sacroiliitis is inflammation of one or both of your sacroiliac joints. Degenerative sacroiliitis is a type of SI joint pain.

Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Surgery Update

The iFuse Implant System from SI-BONE, Inc. received an elevated quality evidence recommendation from the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association (BCBSA) for minimally invasive surgical fusion in cases of sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

Spine Muscles in Pain? Myofascial Pain Syndrome May Be to Blame

Myofascial pain syndrome is back or neck pain caused by tight or twitching muscle and fascia trigger points. Many treatment options, including trigger point injections, can help manage spine pain.

Reduce Stress to Reduce Your Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms

Stress will exacerbate rheumatoid arthritis pain, so you need to know how to control it. This article includes ways to help reduce your stress, and in turn, reduce your symptoms.

Exercise and Rheumatoid Arthritis

Exercise is an essential part of relieving your rheumatoid arthritis pain. Exercise promotes joint health and muscle strength, and is even good for your mental health. Here's how to develop a program that's effective at managing your symptoms.

Common Rheumatoid Arthritis Questions

Brief answers to the most common RA questions so that you can get info fast.

Spinal Bracing: A Treatment Option for Spondylolisthesis

Depending on the severity of your spondylolisthesis, your doctor may have you wear a brace or corset to help support your spine. You won't have to wear it all the time; your doctor will create a spondylolisthesis treatment plan just for you.

Physical Therapy for Spondylolisthesis

Physical therapy is an often prescribed treatment option for spondylolisthesis, a low back condition. You'll strengthen the muscles that support the spine, and you'll learn how to keep your spine safe. If you have pain, though, the first goal will be to relieve that.

Isthmic Spondylolisthesis and Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

Isthmic spondylolisthesis should be differentiated from degenerative spondylolisthesis, which occurs due to the aging process along with the development of marked facet joint arthritis with rotatory vertebral slip.

Spinal Cord Injury: Inside the Fehlings Laboratory for Neural Repair and Regeneration

Dr. Michael Fehlings takes SpineUniverse inside his research lab and talks about his lab's areas of focus in spinal cord injury.

Spinal Cord Injury Glossary

Terms, words and phrases related to spinal cord injury are defined and explained.

Spondylolisthesis: Treatment, Restrictions, Bracing, Medication

Approximately 5% of the population has a spondylolisthesis, but many of those people will never need any treatment. The grade of slip (grades 1-5) and your symptoms will help determine your treatment.

Anatomy of Spondylolisthesis

To better understand why spondylolisthesis can cause low back pain and a change in body appearance such as swayback, it helps to know about basic spinal anatomy. This article explains how vertebrae work together to help you move.

Fall Prevention: Home and Office

How many times have you heard that most accidents occur at home? Often! Now add to that the increased number of people who work at home.

Causes of Kyphosis

The cause of your kyphosis depends on what type of kyphosis you have: postural or structural. Postural, not surprisingly, is caused by poor posture, but structural kyphosis is related to problems with parts of the spine. Review typical kyphosis causes.

Stiff Neck, Crick in the Neck and Relief

Is a stiff neck the same as having a crick in the neck? Learn about the symptoms, causes and home remedies and treatments.

When Is Back or Neck Pain an Emergency?

Not all back or neck pain is serious but how can you tell? Learn about 6 potentially serious spinal conditions and the symptoms that require urgent medical care.

Muscle Spasms are a Leading Cause of Back Pain But NOT the Primary Cause

The cause of back pain and spasm can be attributed to overuse, an accident or a sports injury. If you’ve had one or more episodes of muscle spasm in the low back, chances are it will happen again.

Whiplash and Chiropractic Care: Children Suffer, Too

Children are often more susceptible to whiplash injuries suffered in car accidents.

Chiropractic Care: Symptoms of Whiplash

Whiplash injuries, whether from a car accident, sports, or an accident at work, require a thorough chiropractic examination.

What is Chronic Pain?

Chronic pain is hard to define because it affects people so differently and can come in so many forms.

Is Your Job Hurting Your Back?

A recent study sheds light on the ways that low back pain may be caused by something you do every single day—going to work.

Common Spondylolithesis Questions

Five common questions about spondylolisthesis answered, including how it may develop, symptoms, and treatment options.

Back Pain and Pushing a Wheelchair

The Ohio State University’s Spine Research Institute’s study shows that pushing patients in a wheelchair may cause low back injury. Are you at risk?

Baastrup’s Sign (Kissing Spine) and Back Pain

Baastrup’s sign or syndrome, or Kissing Spine is more common in the lower back, although it can affect the cervical spine (neck) too. It affects the spinous processes and is associated with degenerative changes in the spinal column.

Vertebroplasty: Treatment for Compression Fractures

Vertebroplasty treats vertebral compression fractures using minimally invasive surgical techniques. Description of how the procedure is performed and what a patient can expect.

Vertebroplasty: How This Compression Fracture Treatment Works

Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive surgical treatment for vertebral compression fractures as discussed in two patient cases of osteoporosis and metastatic breast cancer.

When to Call a Doctor for a Pinched Nerve

Serious symptoms of a pinched nerve in the neck or back that require a doctor's attention.

News Update: FDA Approves Robotic Exoskeleton to Help People with Spinal Cord Injury Walk

Recently, the FDA allowed ReWalk to be marketed. It is the first motorized device intended to act as an exoskeleton for people with lower body paralysis due to a spinal cord injury.

Medications to Relieve Back Pain

Medications that may help relieve back and neck pain include acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), muscle relaxants, oral steroids, and anti-depressants. Doctor authored information to help you make informed choices about treatment of your spine problem.

Thanksgiving and Back Pain

Thanksgiving is just a warm-up for a month of celebrating. Take care of your back this Thursday and establish good habits for the rest of the holidays. Tips for avoiding back pain in the kitchen, at the table, and on the couch.

About the Back and Back Problems: Pain Relief

Even having a lot of back pain does not by itself mean you need surgery. Surgery has been found to be helpful in only 1 in 100 cases of low back problems.

Exercise to Relieve Spondylosis Pain

If possible, daily activity should be part of a spinal arthritis treatment plan because of the many benefits of exercise.

Spondylosis: How Doctors Treat Spinal Osteoarthritis

A surgeon explains how doctors diagnose this degenerative process, including what happens in physical and neurological exams.

Halo Brace Use with Cervical Fractures

The halo brace is used in treating cervical fractures because of it's ability to almost completely immobilize the cervical spine.

Spinal Tumors: Treatments

A spinal tumor is a very serious medical condition. If diagnosed early, patients have a better chance of a full recovery.

Symptoms of Spinal Tumors

Most patients with spinal tumors first come to the doctor because of back pain, specifically constant pain that doesn't get better by changing positions or resting.

Common Spinal Fracture Questions

Come here for quick answers to the most common questions about spinal fractures. Includes information about surgical and non-surgical treatment options for fractures caused by trauma.

Flatback Syndrome: Spine Surgery to Correct Spinal Alignment

Flatback syndrome surgery is performed to correct spinal alignment to normal or near normal to relieve stress on the postural muscles of the back, hips, and knees.

Cymbalta May Reduce Chronic Low Back Pain

A 2010 study found that a daily dose of Cymbalta significantly reduced chronic low back pain, compared to a placebo. Read this article for an overview of the study and to learn more about how Cymbalta helps chronic pain patients.

A Vacation from Back Pain

Summer is the season to burn some vacation time and hit the road. The longer days and warmer weather may make it easier to get away, but summer travel includes cramped flights and seemingly-endless road trips. And that can take a toll on your back.

What is Kyphosis?

Everybody should have kyphosis in their thoracic spine, but when the spine starts to curve outward too much, there's a problem. Brief overview of two types of kyphosis and why this spinal condition is more than just slouching.

Symptoms of Whiplash

When you get whiplash, you'll know what caused it. But you may not feel the symptoms of it until sometime later.

How to Support a Loved One With Chronic Spine-related Pain

I’m writing to tell you how you can be a good friend and supportive ally to me throughout my journey with chronic back and neck pain. Years ago, without choice or cause, I was thrust into another world. It’s a complicated place, where physical abilities and mental challenges abound....

Surgery for Chronic Pain

Surgery is a last resort option for chronic pain, but in some cases, it may be necessary. Learn when doctors recommend surgery for chronic pain patients.

Symptoms of Chronic Pain

Chronic pain is much more than pain. It can lead to other physical, social, and emotional problems that can feel overwhelming.

Degenerative Disc Disease Prevention and Relief

Article provides tips to prevent back pain caused by degenerative disc disease (DDD). These tips can help you recover better from DDD surgery and have a healthier spine overall.

Spinal Tumors: Diagnosis and Non-Surgical Treatment

The patient's medical status is evaluated with particular attention given to back pain and neurologic deficit. Although back pain is often the primary symptom, some patients present with paraparesis (slight paralysis), spinal deformity, and malaise.

Exams and Tests to Diagnose Upper Cervical Disorders

The signs and symptoms of upper cervical spine disorders can appear quickly, or they may suddenly worsen.

Weight Loss with Low Back Pain: Finding the Right Program

Weight loss can have a positive and significant impact on reducing back pain. Fining the weight loss program that is right for you is crucial. Learn how here.

Low Back Pain

Low back pain is extremely common in today's society. Seventy-five percent of all people will experience back pain at some time in their lives.The good news is ...

Exams and Tests to Diagnose Upper Back Pain

This articles explains how your doctor examines you to make a proper diagnosis.

Kyphosis Prevention

You can prevent some types of kyphosis, especially kyphosis caused by poor posture. Help from a physical therapist to learn what good posture feels and looks like may be all you need to prevent kyphosis.

Drugs and Medications for Kyphosis

To help you deal with pain from kyphosis, the doctor may recommend drugs or medications. You may need to take painkillers or medications that reduce inflammation. Depending on how bad the pain is, you may start off with over-the-counter medications.

Bracing: A Treatment Option for Kyphosis

A doctor may recommend a brace for treating kyphosis. Several factors come into play, including how much growth the patient has left to do and how severe the kyphotic curve is. Bracing may help stop the spinal curve from getting worse.

Ergonomics and Kyphosis

Ergonomics looks at how we work and the environment in which we work. It plays a big part in helping you get through the day without back pain, and if you have kyphosis, you should be thinking about ergonomics.

High Heels and Flip-Flops Cause Back Pain

Beauty takes its toll: after wearing high heels all day, your back may be screaming for help. Flip-flops can also hurt your spine. A women's spine specialist explains how your fashion choices can be painful.

Chronic Back Pain in United States Compared to United Kingdom

Backache is major issue in the United Kingdom and the United States of America and it’s thought that back pain is one of the most common causes of work absence.

Sex and Back Pain

Back pain can disrupt a sexual relationship. However, back pain doesn’t have to mean no more sex. It does mean that you’ll have to make some adjustments. Dr. Corners discusses this common concern of back pain sufferers and offers solutions.

Tips for Better Sex … even with Back Pain

The results of SpineUniverse's national survey on Sexual Satisfaction and Back Pain indicate that back pain is ruining the sex lives of many people.

Many Pediatricians Shy Away From Treating Chronic Pain

Children can experience debilitating chronic pain just like everyone else. But a study revealed that most pediatricians do not believe it's their main responsibility to treat chronic pain. Read what researchers say must be done to reverse this trend.

Back Pain and Spine Surgery

Sometimes spine surgery is necessary to remedy back pain and sciatica. These five points will help you to prepare.

Who Treats Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis?

Most patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis have a team of doctors working with them. The main doctor will most likely be a pediatric rheumatologist.

Low Back Pain Treatment Guideline Highlights Exercise and Stress Reduction

The American College of Physicians recently published its non-surgical treatment guideline for various types of low back pain—from short-term bouts of pain to debilitating chronic pain.

Spinal Inflammatory Arthritis

This article provides information about two types of spinal inflammatory arthritis.

Full Results for SpineUniverse Back Pain Treatment Options Survey

SpineUniverse presents their survey results from early 2008 where website visitors rated non-surgical back pain treatments on a scale from very dissatisfied to very satisfied.

One Test Isn't Enough to Accurately Diagnose Herniated Discs

Having only a single test performed during a physical exam isn't enough to accurately diagnose a herniated disc, according to 2010 findings. Learn more about why multiple tests best determine the cause of back pain and how it impacts treatment.

Exams and Tests to Diagnose Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

A doctor diagnoses juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) by carefully examining the patient and his or her medical history, along with the results of laboratory tests. This article explains the exams and tests that diagnose JIA.

Non-surgical Treatment for Degenerative Disc Disease

Dr. Richard Fessler reviews your non-surgical treatment options for degenerative disc disease in this short (but very informative) video. Listen to one of the top neurosurgeons explain what you can try before surgery.

Video: Exams and Tests for Degenerative Disc Disease

Watch this video to understand the tests your doctor will do (or has already done) as he or she diagnoses degenerative disc disease. Dr. Richard Fessler explains CT scans, MRIs, the physical exam, and more.

Video: Exams and Tests for Neck Pain

Watch this video to understand the tests your doctor will do as he or she diagnoses your neck pain cuase. Dr. Dan Riew explains CT scans, MRIs, the physical exam, and more.

Degenerative Disc Disease Overview

In this video, you’ll quickly get basic information about degenerative disc disease from Dr. Richard Fessler, a neurosurgeon.

Video: Symptoms of Degenerative Disc Disease

To understand the symptoms associated with degenerative disc disease, watch this video. Dr. Richard Fessler explains the pain and other symptoms in straightforward language

Video: Causes of Neck Pain

In this video, Dr. Dan Riew (a cervical spine surgeon) goes over what happens in your cervical spine to cause pain.

Neck Pain Overview

In this video, you’ll quickly get basic information about neck pain from Dr. Dan Riew, an orthopaedic surgeon specializing in cervical spine surgery.

Osteoporosis: Detection and Diagnosis

A Bone Mineral Density test is often used to help diagnose osteoporosis and determine the risk for future fracture.

Alternative Treatments for Back Pain

Back pain treatments may include acupuncture, herbal remedies, or massage as part of your alternative non-surgical therapy plan.

What Really Gets Rid of Back Pain?

"What really gets rid of back pain?" is a question SpineUniverse asked patients offering more than 10 treatments to choose from including spinal injections, chiropractic, acupuncture, massage and medications.

Surgery for Ankylosing Spondylitis

Seldom is surgery needed to treat ankylosing spondylitis, however, here are 4 indications your surgeon may consider before recommending spine surgery.

Nutritional Supplements to Build Bone and Help Prevent Osteoporosis

Not everyone will get osteoporosis. However, everyone can benefit from healthy bones.

Exercise Reduces Pain Perceptions in Fibromyalgia Patients

You may not want to exercise when you have fibromyalgia, but it may help reduce your pain. Review of a study on how exercise can relieve fibromyalgia pain.

Fibromyalgia Pain Relief: Is It All in Your Lungs?

A 2010 study found that breathing rate had an impact on pain and emotion for some patients with fibromyalgia. Will this help you?

Cannabis-based Drug Improves Sleep in Fibromyalgia Patients

Sleep disorders are common with fibromyalgia. Study finds that a cannabis-based drug helps achieve a better night's sleep than anti-depressants.

Spinal Inflammatory Arthritis: Early Diagnosis Important

Early detection of spinal inflammatory arthritis is important to the overall success of the patient's treatment plan.

Lumbar Radiculopathy: Proper Diagnosis Key to Effective Treatment of Back and Leg Pain

Leg and back pain, including sciatica, can be caused by a variety of reasons, not all of which originate from your spine.

Low Back Pain Diagnosis

5 steps to a lower back pain diagnosis: What will the doctor do to find out what's causing your pain? Article written and reviewed by spine surgeons.

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): Aftermath and Diagnosis

The spinal cord does not have to be severed for function or sensation to be lost. Cord injuries usually fall into one of the following categories...

Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: Symptoms and Diagnosis

Serial x-rays (radiographs) of the lumbar spine may be helpful to establish a diagnosis of isthmic spondylolisthesis. These x-rays are taken over a period of several years.

Exams and Tests for Spinal Stenosis

Diagnosing spinal stenosis can be difficult because symptoms can mimic those of other conditions. Learn about the various exams and tests used to diagnose spinal stenosis.

Exams and Tests for Spinal Cord Injury

Sometimes the extent of a spinal cord injury is not obvious. That is why it is important to dial 911 first and keep the patient still to avoid further spine or spinal cord damage.

Exams and Tests for Spinal Fractures

If you've been in a car accident or injured your back some other way, you should make an appointment to see your doctor. Even if you don't have pain, you may still have a spinal fracture.

Exams and Tests for Whiplash

Even if you just have minor neck pain after an injury causing whiplash, you should see your doctor or a spine specialist.

Savella Gets Good Marks for Treating Fibromyalgia

Milnacipran (Savella) effectively reduces the pain of fibromyalgia, according to 2010 research. Article reviews its use in fibromyalgia treatment.

Alternative Treatments for Fibromyalgia

Thinking about trying alternative treatments for fibromyalgia relief? Learn which alternative treatments may work for you.

Common Spinal Stenosis Questions

Many people aged 50 and older suffer from spinal stenosis. Could you be at risk for developing spinal stenosis? Here, we present the top 5 questions most patients ask about spinal stenosis and the answers.

Higher Complication Rate for Older Spine Surgery Patients

Read this article to learn about a study that suggests older patients who have complex spinal fusions for lumbar spinal stenosis experience a higher risk of complications and have higher medical expenses than patients who have decompression surgery.

Back Pain and Stretching Exercises

For people with back pain, stretching exercises are especially important because they can help reduce back pain and may even help prevent future episodes of pain or injury.

Surgery for Spinal Stenosis: Video

Watch this video to learn about your surgical options to relieve pain caused by spinal stenosis. Dr. Jeffrey Wang, Chief of the UCLA Spine Service, discusses the various types of surgeries.

Surgery for Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis surgery is performed to relieve neck or low back pain by decompressing the nerves and/or spinal cord. Laminectomy, laminotomy, foraminotomy are 3 types of procedures that may include spinal fusion or stabilization.

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Treated Using Minimally Invasive Microsurgical Techniques

Read this article from spine surgeons on microendoscopic laminectomy, a minimally invasive spine surgery option for spinal stenosis. Should you have it, or open spine surgery?

Cervical Spinal Stenosis: Patient History and Case

Cervical spinal stenosis patient case details an older woman's symptoms, diagnosis and surgical treatment. Includes potential surgical risks, complications, and outcome.

Non-surgical Treatment for Spinal Stenosis

Dr. Jeffrey Wang reviews non-surgical treatment options for spinal stenosis pain and symptoms affecting the neck and back.

Spinal Stenosis Prevention

Preventing spinal stenosis includes regular exercise and proper body mechanics. You can't stop age-related risks, but being active may reduce the chance for neck or low back spinal stenosis symptoms to worsen.

McKenzie Method for Spinal Stenosis

Treatment of spinal stenosis may include the McKenzie Method. The practitioner teaches you how to walk in a slightly forward flexed position so low back pain doesn't prevent you from walking longer distances; a common problem with spinal stenosis.

Exams and Tests for Spinal Stenosis: Video

Learn how spinal stenosis is diagnosed. Doctor Jeffrey Wang, an orthopaedic spine surgeon, explains the examination and tests, such as x-rays needed to make an accurate diagnosis of the cause of cervical or lumbar spinal stenosis.

Video: Causes of Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is commonly caused by age-related degenerative changes in the spine, such as osteoarthritis. In this video, Dr. Jeffrey Wang illustrates and explains structural spinal changes and development of low back spinal stenosis.

Common Terms for Spinal Stenosis

Jeffrey Wang, MD, explains medical terms about spinal stenosis, a nerve compression disorder that causes back and neck pain. In this video, see anatomical spinal structures and how they relate to spinal stenosis.

Spinal Stenosis Overview

Spinal stenosis video hosted by orthopaedic spine surgeon, Jeffrey Wang, MD, who provides an overview of this disorder that can cause back and neck pain.

Exams and Tests for Back Pain

To diagnose the cause of your back pain, your doctor will need to do several tests.

Fashion and Back Pain

Your stilettos may look killer now, but the back pain that could follow may make you wish you kept the shoes in the box.

Facet Injections for Low Back Pain

Learn the goal of facet joint injections for low back pain. When should this be recommended? Pain specialist-written article.

New Surgical Treatments for Scoliosis: Vertebral Body Stapling and Wedge Osteotomies

Vertebral stapling avoids the need to fuse the spine to correct the curvature. Therefore, movement and flexibility can be maintained, allowing for preserved motion and less chance for back pain in adulthood.

Spinal Stenosis: Neck and Back Nerve Compression

Spinal stenosis usually affects the cervical (neck) or lumbar (low back) spine. Progressive degenerative changes in the spine can sometime cause this disorder to develop.

Non-surgical Treatments for Spondylolisthesis

Most patients with a spondylolisthesis will not need spine surgery to treat this low back problem. Information about 6 nonsurgical treatments is offered.


Spondylolisthesis is a disorder where one vertebra slips over the adjacent vertebra. This disorder primarily affects the elderly as a degenerative disease but can be congenital or discovered early in life.

Spondylolisthesis; Surgical Procedures, Preparation, and Postoperative Care

Be prepared for surgery with this article, which covers all aspects of before, during, and after your procedure. An excellent article for anyone who has questions about what happens once you get to the hospital.

Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: Adult Slip Progression

In the last decade, adult onset slip progression, spondylolisthesis, was recognized and described in the medical literature as a distinct clinical entity causing severe incapacitating back and leg pain.

Facts and Tips about Spondylolisthesis

True or false? Spondylolisthesis is a common cause of back pain in teenagers. Article provides facts and tips about spondylolisthesis.

What is Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis can be present at birth, develop during childhood or later in life. The disorder may result from the physical stresses to the spine from carrying heavy things, weightlifting, gymnastics, and general wear and tear.

Spondylolisthesis Prevention and Relief

There are numerous things you can do to help prevent spondylolisthesis and improve the health of your spine. Get 10 tips that can help prevent and relieve spondylolisthesis.

Tackling Ankylosing Spondylitis Complications

A new study published online in October 2012 confirms that people with ankylosing sypondylitis are at risk for complications such as sleep problems, depression, and anxiety. Learn how to get help.

Arthritis: Hope, But No Miracles

Although no miracle cures are out there, treatment and management of this disease is possible.

Spondylosis (Spinal Arthritis): Reduce Back and Neck Pain

Most cases of spondylosis (also called spinal arthritis and spinal osteoarthritis) are mild and can be treated with non-surgical treatments.

Modern Treatments for Arthritis

Learn all about modern arthritis treatments including disease modifiers, biologics that block cytokines, joint replacement, arthroplasty, and hydroxylapatite.

Non-surgical Treatments for Spondylosis

Most spondylosis patients respond well to nonsurgical treatments such as medication, physical therapy, and chiropractic care.

Spondylosis Prevention and Relief

You cannot stop your body from growing older, but you can do a lot to improve the health of your spine.

Arthritis Support and Education: Avoiding Fraud

Learn all about support groups for arthritis sufferers, as well as avoiding fraudulent miracle cures that arthritis sufferers spend millions on each year."

Rest: A Treatment Option for Spondylolisthesis

Doctors no longer recommend extensive bed rest for back pain caused by spondylolisthesis. They may suggest 2 to 3 days of rest, and you may need to take a break from activities that make back pain worse.

Symptoms of Kyphosis

The easiest-to-recognize symptom of kyphosis is a rounded back. The extreme curve in your upper spine will cause you to hunch forward, but there are other symptoms, including potentially severe back pain.

Back Pain Prevention and Relief

Many helpful tips about body mechanics and posture are presented to help back pain patients prevent injury.

A Healthy Weight May Limit Osteoporotic Fracture Risk

Osteoporosis research showed that your weight affects your risk for vertebral fractures. But it's not as obvious a connection as you think.

Surgery for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

There are a few scenarios where surgery may be recommended. Learn more in this article.

Types of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) occurs in several forms. Pauciarticular is the most common. Polyarticular JIA is more like the adult version rheumatoid arthritis. Systemic JIA is the third type. Learn the differences among the 3 types.

Causes of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

The medical community isn't sure what causes juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). They know it's an autoimmune disease; the immune system turns against the body and attacks healthy tissues. That's what causes joint inflammation associated with JIA.

Drugs and Medications for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

There are several medication options for juvenile idiopathic arthritis.Get an overview of JIA medications in this article.

What Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis?

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is arthritis that causes joint inflammation and stiffness for more than 6 weeks in a child of 16 years of age or less. There are several types of JIA, and this article gives an overview.

Video: Symptoms of Spinal Stenosis

To understand symptoms associated with spinal stenosis, watch this video. Dr. Jeffrey Wang explains the pain and other symptoms in straightforward language.

Spinal Stenosis: Non-operative Treatment

Few patients require spine surgery to treat the symptoms caused by spinal stenosis. There are several non-surgical treatment options, and you can learn more about them in this article.

Cervical Spine Surgery: Will You Need Surgery for Your Neck Pain?

You may require cervical spine surgery to address your neck pain. Expert-written article explaining all surgical techniques in clear language.

Surgery for Degenerative Disc Disease

If you need surgery to deal with the pain and other symptoms of degenerative disc disease, your surgeon will recommend the best procedure. Read this article to learn about several common surgical options.

Drugs, Medications, and Spinal Injections for Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative disc disease is a common spinal disorder that can cause neck or low back pain. Patients and their doctors have many different types of medications to choose from, including spinal injection therapies.

5 Harmful Habits for Your Spine

5 harmful habits that can lead to back pain: learn what they are in this article so that you can prevent back pain.

Drugs and Medications for Chronic Neck and Back Pain

Article explains typically prescribed drugs and how they help.

Infections of the Spine

Certain factors increase your risk of developing spinal infections. Risk factors include, smoking, obesity, diabetes, and arthritis.

Drugs and Medications for Spinal Cord Injury

Drugs and medications may be used to treat spinal cord injury. Different medications are used for the primary injury and for the secondary conditions that can develop. What you're prescribed depends on your symptoms and specific injury.

Surgery for Spinal Cord Injury

The surgeon will make the best recommendation about surgery following a spinal cord injury (SCI). That includes the type of surgery used and when it will be done. Surgery performed after an SCI may include a decompression and fusion.

Spinal Bracing: A Treatment Option for Spinal Cord Injury

After a spinal cord injury (SCI), you may have to wear a brace. The type of brace depends on your injury, where it's located, and the severity of your symptoms. Read about the most commonly used braces for SCI, including halo rings.

Spinal Cord Injury Treatments

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is made up of two parts: the primary and secondary injury. A neurosurgeon explains what happens to the spine in both parts of SCI, and he reviews current treatment methods and research on developing treatments.

Common Spinal Cord Injury Questions

Does a spinal cord injury always cause paralysis? Does the cord have to be severed to be considered a true SCI? Does a broken neck automatically mean an SCI? Find answers to these and other common spinal cord injury questions.

Symptoms of a Spinal Cord Injury

The symptoms of spinal cord injury (SCI) vary from case to case, depending on the cause and location of the SCI. Symptoms range from pain to paralysis.

Rehabilitation after Spinal Cord Injury

After a spinal cord injury (SCI), you may need to go through rehabilitation to learn how to face various physical, occupational, and emotional challenges.

Anatomy of a Spinal Cord Injury

Article walks you through the anatomy of the spinal cord and the body's nerve system. Good place to start if you want to understand how a spinal cord injury affects the body.

Facts and Tips about Spinal Cord Injury

Five little-known facts about spinal cord injury (SCI), with a focus on its fascinating history.

Alternative Treatments for Degenerative Disc Disease

Alternative and integrative health providers treat degenerative disc disease with complementary therapies that may include acupuncture, herbal remedies, and prolotherapy.

What Is Spondylosis?

Spondylosis is spinal arthritis, sometimes called osteoarthritis. It's a degenerative disorder, meaning that it's another part of aging.

Spine Specialists On-Call: Paralysis - How Close Are We to Walking Again?

Medical and allied health professionals define paralysis in terms of function. Some patients have what are called incomplete spinal cord injuries.

Spinal Cord Injury: Nerve Regeneration and Stem Cells

Learn about the research being conducted at the Fehlings' Lab for neural repair and regeneration.

Home Exercise Can Improve Spinal Osteoarthritis Pain

If you have spondylosis (spinal osteoarthritis), keep up your at-home exercises after physical therapy: research shows it can help reduce your pain.

Common Spondylosis Questions

Spondylosis is arthritis that affects the spine. It is sometimes called spinal osteoarthritis.

Facts and Tips about Spondylosis

Discover facts and tips about spondylosis, which is also sometimes called spinal osteoarthritis or spinal arthritis.

Your Spine and Arthritis: 10 Ways to a Healthier Life

Here are our top 10 ways people with arthritis can stay healthy, including tips on diet, exercise, and how to sit to prevent back pain.

Arthritis: Alternative Treatments

A few common alternative treatments that many people have found to be helpful for spinal arthritis.

Arthritis: Non-surgical Treatments

Learn how exercise can help ease spinal osteoarthritis symptoms, including joint pain and stiffness, and see how it can increase flexibility, muscle strength, and endurance.

Arthritis and Your Spine

Arthritis can affect any part of the body, even the spine. The information provided in this article focuses on arthritis and the spine.

Osteoarthritis: Treatment Options

People with osteoarthritis can enjoy good health despite having this disease. Although there is no 'cure' for osteoarthritis, the symptoms can be treated.

Osteoarthritis: Commonly Affected Joints

Osteoarthritis can occur in any joint but most often occurs in the spine, hips, knees, or hands.

Osteoarthritis: Degenerative Spinal Joint Disease

Spinal osteoarthritis, also called spondylosis, affects your spinal joints and can cause back pain or neck pain. Learn the causes and symptoms of spondylosis.

Drugs, Medications, and Injections for Spondylosis

Depending on the severity of your spondylosis symptoms, the doctor will most likely have you try over-the-counter medications before you try prescription medications for spondylosis.

Anatomy of Spondylosis

Before you can understand why spondylosis causes back pain, you should understand the parts of your spine and how they work together.

Alternative Treatments for Spondylosis

You may try complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as you deal with the pain and other symptoms of spondylosis (spinal arthritis).

Muscle Relaxants in the Treatment of Acute Low Back Pain

You may have been given a muscle relaxant for your acute low back pain. Why are they used?

Acetaminophen in the Treatment of Acute Low Back Pain

For low back pain, acetaminophen can be effectively used as an analgesic (or pain killer). Doctor-written article on acetaminophen as a pain reliever for lower back pain.

Medication and Treatment of Acute Low Back Pain

A doctor reviews the most common medications used to treat acute lower back pain. What will work for your pain?

Anatomy of Whiplash

The cervical spine--your neck, is the most flexible and mobile regions of the back. Discover more about the anatomy of the neck and whiplash.

Osteoporosis: Calcium, Vitamin D, and Prevention

To repair bone and connective tissue damage, your body requires adequate amounts of certain vitamins and nutrients.

Anatomy of Osteoporosis

To understand osteoporosis, you should understand how bones grow and regenerate.

Osteoporosis Condition Center

Any bone can be affected by osteoporosis, but bone fractures of the spine—the vertebrae—are especially serious.

Bone-Building Exercise Tips for Osteoporosis

One of your best defenses against developing osteoporosis is to exercise regularly.

Physical Therapy for Osteoporosis

What you do in physical therapy is very dependent on you: the cause of your osteoporosis, your physical fitness level, your risk level for spinal fractures, and what your body can handle.

Osteoporosis: Vitamin C and Keeping Healthy

Vitamin C has recently been recognized as having an important role in the prevention of osteoporosis because of its ability to increase bone density.

Osteoporosis: Vitamin D and Vitamin K

Vitamins D and K help promote bone formation. Getting enough of each vitamin every day is crucial to keeping healthy bones throughout your life.

Osteoporosis: Trace Elements - Zinc/Copper

Learn about the importance of zinc and copper to bone health and how to take these trace elements.

What Is Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction?

Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a common cause of chronic low back pain, and often difficult to diagnose. Pain severity can interrupt your ability to perform daily activities.

Arthritis - Osteoarthritis - Rheumatoid Arthritis - Ankylosing Spondylitis - Spinal Stenosis

Most spinal disorders are known to result from soft tissue injury, structural injury, and degenerative, or congenital conditions.

Exercise for Chronic Back and Neck Pain

Ask your doctor if you should be doing certain exercises to help alleviate back and neck pain and keep your body strong.

What Works to Relieve Neck Pain?

People with neck pain caused by various cervical spine conditions need to know what helps take the hurt away.

Strength Training Exercises Can Improve Neck Pain

For women with neck (cervical) pain, weekly strength training exercises may help with pain relief. Includes easy, simple exercises to prevent neck pain.

Medications and Spinal Injections to Relieve Neck Pain

Read an overview of medications used to treat neck pain. Includes details on cervical spine injections.

Neck Pain Causes

You need to know what's causing your neck pain and potentially related symptoms. Here, SpineUniverse explains many common causes of neck pain.

Cervical Myelopathy and Spinal Cord Compression

Myelopathy occurs when the spinal cord is compressed. It can lead to neurologic symptoms, such as pain, numbness, or difficulty walking.

High-Tech Can Be a Pain in the Neck

This 21st Century problem is being called "tech neck. "You've seen people like this: shoulders hunched forward, neck straining at an uncomfortable angle.

Whiplash: A Common Neck Injury

The symptoms of whiplash may include neck pain, headache, dizziness, nausea, and in rare cases difficulty swallowing.

Symptoms of Neck Pain

To get the best treatment for your neck pain, it's important to understand the symptoms—and what they mean.

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): Damage Control and Treatment

Treatment begins with the emergency medical personnel who make an initial evaluation and immobilize the patient for transport.

Holiday Weight Gain: How the Holidays Can Cause Back Pain

What's not to love about the holiday season? Well, how about the weight you put on, thanks to all that festive food...and the possible back pain from that extra weight? Avoid back pain this holiday season by following these tips.

Risk of Inheriting Ankylosing Spondylitis

Learn about the risk of inheriting spondylitis and if you can find out whether your child will develop AS.

Mattress Selection When You Have Ankylosing Spondylitis

The right mattress can help you enhance your posture and keep a straight spine.

Surgical Management of Thoracolumbar Deformity in Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that at times may require surgery.

Causes of Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing Spondylitis possibly has a connection to certain bacteria.

Cold Weather Work May Raise Your Back and Neck Pain Risk

A recent study published online explored whether working in a low-temperature environment affected the risk of neck and lower back problems in construction workers.

Taking Charge of Your Pain: What You Can Do to Stop the Hurt

If you suffer from chronic pain, you probably have discovered that searching for effective relief can be frustrating. You need appropriate knowledge in order to make the right decisions for your emotional and physical needs.

Anatomy of the Upper Back

Your thoracic spine (your mid-back or upper back) doesn't move as much as the other parts of your spine. Learn more.

Facts and Tips about Upper Back Pain

Includes tips on what can cause pain so you know how to prevent upper back pain, also called mid-back pain.

New Technologies for Treating Sciatica and Back Pain

Radiofrequency Discal procedures, along with pain-relieving devices and spinal pumps are among the new technologies used to ease back pain and sciatica that is caused by disc problems.

Herniated and Bulging Discs

Get answers to the most common questions about herniated discs. Stewart Eidelson, MD, gives clear information that you can rely on.

Avoid Stressing Your Back

Here are some tips for avoiding stress on your spine while behind the desk at work.

What Is Upper Back Pain?

The upper back, also known as the mid-back or thoracic spine, isn't as prone to pain as the neck and low back are. Learn about the basics of upper back pain.

Physical Therapy to Relieve Upper Back Pain

A physical therapist can help you learn good posture, strengthen your spinal muscles, and improve your overall health.

Common Upper Back Pain Questions

Need to know the basics about upper back pain (or mid-back pain, as it's also called) fast? Review these commonly asked questions about upper back pain.

Treating Back Pain at Home

There are many things you can do on your own to ease your back pain. Article includes at-home treatment tips.

Finding Relief from Low Back Pain is a Challenge

What's the best way to find low back pain relief? Article reviewed by a spine expert gives you tips on the most effective lower back pain treatments.

Preventing Chronic Low Back Pain

Finding relief from chronic low back pain can be a challenge! What if it was possible to prevent some types of low back pain?

Chiropractic Care for Chronic Pain

Learn what chiropractic treatment options are available to help you manage your chronic pain.

Surgery for Neck Pain: Posterior Cervical Fusion

Dr. Dan Riew, the Chief of cervical spine surgery at Washington University, discusses this surgical technique and who it can help. A posterior cervical fusion can help relieve neck pain and other symptoms.

5 Things About World Spine Day

World Spine Day was launched to educate the public about spine conditions—and inspire them to become more active in their own health.

Interventional Pain Management for Chronic Pain: Rhizotomy, Spinal Cord Stimulation, and Spinal Pumps

There are several interventional pain management techniques you can try to deal with chronic back pain.

Oxygen-Ozone Treatment for Herniated Discs

Oxygen-ozone therapy to treat herniated disc is less prevalent in the United States because some in the medical community believe more research is needed.

Causes of a Spinal Cord Injury

Auto or motorcycle accidents are the leading cause of SCI, according to the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center (NSCISC).

Physical Therapy to Relieve Back Pain

Read about what your physical therapist may use as he or she works to reduce your back pain.

Obese Children at Risk for Spinal Disorders

A new study suggests that obese children are at risk for developing lumbar spine (low back) disorders. The study found that children with high body mass indexes tend are more likely to have spinal disorders than those who are a healthy weight.

How Pope Francis Manages His Sciatica Pain

Reports reveal that Pope Francis has been receiving spinal injections and massage therapy to help manage his sciatica.

Back Pain and Obesity

Obesity is a contributing factor to back pain and is associated with symptoms of spinal stenosis and degenerative disc disease.

Facts and Tips about Rheumatoid Arthritis

Fast facts about rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including how many people in the US have it. If you want to know the basic facts about RA, start here.

Common Whiplash Questions

Four of the most common whiplash questions that people ask are presented here along with the answers.

Pain Primer: Scientific Research into Painkillers

Scientists are working to develop potent pain-killing drugs that act on pain receptors. Many less toxic compounds that are more potent than morphine, but without its addictive properties are under investigation.

Pain Primer: What Do We Know About Pain?

Pain is a complicated process that involves an intricate interplay between a number of important chemicals naturally found in the brain and spinal cord.

Sciatica Causes Olivia Newton-John to Postpone Performances

Olivia Newton-John suffers with sciatica causing her to postpone performances. Sciatica's hallmark symptoms include back and leg pain.

FDA Issues Warning for Some Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Drugs

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that a class of drugs commonly used to treat juvenile Idiopathic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis may increase the risk of some cancers.

Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Acute Low Back Pain

Focus on corticosteroids for acute low back pain: Will they relieve your pain?

Symptoms of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Often, children have a lot of pain in the morning or after a nap. Review other typical JIA symptoms.

Living with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Part 2

Most children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis get through school just fine; they just have to take a few precautions.

Living with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Part 1

It can be tough to be a child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. At a time when no one wants to be different, this diagnosis sets children apart. Tips on how to help your child cope with and accept JIA.

Exercise and Physical Therapy for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

An exercise plan, developed by a physical therapist, is an important part of treating juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Children need to keep their joints moveable and their muscles strong.

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Research

Researchers suspect that both genetic and environmental factors are involved in development of the disease and they are studying these factors in detail.

Neck Pain Video Series

A spine expert, Dr. K. Daniel Riew, explains everything you need to know about neck. He reviews the symptoms, causes, and treatments for various types of neck pain in this engaging video series.

Men and Osteoporosis

Twelve million American men over the age of 50 are at risk for developing osteoporosis.

Spinal Fractures: References

References to the article "Spinal Fractures: The Three-Column Concept" by Teri L. Holwerda, MSN, RN, ONC, APRN-BC.

Spinal Fractures: Stability and Treatment Options

Treatment of stable spinal fractures usually involves immobilization using a back brace, brief bed rest, and pain medications as necessary.

Spinal Fractures: The Three-Column Concept

Since the human spine is a complex structure, spine surgeons need to be very careful in diagnosing exactly where a fracture occurs.

Surgery for Spinal Fractures

The surgeon will make the best recommendation for surgery: whether you need it and what type of surgery you need.

Causes of Spinal Fractures

Trauma, such as a car accident or a sports injury, can cause spinal fractures. However, they're also related to conditions that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis.

Alexander Technique for Chronic Back Pain

The Alexander technique, may help patients with chronic or recurring low back pain.

David Wright Back at Bat Managing Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

The home run, the win, even the feeling of being back in a major league uniform for the first time since being diagnosed with spinal stenosis – it all left him fighting back tears at points in the game.

Treatments for Degenerative Disc Disease

When medical attention is needed, the majority of patients respond well to non-surgical forms of treatment.

Idiopathic Childhood Scoliosis and Billiards’ Champion Black Widow Jeanette Lee

Jeanette Lee’s first success was dealing with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This billiards champion shares her story and why she’s a spokesperson for the Scoliosis Association.

Spine Patients and Internet Use

This article will help Internet users to develop a critical eye when viewing sites purporting to offer reliable medical information.

Spinal Inflammatory Arthritis and Osteoporosis

Sometimes treatment for rheumatoid arthritis or other spinal inflammatory disorders increases the risk for osteoporosis.

Spine Surgery and Spinal Inflammatory Arthritis

Uncontrollable pain and spinal deformity are two complications of spinal inflammatory arthritis that may require surgical treatment.

Conclusion: Acute Low Back Pain and Medication

How do you know which medication(s) is best to treat your neck or low back pain? Learn more.

Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) in the Treatment of Acute Low Back Pain

Should you try NSAIDs for acute lower back pain? Article filled with medical research and written by a pain management specialist.

Colchicine in the Treatment of Acute Low Back Pain

Colchicine is normally used for gout: can it really help with acute low back pain? Learn in this pain management specialist-written article.

Scoliosis Surgery: Approaches and Procedures

Baron Lonner, MD, a spine surgeon, gives details on all spine surgery procedures used to treat scoliosis. Educate yourself about scoliosis surgery options.

Kyphosis Surgery

The goal of spine surgery to correct kyphosis is to restore the spine to normal kyphosis, which is a curve between 20 and 50 degrees.

Images of Scoliosis Curves

See x-rays of scoliosis curves. What does your curve look like?

Sciatica: Treatment and Recovery

Sciatica is a painful symptom indicating compression of the sciatic nerve. Learn how this condition can be treated without spine surgery.

Artificial Discs and Degenerative Disc Disease

Artificial Discs and Degenerative Disc Disease, an interview with Kevin Foley, M.D.

Low Back Disc Disease and Herniated Discs

Lumbar herniated discs can cause lower back pain and sciatica. Article (written by a leading spine surgeon) includes table showing nerve-related symptoms.

Spinal Curvature Problems: Fixed Sagittal Imbalance

Fixed sagittal imbalance simply means that the spine is curved in a way that prevents someone from standing up straight. An educational article that includes before and after surgery x-rays and photos so that you can see the difference in posture.

Idiopathic Scoliosis: Options of Fixation and Fusion of Thoracic Curves

A leading spinal deformity surgeon reviews current options for treating thoracic scoliosis. Includes images so you can see what the curves and spinal instrumentation look like.

Spinal Tumors

Knowing the type of tumor, where it's located in the spine, and if it's cancerous helps decide on the best course of action for treatment.

Herniated Disc Treatment

Learn about herniated disc treatment options. Includes both non-surgical and surgical treatments.

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation

Watch this fascinating video about a cervical spine surgery option: anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with instrumentation.

Whiplash: Treatment and Recovery

Conservative treatment includes use of pain, anti-inflammatory, and muscle relaxant medications; and physical therapy.

Video: Surgery for Degenerative Disc Disease

Dr. Richard Fessler, a neurosurgeon and proponent of minimally invasive surgery, discusses the various types of surgeries.

General Back-Saving Tips

The following list of tips will help you maintain the health of your spine in various aspects of your life. Article covers ways to protect your back while traveling and at home.

Strengthening Exercises for Back Pain

Stretching and strengthening the muscles in your back helps improve the health of your spine. A physical fitness program including a variety of exercises can make your back capable of handling unforeseeable stresses.

Creative, Everyday Exercises to Strengthen Your Back

Exercises that increase the strength of abdomen and back muscles (both upper and lower) will make you more able to resist back injury. This article features alternative exercises that can be practiced throughout your day to strengthen your spine.

Back-strengthening Fitness Routine: Part 2

This article is a part of the exercise program described in Back-strengthening Routine: Part 1. These exercises can improve your flexibility and overall spine health. For optimal results, they should be performed twice a day, 15 minutes at a time.

Back-strengthening Fitness Routine: Part 1

The following program includes exercises to help strengthen your back. These exercises, combined with aerobic exercises, proper nutrition, and good posture habits can dramatically improve your flexibility and overall health.

Surgery for Neck Pain: Artificial Disc Replacement

Watch this video to learn about one cervical spine surgery option: artificial disc replacement.

Surgery for Neck Pain: Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

Dr. Dan Riew is a trustworthy source when it comes to reviewing your surgical options for neck pain.

Sciatica Surgery

One of the most common surgeries to relieve sciatica caused by a herniated disc is a discectomy. Dr. Vaccaro explains that this can be done with a minimally invasive procedure.

Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers

Cancer that arises in the bone (primary bone cancer) is not the same disease as cancer that spreads to the bone from another part of the body (secondary bone cancer).

Osteoporosis and Vertebral Compression Fractures: What’s the Connection?

In people with osteoporosis, spinal fractures are more common than hip and wrist fractures. The pain from a vertebral compression fracture can be unbearable and lead to a significant reduction in quality of life.

Don't Ignore a Child Complaining of Back Pain

In one-third of the cases where a child complains of back pain, there turns out to be a serious reason for the complaint whether it be injury, infection, or tumor.

Tips for Neck Pain Prevention

9 tips on how to prevent neck pain from SpineUniverse. You can start today to stop neck pain before it even begins.

Osteoporosis Overview

Osteoporosis is the silent bone thinning disease affecting both men and women. This complete article, by Thomas Lowe, MD will help you to better understand this disorder.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment on the Horizon as FDA Approves Erelzi

Read about a new FDA approved medication option for patients with inflammatory joint disease.

Alternative Treatments for Chronic Pain

Many patients find chronic pain relief from complimentary and alternative medicines (CAM). Depending on your type of chronic pain, you may want to try acupuncture or herbal remedies. Massage is also a good treatment option for chronic pain.

Vertebroplasty: A Case Study

Compression fractures (osteoporosis) may be treated using a procedure called vertebroplasty. This article helps patients to know what to expect and includes a case study.

Vertebral Wedge Fracture

A wedge fracture is a vertebral compression fracture occurring anteriorly (front) or laterally (side). Viewed, the affected vertebra resembles a wedge.

High Thoracic Pathological Fractures

This interesting patient case report includes the surgical management of posterior thoracic pain caused by a vertebral fracture.

Discitis: Disc Space Infection

Discitis, or disc space infection, is an inflammatory lesion of the intervertebral disc that occurs in adults but more commonly in children.

Surgery for Scoliosis

This article reviews the basics of spine surgery for scoliosis in children and adults.

Non-surgical Treatment of Whiplash

Nonsurgical whiplash treatments include chiropractic adjustment, physical therapy, and pain medication.

Spinal Bracing: A Treatment Option for Spinal Tumors

A brace will not treat a spinal tumor; it's not able to make it shrink. However, your doctor may suggest a brace to help you deal with pain caused by the tumor.

Fall Prevention Benefits All Age Groups

Injuries resulting from falls are a leading cause of back pain in North America. Be pro-active!

Kyphosis and Scheuermann's Disease

Scheuermann's disease is a type of kyphosis that occurs when healthy vertebral become wedge shaped.

Spinal Fractures - Spondylolisthesis - Scoliosis - Kyphosis - Lordosis

Injury, aging, general health, and lifestyle may influence the development of some conditions. Most spinal disorders are known to result from soft tissue injury, structural injury, and degenerative, or congenital conditions.

Common Back Pain Questions

This article answers common back pain questions, such as "I just injured my back, but it doesn't hurt enough to go to the doctor. What can I do?"

Anatomy of Chronic Pain

Nerves are what enable us to feel pain, so if you have chronic pain, there's probably something wrong with your nerves.

Facts and Tips about Whiplash

Did you know the symptoms of whiplash may take a while to develop? That fact, along with others, will help you to better understand whiplash.

Spinal Bracing: A Treatment Option for Whiplash

For whiplash, the typical first treatment is a cervical collar or brace. That will support your spine and head as the soft tissues heal.

Non-surgical Treatment for Neck Pain

Dr. Dan Riew reviews your non-surgical treatment options for neck pain in this short (but very informative) video.

Cervical Facet Joint Pain Treatment

One cause of chronic neck pain is dysfunction or disease affecting the cervical facet joints.

Why a Tailored Treatment Plan May Help Your Neck Pain

Learn about an approach in which the amount of treatment you need for your neck pain, is determined at the start of every doctor’s visit.

Burst Fractures: Treatment and Recovery

A vertebral burst fracture can cause extreme pain and requires immediate professional medical assistance.

Pain Dictionary for Patients

A dictionary of terms associated with back pain for patients.

Spinal Tumors: Surgery and Recovery

Spine surgery may be necessary to remove a tumor to reduce pain and alleviate neurologic dysfunction.

About the Back and Back Problems: Introduction

Information to help you learn more about acute low back problems, what to do, and what to expect when you see a health care provider.

Lower Back Pain Treatments

Lower back pain treatments overview from a spine specialist: medications, physical therapy, and spine surgery. What will help with your low back pain?

Statins and the Spine

The anti-cholesterol drug lovastatin (Mevacor) may improve degenerative disc disease surgical outcomes, according to a recent study.

Want to Fix Your Back Pain?

How well you get along with your physical therapist may determine how much lower back pain relief you experience: read results on this interesting low back pain study here.

Back Pain: A Universal Language

Many different conditions can cause neck and back pain such as whiplash, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, spinal stenosis, and herniated discs. This article includes information about these disorders.

Some Surgery Benefits May Exclude Workers' Comp Patients

A study suggests that herniated disc surgery improves pain levels for most patients, but it doesn't appear to provide any added benefits compared to non-surgical treatments for patients receiving workers' compensation. Learn more in this article.

Surgeons Less Likely to Deem Surgery the Best Treatment

Research revealed that spine surgeons were less likely to recommend spine surgery, compared to patients and family doctors. The researchers also evaluated the factors that each group found most important in recommending surgery.

Drugs, Medications, and Spinal Injections to Relieve Back Pain

Learn the basics of what medications are prescribed and the different medications for acute and chronic back pain.

FDA Statement on the Halting of a Clinical Trial of the Cox-2 Inhibitor Celebrex

The FDA's statement regarding the halting of a clinical trial on Celebrex, a COX-2 inhibitor used to treat osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Facts and Tips about Spinal Tumors

Spinal tumors (both benign and malignant) are rare. That's the first fact you should know about them. Here's a collection of other facts and tips about spinal tumors, including treatment pointers.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Research and Treatment Updates

Article includes current rheumatoid arthritis advances, research, and treatment information. Contains links to learn more information about what's going on in RA news today.

Study: Stereotactic Body Radiosurgery for Metastatic Spinal Tumors

A patient-friendly explanation of study on the effectiveness of stereotactic body radiosurgery on patients with metastatic spinal tumors.

Osteoporosis and Spinal Fractures: Recovery and Wellness

Steps to help you avoid osteoporosis or recover if you are undergoing treatment. Discusses the importance of what you eat (your diet should be calcium-rich, for one) and how often you exercise.

Radiation Therapy for Spinal Tumors

Radiation for spinal tumors has one goal: to destroy the tumor. It can also be used before surgery to shrink the tumor. Article details how radiation is used, its effectiveness, and possible side effects (and how to deal with those).

Common Terms for Degenerative Disc Disease

Dr. Richard Fessler, a neurosurgeon, reviews several common terms you may hear your doctor use when talking about degenerative disc disease. This short video will help you be an informed patient and more fully understand your condition.

Pain Syndromes and Disorders: Arachnoiditis to Myofascial Pain

Pain comes in many forms—from sharp, fleeting pain to chronic pain. This article explains many causes of pain, especially pain related to the spine and spinal components. Read this to understand how pain varies.

Are You at Risk for Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a disease that mostly affects women but men and younger people of all ethnic backgrounds are at risk, too. Knowing your risks is important to prevention.

Magnet Use in Pain Treatment: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Fibromyalgia

People use magnets to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia. In a 1999 survey, magnet used was the second most commonly used CAM therapy after chiropractic.

Tips to Avoid Back Pain at the Table

The meal is the highlight of Thanksgiving, so it makes sense that we spend hours around the table. Watch your posture as you're sitting and talking. Also, find out why it's best to pace yourself while eating the big meal.

Facts and Tips about Chronic Pain

Quick facts and tips about chronic pain. Learn how it's defined, how it's treated, and whether or not you should exercise when you have chronic pain.

The Economic Crisis and Back Pain

Americans aren't good at dealing with stress, and with the current economic crisis, we're all stressed out. Stress leads to more back and neck pain as we start to feel that we're carrying the weight of the world. Learn stress-relieving tips.

Back Pain Exercise Video: Piriformis Stretch

A tight piriformis muscle can cause sciatica, pain that radiates from your back and down your leg. Do this piriformis stretch to help relieve that sciatic pain.

Management of Isthmic Spondylolisthesis in Adults

The use of modern spinal instrumentation eliminates the need for post-operative bracing. Soon after surgery, the patient can get on his feet and walk, as tolerated.

Spine Treatments in the News

Can you trust what you hear on the TV about back pain treatment options? Research and cutting edge treatments do make the news, so it's up to you to do your own research after hearing a news segment about spine treatments.

Chiropractic Care for Back Pain

Your chiropractor can determine the cause of your back pain and develop a treatment plan for you. Article explains the various chiropractic care treatment options for back pain.

Spinal Cord Injury: Treating Paralysis

Treatment in a rehab center is geared towards helping the patient maximize their ability to function and to prevent complications that typically occur with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Learn the typical treatments for SCI.

Airbags + Seat Belts = Spine Protection

Motor vehicle accidents are the number one cause of spinal cord injury.

Vertebral Compression Fractures (VCFs): Clinical Study Supports the Benefits of Balloon Kyphoplasty

SpineUniverse presents Dr. Steven Garfin's comments about vertebral compression fractures and balloon kyphoplasty.

Discharge Instructions for Vertebroplasty

Vertebroplasty discharge instructions. These discharge instructions are printed with permission from Todd Albert, M.D. of the Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University.

Non-surgical Treatment of Osteoporosis

Drugs classified as bisphosphonates can help to slow the breakdown of bone often associated with osteoporosis.


Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease where bone mass and density are lost making bones extremely susceptible to fractures.

Vertebroplasty: Effective Treatment for Painful Vertebral Compressive Fractures

People suffering from persistent back pain caused by vertebral compression fractures are potential candidates for vertebroplasty.

Osteoporosis Research and Treatment Updates

Article includes current osteoporosis advances, research, and treatment information. Contains links to help you learn more and stay up-to-date on the latest in osteoporosis news today.

Osteoporosis Treatment and Pain Management

Osteoporosis can be painful and there are many options available to patients from pain management specialists.

Osteoporosis: Risks and Diagnostic Steps

Although osteoporosis cannot be cured, early diagnosis is important to halting disease progression.

Vertebral Fractures and Vertebroplasty

The term vertebroplasty refers to percutaneous (through the skin) structural reinforcement of the vertebral body using a special cement-like substance called ?polymethylmethacrylate acrylic cement? (PMMA).

Smoking and Osteoporosis

That cigarette could be putting you at risk for osteoporosis. Find out how smoking affects your bones and why you should stop if you want to have healthy bones, especially if you're a woman.

New Osteoporosis Drug Prevents Fractures and Breast Cancer

A new osteoporosis drug that may prevent fractures, heart disease, stroke, and cut the risk of certain breast cancers may be on the horizon. This article describes a 2010 study that highlights the risks and benefits of this medication.

Inhibiting Serotonin in the Gut May Cure Osteoporosis

Researchers found that a once-daily pill that prevents the release of serotonin in the digestive system may cure osteoporosis. While most osteoporosis treatments only prevent bone loss, this investigational drug actually helps build bone.

Pain Syndromes: Neuropathic Pain through Vascular Disease

Neuropathic pain and sciatica are just two types of pain disorders that can affect the spine. These and other pain syndromes are discussed in detail including how these disorders cause discomfort.

Oral Contraceptive Use Linked to Back Pain

Do oral contraceptives lead to more back pain in women? A women's spine specialist explains the possible link between the pill and low back pain. The basic reason: it's the estrogen. Learn what the extra estrogen does to your body.

Pain: Hope Through Research

Back or neck pain may be new to you, but in this brief history you will learn how pain affected ancient civilizations as well as how current medicine differentiates between acute and chronic pain.

Back Pain and a Healthy Sex Life

Believe it or not, there are ways to manage your back pain and prevent it from interfering with intimacy between you and your partner. Here are some tips to help you reclaim an active sex life and get back to business in the bedroom, despite the pain.

Is the Facet Syndrome a Myth?

Lumbar facet syndrome is a convenient diagnosis for mechanical low back pain, but is it real or is the facet syndrome a myth? Learn about facet syndrome and why some doctors believe it does not exist.

Treatments for Back Pain Relief

Chronic pain is different from acute pain and often has to be managed over time with multiple and/or combined treatments.

Back Pain Research and Treatment Updates

Article includes links to back pain research and treatment updates. As new findings are released, this page will be updated to include the most recent information. The goal is to help you learn about your condition and become a more informed patient.

Back and Neck Pain: Common Causes

Back and neck pain can be caused by many spinal disorders such as a herniated or ruptured disc, compression fracture, stenosis, and infection. These disorders, including sciatica are explained.

What is the Role of Age and Gender in Pain?

It is now widely believed that pain affects men and women differently. Researchers have learned that sex hormones, culture, and psychology play a part.

Pain in Aging and Pediatric Populations: Special Needs and Concerns

Pain in younger patients requires special attention, particularly because children are not always able to describe the degree of pain they are experiencing.

Low Back and Pelvic Pain Treated Non-surgically with Progressive Resistance Exercise

Progressive resistance exercise helps patients with low back and pelvic pain to reach their rehab goals by gradually challenging muscles to strengthen. Should you try this?

Memo to Airlines: Travelers Would Pay More to Avoid In-flight Back Pain

A SpineUniverse survey found that 75% of people are willing to pay more for a more spine-friendly seat. Will the airlines listen and create a seat that gives support, not back pain?

Anatomy of Back Pain

Understanding why you have back pain starts with understanding the parts of your spine. This article provides an informative overview of the vertebrae, joints, muscles, and nerves that make up your backbone.

The Effect of Flying on Back and Neck Pain: Survey Results

Read the full SpineUniverse survey results on airplane travel and its effect on back and/or neck pain. Basic result: it hurts to fly, but what can travelers do to make themselves more comfortable -- and less likely to step off the plane in pain?

2010 American College of Rheumatology Fibromyalgia Diagnostic Criteria

Learn about a new way of diagnosing fibromyalgia here. Researchers found that using a widespread pain index and a measurement of the number and severity of symptoms leads to a more accurate diagnosis than the commonly used tender point exam.

Can Chiropractic Reverse Cervical Disc Degeneration?

While your chiropractor can't reverse your cervical disc degeneration, he or she can help reduce your pain and improve your quality of life. Other conservative treatments, such as traction, can also help improve neck function and disc health.

Symptoms of Back Pain

There are various ways to feel back pain and your symptoms depend on what is causing your pain.

What is Ankylosing Spondylitis?

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pain and progressive stiffness. It mainly affects the spine, but it can affect other areas of the body, too. Get an overview of this spinal condition here.

Study: Vertebroplasty Similar to Placebo

A study released in the New England Journal of Medicine found that vertebroplasty delivered similar results as a placebo procedure. The results were based on 131 patients who received either actual vertebroplasty treatment or fake vertebroplasty.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Drug Affects Potency of Flu Vaccine

A study published in January 2010 reported that the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) drug rituximab (marketed as Rituxan) lowers the effectiveness of flu shots. Despite the findings, the researchers still encourage patients with RA to get vaccinated.

Blood Test May Predict Rheumatoid Arthritis

A study found that spiked levels of proteins in the blood, known as cytokines, may predict rheumatoid arthritis. The researchers used a blood test and found that patients with RA have high levels of proteins that can be measured years in advance.

Is Rheumatoid Arthritis Prevention on the Horizon?

Researchers created a treatment to potentially prevent or reverse rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by imitating a molecule that causes attacking immune cells to self-destruct. The findings may help develop a new class of rheumatoid arthritis medications.

Study Suggests that Obesity Is Linked to Arthritis

The prevalence of arthritis in America may be attributed to a high rate of obesity, according to a study that compared arthritis prevalence in the US and Canada. Learn more about the study and why weight management is so important in this article.

Substance in the Tequila Plant May Help Curb Osteoporosis

It’s well known that calcium is good for your bones, but new research shows that an ingredient in the agave plant (which is used to make tequila) helps your body better use calcium to promote bone health and prevent osteoporosis. Learn more here.

Alcohol Slows Rheumatoid Arthritis Progression

A 2010 study published online in Arthritis & Rheumatism shows that alcohol consumption reduces your risk for developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and slows its progression if you do have the disease, but only if you drink moderately.

Is Vitamin D Deficiency a Risk Factor for Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Read this article to learn why women living in the northeastern United States are more susceptible to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A 2010 study suggests this is because the demographic absorbs less vitamin D, as northern climates have less sunlight.

Therapy Helps Chronic Back Pain Patients Sleep Easier

Findings show that behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for chronic pain patients who suffer from sleep disorders. People with chronic back or neck pain often have sleep problems, and this article has more information about this therapy.

Rheumatoid Arthritis and Accelerated Aging

People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) age faster than those who don't have the disease. New findings from Mayo Clinic researchers suggest that this is associated with shorter life expectancies in those with RA. Learn more in this article.

Opioids and Chronic Pain

The Annals of Internal Medicine featured a study that examined the association between long-term opioid use in patients with chronic pain and the increasing rate of opioid overdose. Though the study raises concerns, opioids can be a safe treatment.

Surgery and Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Study

A patient-friendly explanation of study on surgery's effectiveness on patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

Joint Fusion Procedure Shows Pain-relieving Potential

Results from two studies presented at the American Academy of Pain Medicine's Annual Meeting show that minimally invasive joint fusion surgery and spinal cord stimulation effectively relieve back pain. Article includes information on these treatments.

How Effective is Vertebroplasty?

A study released in the New England Journal of Medicine found that vertebroplasty delivered similar results as a placebo procedure. Article includes a spine professional’s response about the significance of the findings.

Should You Try Pilates for Lower Back Pain?

Researchers in Brazil set out to test the usefulness of Pilates in the treatment of lower back pain. Check out the results of this recent study.

Chronic Neck Pain? Try Yoga

In a recent study, researchers in Germany set out to explore whether yoga is effective in the treatment of chronic neck pain

Back Pain Tips for Expectant Mothers

In a recent study, researchers set out to understand what types of treatments best benefit pregnant women and help reduce their levels of lower back pain.

Americans in Pain: Part 1

When Americans were asked about back pain, a national health care issue, they responded along party lines. Who should fix this pervasive problem? Democrats say the government; Republicans respectfully disagree. Read other intriguing survey results.

Americans in Pain: Part 3

Survey results: America should invest in more research in order to prevent back and neck pain. Other ideas include universal health coverage (that's what Democrats think would fix our backs) and encouraging weight loss (so say Republicans).

Americans in Pain: Part 2

Survey results: Americans say that work is the #1 cause of back and neck pain. Our career-focused lifestyle seems to promote poor posture and a lack of good ergonomic principles. Includes tips on how to avoid back pain and neck pain at wo

Americans in Pain: Part 4

Survey results: who should pay to fix America's pervasive back and neck pain issues? The country is split. Some say the government; some say insurance companies. Any other ideas?

The Olympics Caused My Back Pain

I didn't know watching the Olympics could be so painful...for my spine. For four hours I sat slumped on the couch, and my bad posture led to back pain. Here's some back stretches and exercises I should've done to help prevent muscle tension.

Facts and Tips about Osteoporosis

Approximately 700,000 vertebral fractures occur each year. Many are caused by osteoporosis.

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Facts and Tips

Get a quick overview of key details about juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), including that it's also called juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

Avoid Back Pain While Leaf Raking

Leaf raking can leave you with back pain, so before heading out to rake, read these quick tips on taking care of your spine and preventing back pain.

Americans in Pain: Part 5

Will we ever be able to entirely prevent back pain? You can do your best to avoid back and neck pain by following these simple tips in your day-to-day life. And if we all follow these suggestions, more of us can prevent pain.

Trampoline Injuries: Visits to Emergency Rooms are Jump'n

Trampolines can be dangerous and emergency room visits are constantly increasing. This article outlines some simple safety procedures that may help protect your family.

Osteoporosis Screening Tip: Is it Time for Your Bone Density Test?

Osteoporosis screening and bone density tests are not just for women anymore! Doctors consider a bone density test as important to your health as a cholesterol test. Knowing your score is a first step to osteoporosis prevention.

How Your Neck Pain May Affect Your Breathing

A recent study explored whether patients who have ongoing neck pain also have problems with respiratory strength.

Back Pain Exercises and Stretches

Keeping your back healthy is a daily commitment. It helps to do daily stretches and exercises specifically designed to prevent back pain. Follow these easy instructions on how to prevent back pain or find back pain relief.

Treatment of Pediatric Spinal Cord Tumors

Surgery is performed to remove or reduce the size of the tumor and alleviate the pressure ont he spinal column caused by the tumor.

More Healthy Tips for Living with Spinal Arthritis

Do you have arthritis? Tips 6 through 10 can help you live a healthier life. Learn how you can find pain relief every day for your aching joints.

Myths and Misconceptions about Osteoporosis

We now know that with diet, exercise, lifestyle changes, supplements, and drug therapies, osteoporosis is totally preventable, yet misinformation abounds.

Vegans Match Meat Eaters in Bone Health

A 2009 study found that the bone density of vegan Buddhist nuns and non-vegetarians are identical. Though vegans typically do not consume enough calcium and protein, findings show that they are not at an increased risk for osteoporosis.

On-field Hypothermia Saves Everett

When Buffalo Bills? tight end Kevin Everett made a heads-down tackle on Sunday?s game with Denver, the resulting severe spinal cord injury stunned crowds and has created a media sensation.

Hear from a Scoliosis Patient

Hear the story of a teenager who went through scoliosis surgery (and know that you can get through spine surgery, too!).

Surgery for Back Pain

Less than 5% of people with back pain need spine surgery. But if you're in that 5%, your doctor will make the best recommendation for the type of surgery. This is a list of typical surgical procedures used to treat back pain.

Common Osteoporosis Questions

Many of the most common questions people ask about osteoporosis are answered here.

Non-surgical Treatments for Kyphosis

The treatment plan depends on the cause of the kyphosis. When kyphosis is caused by a structural problem, wearing a special brace can help control back pain and slow or stop curve progression.

Vitamin D Can Reduce Back Pain

Recent research shows that patients with chronic back pain almost always have a vitamin D deficiency, too. Taking vitamin D supplements may eventually bring pain relief-- when used in conjunction with other treatments. Find out why.

Facts and Tips about Back Pain

Quick facts and tips about back pain.

Facts and Tips about Kyphosis

There are two kinds of kyphosis. Learn what they are, plus other facts about this extreme rounding of the spine.

Spinal Cord Injury Prevention

Some spinal cord injuries (SCI) can be prevented if you follow these tips for driving and playing sports. Here, you can also learn tips about how to fall proof your home, another way to prevent SCI.

Types of Osteoporosis: Primary or Secondary

Some physicians classify osteoporosis as either primary or secondary. Classification may be dependent on whether the osteoporosis is age related or caused by a medical condition or medications that can interfere with normal bone reformation.

Osteoporosis: The Silent Thief

Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and fragile. This can cause loss of height, humpback (kyphosis), and debilitating pain. It's a "silent thief" because you often don't know you're losing bone density until you fracture a vertebra.

Osteoporosis: Treatment Goals and Prevention

Having osteoporosis does not have to mean a life of pain and inactivity. The four-fold goals in the treatment of osteoporosis are discussed here.

World-class Olympic Athletes Struggle with Back Pain

Almost all of us get back pain; professional and Olympic athletes are no exception. Learn how several world-class athletes have dealt with herniated discs and sciatic pain, plus hear comments from spine experts on their treatment.

Great Pumpkins, Greater Pains

Pumpkin patches are one of the great mainstays of the fall season. But to make the most of a day trip, you should know how to lift to prevent back pain. Pumpkins are heavier than they look, and they cause pain if you don’t know the right technique.

Symptoms of Neck Pain

Neck pain can come with other symptoms, such as headaches or blurred vision. To understand symptoms associated with cervical spine problems, watch this video. Dr. Dan Riew explains the pain and other symptoms in straightforward language.

Spinal Stenosis Video Series

A spine expert, Dr. Jeffrey Wang, explains everything you need to know about spinal stenosis, a very common spinal condition. He reviews the symptoms, causes, and treatments for this spinal condition in this engaging video series.

Degenerative Disc Disease Video Series

A spine expert, Dr. Richard Fessler, explains everything you need to know about degenerative disc disease in this in-depth video series.

Video: Causes of Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative disc disease has multiple causes, but the most common cause is the wear and tear process of aging on your spine. In this video, Dr. Richard Fessler goes over why your discs degenerate and cause pain.

Neck Pain Exercise Video: Side Bending

For neck conditions, such as whiplash or degenerative disc disease, you may need to do some exercises to strengthen your neck muscles. The side bending stretch featured in this video may help relieve your neck pain.

Neck Pain Exercise Video: Side-to-Side Head Rotation

You can try to relieve your neck pain by doing the side-to-die head rotation exercise. In this video, you’ll see how to stretch your neck, and you’ll learn how it helps you deal with pain from degenerative disc disease or whiplash.

Neck Pain Exercise Video: Chin Tucks

To help relieve neck pain caused be cervical degenerative disc disease or whiplash, your doctor may recommend this exercise: chin tucks. Watch this video to learn the best way to do them and how often you should do this neck exercise.

Back Pain Exercise Video: Curl-up (Crunch)

For back pain caused by spondylosis or spondylolisthesis, the doctor may recommend curl-ups (also called crunches). Most everyone’s familiar with this exercise, which will help strengthen your core muscles. A strong core better supports your spine.

Back Pain Exercise Video: Knee Lifts (Marching)

If you have back pain (especially back pain with sciatica) caused by spondylosis or spondylolisthesis, your doctor may recommend the knee lift exercise. Video shows you how to do this back pain exercise to help reduce your pain.

Back Pain Exercise Video: Opposite Arm and Leg Extension

The opposite arm and leg extension is a great exercise for low back pain caused by a herniated disc. Learn how to do it in this video.

Back Pain Exercise Video: Upper Back Extension

Doing upper back extension exercises can help strengthen and stabilize your lower back. If you have back pain from a herniated disc, your doctor may recommend this stretch. Video explains how to do an upper back extension.

Back Pain Exercise Video: All Fours Opposite Arm and Leg Extension

Watch this exercise video to see how to do the all fours opposite arm and leg extension. It’s an exercise that can help relieve pain caused by degenerative disc disease in the low back, and it can strengthen and stabilize your lumbar spine.

Back Pain Exercise Video: Knee to Chest

The knee to chest stretch is one way to relieve pain from degenerative disc disease or spinal stenosis. Your doctor may recommend that you do this exercise for your back pain, especially if you have sciatica as well.

Preventing Osteoporosis Starts with Awareness

As you celebrate your Mom this Mother's Day, remind her that she can take active steps to prevent osteoporosis.

Facts and Tips about Spinal Fractures

What is the leading cause of spinal fractures? Accidents? Sports? Find out here, plus learn other facts and tips about spinal fractures.

Back Pain Exercise Video: Lower Trunk Rotation

Physical therapist-approved exercise video that shows you how to do a lower trunk rotation, a helpful stretch for back pain prevention and treatment.

Back Pain Exercise Video: Prone on Elbows into Press-up

The prone on elbows exercise can help relieve your back pain caused by a herniated disc. It’s good to do if you have sciatica. Watch this exercise video to see how best to do this back stretch.

Sciatica Video Series

A spine expert, Dr. Alex Vaccaro, explains everything you need to know about sciatica.

Common Terms for Sciatica

Hear an orthopaedic surgeon, Dr. Alex Vaccaro, explain several common terms your doctor may use when talking about sciatica. This short video will help you be an informed patient and more fully understand your condition.

Video: Non-surgical Treatment for Sciatica

Dr. Alex Vaccaro reviews your non-surgical treatment options for sciatica in this short (but very informative) video. Listen to a top spine surgeon explain what you can try before surgery.

Video: Exams and Tests for Sciatica

Watch this video to understand the tests your doctor will do (or has already done) as he or she diagnoses the cause of your sciatica. Dr. Alex Vaccaro explains MRIs, the sensory exam, the neurological exam, and more.

Causes of Sciatica

If something, such as a herniated disc, pushes on your sciatic nerve, you’ll most likely have sciatic pain. In this video, Dr. Alex Vaccaro goes through several of the most common causes of sciatica.

Video: Symptoms of Sciatica

Sciatica is a symptom associated with other spinal conditions, but it can come with other symptoms besides just pain that travels from your low back to your leg. Dr. Alex Vaccaro explains the symptoms of sciatica in this informative video.

Sciatica Overview

In this video, you’ll quickly get basic information about sciatica from Dr. Alex Vaccaro, an orthopaedic surgeon and professor at Thomas Jefferson University.

References 1-50: Understanding Neuropathic Pain

References 1 through 50 to Dr. Steven Richeimer's article "Understanding Neuropathic Pain".

References: 51-103: Understanding Neuropathic Pain

References 51-103 to Dr. Steven Richeimer's article about neuropathic pain.

Three-Step Program for Chronic Low Back Pain

In many cases of chronic pain, an early and aggressive treatment plan produces the best results. A chiropractor describes a three-step approach, including spinal manipulation and exercises, to help relieve ongoing pain.

A Letter to Santa from SpineUniverse

Dear Santa, SpineUniverse is worried about how your extra weight affects your back. Try our back pain prevention tips!

National Osteoporosis Awareness and Prevention Month

SpineUniverse and Kyphon partner to increase osteoporosis awareness and to educate people about prevention, screening and treatment.

Understanding Neuropathic Pain

Rather than the nervous system functioning properly to sound an alarm regarding tissue injury, in neuropathic pain the peripheral or central nervous systems malfunction and cause pain.

Bextra Label Updated with Boxed Warning Concerning Severe Skin Reactions and Warning Regarding Cardiovascular Risk

Important information from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the side effects associated with the use of Bextra.

Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers Continued

The diagnosis of cancer may include a blood test to determine the level of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase. A large amount of alkaline phosphatase can be found in the blood when the cells that form bone tissue are very active.

Questions and Answers About Bone Cancer

Bone cancer is a malignant tumor that develops from the cells of the bone. Primary bone cancer is rare.

Spondylolisthesis: Back Condition and Treatment

Figure 4 of article entitled - Spondylolisthesis: Back Condition and Treatment is an x-ray showing where a lumbar vertebra has slid forward onto the vertebra below.

Spina Bifida Occulta and Open Spina Bifida - A Patient's Guide

The term spina bifida covers malformations that always include deformities of certain parts of the vertebrae, the spinous process and vertebral arch. It has been described as a failure of these bones to fuse during early fetal development.

Treatment of Kyphosis and Scheuermann's Disease

Treatments for kyphosis and Scheuermann’s disease differ depending on the patient’s age, curve magnitude, and co-existing medical problems. A surgeon answers the most common related to these disorders that cause abnormal spinal curves.

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Thoracic outlet syndrome is a condition that stems from impingement on a network of nerves called the brachial plexus, which can cause pain and weakness in your upper extremities. Article discusses other symptoms, causes, and treatments for this condition.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a progressive and destructive form of arthritis. This disease causes the interior joint tissue to swell and thicken. Over time this may cause deformity.

Spondylolisthesis: Picture of a typical brace used in treating spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis; picture of a typical brace used in treating spondylolisthesis.

Spondylolisthesis: An x-ray of a spine with a slippage at L5-S1.

Spondylolisthesis; x-ray of a spine with a slippage at L5-S1.

Spondylolisthesis: An x-ray of a healthy spine without Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis, an X-ray showing a healthy spine without spondylolisthesis.

Spondylolisthesis: Diagram of L5 vertebra sitting correctly on the sacrum

Spondylolisthesis: diagrams of L5 vertebrae sitting correctly and incorrectly on the sacrum.

In-Depth Review of Kyphosis

This review from the Scoliosis Research Society gives an excellent overview of the types of kyphosis, including Scheuermann’s disease and congenital kyphosis. It also touches on scoliosis because some patients with kyphosis also have scoliosis.