Iain Kalfas, MD's portrait
Iain Kalfas, MD
Head, Section of Spinal Surgery
Dept. of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland, OH

About Iain Kalfas, MD

Dr. Iain Kalfas is the Head of the Section of Spinal Surgery in the Department of Neurosurgery at the Cleveland Clinic. Dr. Kalfas is certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgeons.

At Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Dr. Kalfas earned a Medical Degree. His Internship in General Surgery was at the Cleveland Clinic where he also did a Residency in Neurological Surgery. Dr. Kalfas' first Fellowship was in Neurotrauma at Allegheny General Hospital. He then was a Spinal Surgery Fellow at Cleveland Arthritis and Spine Center as well as at the Barrow Neurological Institute of St. Joseph's Hospital.

Dr. Kalfas is an active member and committee person of many professional associations including: the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, American College of Surgeons, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, Neurosurgical Society of America, and the North American Spine Society.

Dr. Kalfas has authored a combination of 38 peer-reviewed articles and chapters. He has presented his research at professional meetings world-wide over 180 times. Currently Dr. Kalfas is on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Spinal Disorders and he is the Neurosurgical Editor for the Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Dr. Kalfas' research has led to advances in medical technology, particularly contributing to development in the field of Image-Guided Spinal Navigation.

Publications

1. Kalfas IH, Hahn JF. Symptomatic Subependymoma in a 14-year-old Girl Diagnosed by NMR. Child's Nervous System 2:44-46, 1986.

2. Kalfas IH, Maroon JC, Cowan T, Feld F, Berlin R. C3 Radiculopathy in a Professional Athlete. Phys. Sports Med. 15:79-83, 1987.

3. Kalfas IH, Wilberger JW, Goldberg A, Prostko ER. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Spinal Cord Trauma. Neurosurgery 23:295-299, 1988.

4. Kalfas IH, Little JR. Postoperative Hemorrhage: A Survey of 4992 Intracranial Procedures. Neurosurgery 23:343-347, 1988.

5. Awad IA, Kalfas IH, Hahn JF, Little JR. Intracranial Meningiomas in the Aged: Surgical Outcome in the Era of Computed Tomography. Neurosurgery 24:557-560, 1989.

6. Kalfas IH, Sonntag VKH. Innovative Cervical Fusion and Instrumentation Techniques. Clinical Neurosurgery 37:636-660, 1990.

7. Kalfas IH, Wilberger J, Goldberg A, Prostko ER. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Spinal Cord Trauma. In: Osborn A (ed). Yearbook of Diagnostic Radiology. Yearbook Publishers, Chicago, 1990:36-37.

8. Kalfas IH, Little JR. Postoperative Hemorrhage: A Survey of 4992 Intracranial Procedures. In: Crowell R (ed). Yearbook of Neurology and Neurosurgery. Yearbook Publishers, Chicago, 1990:436-437.

9. Whiting DM, Chou SM, Lanzieri CL, Kalfas IH, Hardy RW. Cervical Neurenteric Cyst Associated with Klippel-Feil Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Clinical Neuropathology 10:285-290, 1991.

10.Papadopoulos SM, Kalfas IH, Sonntag VKH. Anterior Instrumentation of the Cervical Spine. In: Whitecloud TS, Dunsker SB (eds). Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery. Raven Press, New York, 1993:89-103.

11. Kalfas IH. The Modular Spine System: A Review. Neurosurgery 32:1051-1052, 1993.

12. Kalfas IH. Spinal Column Tumors. Neurosurgical Consultations, March, 1993.

13. Prayson RA, Estes ML, McMahon JT, Kalfas IH, Sebek BA. Meningeal Myofibroblastoma. Am Journal Surgical Pathology 17(9):931-936, 1993.

14. Murphy MA, Trimble MB, Piedmont MR, Kalfas IH. Changes in Cervical Foraminal Area Following Anterior Discectomy With and Without a Graft. Neurosurgery 34:93-96, 1994.

15. Murphy MA, McKenzie RL, Kormos DW, Kalfas IH. Frameless Stereotaxis for the Insertion of Lumbar Pedicle Screws: A Technical Note. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 1(4):257-260,1994.

16. Kalfas IH. Cervical Spine Stabilization. In Ross JS (ed). Neuroimaging Clinics of North America: The Cervical Spine. WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia 5:491-505, 1995.

17.Rhoten RLP, Murphy MA, Kalfas IH, Hahn JF, Washington JA. Antibiotic Penetration into Cervical Discs. Neurosurgery 37:418-421, 1995.

18.Kalfas IH, Kormos DW, Murphy MA, McKenzie RL, Barnett GH, Bell GR, Steiner CP, Trimble MB, Weisenberger JP. Application of Frameless Stereotaxy to Pedicle Screw Fixation of the Spine. Journal of Neurosurgery 83:641-647, 1995.

19. Kalfas IH. The Anterior Cervical Spine Locking Plate: A Technique for Surgical Decompression and Stabilization. In: Fessler RG, Haid RW (eds). Techniques in Spinal Stabilization. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp 25-33.

20. Kalfas IH. Cervical Spine Stabilization: Surgical Techniques. In: Wilberger JE, Naraya RK, Poulishock JT (eds). Neurotrauma. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp 1179-1192.

21. Kalfas IH. Posterior Cervical Fixation. In: Al-Mefty O, Harkey HL, Origitano TC (eds). Controversies in Neurosurgery. Thieme Medical Publishers, New York, 1996:297-299.

22. Barnett GH, Kalfas IH. Thoracic Canal Stenosis. In: Wilkins RH, Rengachary SS (eds). Neurosurgery. McGraw Hill, New York, 1996, pp 3801-3803.

23. Trost GR, Kalfas IH. Pedicle Screw Fixation and Fusion of the Lumbo-Sacral Spine. In: Hardy RW (ed). Techniques in Neurosurgery. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia. Raven Press, New York, 1996 2:4 pp. 233-243.

24. Kalfas IH. Anterior Thoraco-Lumbar Stabilization. In: Vollmer, D (ed). Neurosurgery Clinics of North America. Management of Thoracolumbar Instability. WB Saunders Co. Philadelphia, 1997 Oct;8(4): pp 487-498.

25. Kalfas IH. C1-2 Transarticular Screw Fixation: Preoperative Planning and Intraopertive Image-Guided Navigation. Br J Neurosurg 1997 Oct; 11(5): 469.

26. Kalfas, IH. Image Guided Spinal Navigation: Application to Spinal Metastasis. In: Maciunas, R (ed). Advanced Techniques in Central Nervous System Metastasis. AANS Publications, Lebanon, 1998, pp 245-254.

27. Kalfas IH. Spinal Surgery. In: Barnett GH, Roberts DW, and Maciunas RJ (eds.) Image-Guided Neurosurgery: Clinical Applications of Surgical Navigation. Qualilty Medical Publishing, St. Louis, 1998, pp 117 - 134.

28. Kalfas IH, McCormick B. Intraoperative Imaging of the Spine. In: Benzel EC (ed). Spine Surgery: Techniques, Complication Avoidance, and Management. Churchill- Livingstone, New York., 1999 pp. 1221-1231.

29. Kalfas IH. Kaakaji W. Sympathectomy for Hyperhidrosis and Pain - Open Procedure. In: Black PM and Kaye AH. (eds.) Operative Neurosurgery. Churchill Livingstone, London, 1999 pp. 1551-1554.

30. Kalfas IH. The Role of Cervical Corpectomy in Spondylotic Myelopathy. In : Camins MB (ed) Cervical Spinal Stenosis. Techniques in Neurosurgery. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. 1999 pp. 153-161.

31. Kalfas IH. Posterior C1-C2 transarticualr screw fixation in the treatment of displaced type II odontoid fractures in the geriatric population. Review of seven cases. (Comment). Surg Neurol 51(6): 600-601, 1999.

32. Basali A, Schubert A, Mascha EJ, Kalfas IH. Intra- and Postoperative Hypertension Are Risk Factors for Intracranial Hemorrhage After Brain Surgery. Anesthesiology, 1999. (Accepted for publication).

33. Benzel EC, Lastra JJ, Kalfas IH, Bak KH, Ferrara LA. The Biomechanics of Interbody Fusion and the Shortcomings of Lumbar Fusion with Cages and Interbody Bone Dowels. Clinical Neurosurgery (accepted for publication).

34. Kalfas IH. Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Clinical Neurosurgery. 1999. (In Press)

35. Kalfas IH. Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. In: Winn HR (ed). Youman's Neurological Surgery - 5th Edition. WB Saunders, Philadelphia (In Press).

36. Kalfas IH. Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. In: Harkey L (ed). Techniques in Neurosurgery. 1999. (In Press).

37. Kalfas IH. Frameless Stereotaxy Assisted Spinal Surgery. In: Renganchary SS (ed). Neurosurgery Operative Color Atlas. AANS Publications, Lebanon, 1999 (in press).

38. Kalfas IH. Takedown of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament. In: Vaccaro AR and Albert TJ (eds). Tricks of the Trade in Spine Surgery. Thieme, New York, 2000 (in press).

PRESENTATIONS

1. Kalfas IH, Hahn JF. Symptomatic Subependymoma in a 14-year-old Girl Diagnosed by NMR. International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. Cairo, Egypt. September, 1984.

2. Kalfas IH, Wilberger JW, Maroon JC, Prostko ER, Baghai P, Sherman R, Rothfus W, Deeb Z. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Acute Spinal Cord Injury. Joint Section of Spine and Peripheral Nerve Disorders. Boca Raton, Florida. January, 1987. Annual Meeting and 8th European Congress of Neurosurgery. Barcelona, Spain. September, 1987.

3. Awad IA, Kalfas IH, Hahn JF, Hardy RW. Intracranial Meningiomas in the Aged. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Dallas, Texas, May, 1987.

4. Kalfas IH. Neurological Sports Injuries. Northern Ohio Pediatric Society. Cleveland, Ohio. November, 1987.

5. Kalfas IH. Spinal Cord Injury. Beyond the Golden Hour: Ongoing Management of Adult and Pediatric Neurological Trauma (Practical Course). Phoenix, Arizona. January, 1989.

6. Kalfas IH, Anderson JS, Little JR. Decompressive Laminectomy in the Setting of Low Grade Spondylolisthesis. Joint Section of Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Cancun, Mexico. February, 1989.

7. Kalfas IH. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Spinal Cord Injury. 12th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Neuroimaging. Orlando, Florida. February, 1989.

8.Kalfas IH. Indications for Cervical Corpectomy in the Setting of Osteomyelitis and Neoplasm. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Atlanta, Georgia. November, 1989.

9. Sonntag VKH, Kalfas IH. Innovative Cervical Fusion and Instrumentation Techniques. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Atlanta, Georgia. November, 1989.

10. Kalfas IH, Papadopoulos SM, Sonntag VKH. Anterior Cervical Fusion and Caspar Plate Stabilization for Degenerative Disorder of the Cervical Spine. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Palm Springs, California. February, 1991.

11. Papadopoulos SM, Sonntag VKH, Kalfas IH. Caspar Plate Stabilization: Indications, Results, and Complications in Ninety Consecutive Patients. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. New Orleans, Louisiana. April 21, 1991.

12. Hassenbusch SJ, Kalfas IH, Pillay PK. Spontaneous Descent of Residual Suprasellar Tumor After Resection of Giant Pituitary Macroadenomas. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. New Orleans, Louisiana. April 24, 1991.

13. Kalfas IH. Management of Primary Spinal Column Neoplasms. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Orlando, Florida. October, 1991.

14. Braun DE, Kalfas IH, Boland MB. Development of New Cervical Disc Disease Following Anterior Discectomy. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Miami, Florida. February 6, 1992.

15. Robinson JR, Kalfas IH. Intramedullary Vascular Malformations of the Spinal Cord. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Miami, Florida. February 6, 1992.

16. Braun DE, Kalfas IH, Boland MB. Development of New Cervical Disc Disease Following Anterior Discectomy. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. San Francisco, California. April 14, 1992.

17. Kalfas IH. Anterior Cervical Decompression and Plate Instrumentation: A Comparison of the Caspar and Morscher Systems. Neurosurgical Society of America. Banff, Alberta, Canada. June 15, 1992.

18. Kalfas IH. Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Cervical Spine. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Washington D.C. November 4, 1992.

19.Kalfas IH. Paget's Disease and Ankylosing Spondylitis of the Spine. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Tuscon, Arizona. February 18, 1993.

20. Kalfas IH, Trimble MB. The Cervical Spine Locking Plate. Neurosurgical Society of America. Boca Raton, Florida. March 27, 1993.

21. Kalfas IH. Computer-Assisted Spinal Surgery. Teton Neurosurgical Society. Jackson, Wyoming. August 13, 1993.

22. Kalfas IH. Intra-operative Computer-Assisted Spinal Orientation. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Vancouver, Canada. October 4, 1993.

23. Kalfas IH. Computer-Assisted Spinal Surgery. Orthopedic Nursing Symposium. Cleveland, Ohio. February 25, 1994.

24. Kalfas IH. Frameless Stereotaxy Applied to Spinal Surgery. Royal Melbourne Hospital Neuroscience Symposium. Melbourne, Australia. March 19, 1994.

25. Kalfas IH. Computer-Assisted Cervical Spine Screw Fixation. Cervical Spine Research Society (European Section). Rome, Italy. July 1, 1994.

26. Kalfas IH. Complications of Surgery for Surgical Spondylosis. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Chicago, Illinois. October 3, 1994.

27. Kalfas IH. Applications of Frameless Stereotaxy to Spinal Surgery. Ohio State Neurosurgical Society. Belleville, Ohio. November 19, 1994.

28. Kalfas IH. Applications of Frameless Stereotaxy to Spinal Surgery. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Phoenix, Arizona. February 15, 1995.

29. Kalfas IH. Application of Frameless Stereotaxy to Cervical Spine Surgery. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Orlando, Florida. April 22, 1995.

30. Kalfas IH. Application of Frameless Stereotaxy to Spinal Surgery. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Orlando, Florida. April 26, 1995.

31. Kalfas IH. Spinal Stereotaxy. Spinal Instrumentation, Hands-on Course. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Albuquerque, New Mexico. May 20, 1995.

32.Kalfas IH. Spinal Stereotaxy. Mayfield Symposium. Cincinnati, Ohio. June 2, 1995.

33. Kalfas IH. Posterior Stabilization of the Cervical Spine. Neurosurgical Society of America. Sea Island, Georgia. June 5, 1995.

34. Kalfas IH. Post Cervical Stabilization Techniques. Cervical Spine Surgery - Hands On Course. American Association of Neurological Surgeons Regional Seminar. Chicago, Illinois. June 10, 1995.

35. Kalfas IH. Application of Frameless Stereotaxy to Spinal Surgery. Thoracolumbar Spine Surgery, Hands-on Course. American Association of Neurological Surgeons Regional Seminar. Chicago, Illinois. September 17, 1995.

36. Kalfas IH. Posterior Stabilization of the Subaxial Spine. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. San Francisco, California. October 17, 1995.

37. Kalfas IH. Spinal Navigation. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. San Francisco, California. October 18, 1995.

38. Kalfas IH. Computer Aided Spinal Surgery. The Evolving Surgical Marketplace Conference. New Orleans, Louisiana. October 24, 1995.

39. Kalfas IH. Structural Bone Grafting Materials: Autograft, Allograft, and Synthetics. Symposium on Anterior Column Support of the Thoracolumbar Spine. New York, New York. December 8, 1995.

40. Kalfas IH. Spinal Navigation. Symposium on Anterior Column Support of the Thoracolumbar Spine. New York, New York. December 9, 1995.

41. Kalfas IH. Spinal Cord Injury. Symposium on Contemporary Update of Disorders of the Spine. Whistler, Canada. January 14, 1996.

42. Kalfas IH. Image-guided Spinal Navigation. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Orlando, Florida. March 2, 1996.

43. Kalfas IH. Spinal Stereotaxy, Thoracolumbar Spine Surgery, Hands-on Course. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. New Orleans, Louisiana. March 24, 1996.

44. Kalfas IH. Pitfalls of Spinal Stereotaxy. Image-Guided Stereotactic Hands-On Course. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Memphis, Tennessee. March 31, 1996.

45. Kalfas IH. Surgical Management of the Upper Cervical Spine. Spine Instrumentation Workshop. Synthes. Vancouver, British Columbia. April 12, 1996.

46. Kalfas IH. Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Spine Instrumentation Workshop. Synthes. Vancouver, British Columbia. April 13, 1996.

47. Kalfas IH. Spinal Cord Injury. Grand Rounds, St. Elizabeth Hospital. Youngstown, Ohio. April 18, 1996.

48. Kalfas IH. Spinal Column Fracture, Classification and Management. Grand Rounds, St. Elizabeth Hospital. Youngstown, Ohio. April 18, 1996.

49. Kalfas IH. Cervical Spine Image-Guided Navigation. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Minneapolis, Minnesota. April 27, 1996.

50. Kalfas IH. Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Minneapolis, Minnesota. May 1, 1996.

51. Kalfas IH. Image-Guided Spinal Navigation: Report on 105 Cases. Neurosurgical Society of America. Laguna Niguel, California. May 8, 1996.

52. Kalfas IH. Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Spinal Instrumentation Hands-on Course. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Albuquerque, New Mexico. May 18, 1996.

53. Kalfas IH. Upper Cervical Screw Fixation. Spinal Surgery Hands-on Course. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Albuquerque, New Mexico. May 19, 1996.

54. Kalfas IH. C1-2 Transarticular Screw Fixation: Preoperative Planning and Intraoperative Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Cervical Spine Research Society. Nice, France. June 6, 1996.

55. Kalfas IH. Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Cervical Spine Surgery - Hands-on Course. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Memphis, Tennessee. June 22, 1996.

56. Kalfas IH. C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation: Preoperative Planning and Intraoperative Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Teton Neurosurgical Society. West Towshend, Vermont. August 15, 1996.

57. Kalfas IH. Surgical Management of Low Back Pain. Grand Rounds. Columbus Spine and Neurosurgery Services. Columbus, Indiana. September 6, 1996.

58. Kalfas IH. Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Orthopedic Surgery Grand Rounds. Yale University. New Haven, Connecticut. September 13, 1996.

59. Kalfas IH. Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Montreal, Canada. October 2, 1996.

60. Kalfas IH. Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Thoracolumbar Spine Surgery - Hands-on Course. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Chicago, Illinois. October 20, 1996.

61. Kalfas IH. Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Corbin Executive Briefing Seminar. North American Spine Society. Vancouver, Canada. October 23, 1996.

62. Kalfas IH. Structural Bone Graft Materials: Autograft, Allograft, and Synthetics. Symposium on Anterior Column Support: Implications in Cervical and Thoracolumbar Spine Surgery. Nassau, Bahamas. November 7, 1996.

63. Kalfas IH. Applied Surgical Anatomy: Innovations in Stereotactic Guidance. Symposium on Anterior Column Support: Implications in Cervical and Thoracolumbar Spine Surgery. Nassau, Bahamas. November 8, 1996.

64. Kalfas IH. Complications and Their Treatment in Cervical Spine Surgery. Symposium on Anterior Column Support: Implications in Cervical and Thoracolumbar Spine Surgery. Nassau, Bahamas. November 9, 1996.

65. Kalfas IH. Spinal Cord Injury. Symposium on Contemporary Update of Disorders of the Spine. Whistler, Canada. January 12, 1997.

66. Kalfas IH. Image Guided Spinal Navigation. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Newport Beach, California. February 22, 1997.

67. Kalfas IH. Image Guided Spinal Navigation. Advance Theory and Techniques in Spinal Surgery Symposium. Squaw Valley, California. March 25, 1997.

68. Kalfas IH. C1-2 Transarticular Screw Fixation: Preoperative Planning and Intraoperative Image Guided Spinal Navigation. Neurosurgical Society of America and British Neurosurgical Society. Cambridge, England. April 4, 1997.

69. Kalfas IH. Image Guided Spinal Navigation Applied to the Cervical Spine. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Denver, Colorado. April 12, 1997.

70. Kalfas IH. Image Guided Spinal Navigation. Image Guided Spinal Navigation Workshop at The American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Denver, Colorado. April 13, 1997.

71. Kalfas IH. Image Guided Spinal Navigation. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Denver, Colorado. April 16, 1997.

72. Kalfas IH. Image Guided Spinal Navigation. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Denver, Colorado. April 16, 1997.

73. Kalfas IH. Image Guided Spinal Navigation. Frameless Stereotactic Workshop. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Denver, Colorado. April 17, 1997.

74. Kalfas IH. Image Guided Spinal Navigation. Spinal Instrumentation Hands On Course. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Albuquerque, New Mexico, May 12, 1997.

75. Kalfas IH. Upper Cervical Screw Fixation. Spinal Surgery Hands On Course. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Albuquerque, New Mexico. May 13, 1997 .

76. Kalfas, IH. Lumbosacral Pelvic Anatomy. Spinal Surgery Hands On Course. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Albuquerque New, Mexico. May 18, 1997.

77. Kalfas, IH. Principles of Image Guided Spinal Navigation. Advanced Spinal Instrumentation Course. Chicago, Illinois. June 21, 1997.

78. Kalfas, IH. Image Guided Spinal Navigation Applied to the Cervical Spine. Advanced Spinal Instrumentation Course. Chicago, Illinois. June 21, 1997.

79. Kalfas, IH. Principles of Image Guided Spinal Navigation. International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques. Bermuda. July 12, 1997.

80. Kalfas, IH. Image Guided Spinal Navigation. University of Florida Spine Symposium. Orlando, Florida, August 27, 1997.

81. Kalfas, IH. Image Guided Spinal Navigation. Innovative Spinal Surgical Techniques Workshop. St. Louis, Missouri. September 15, 1997.

82. Kalfas, IH: Principles of Image Guided Spinal Surgery. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. New Orleans, LA. September 28, 1997. (Director of hands-on image guided spinal surgery workshop)

83. Kalfas, IH: Image Guided Spinal Navigation. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. New Orleans, LA. September 29, 1997.

84. Kalfas, IH: Principles of Image Guided Spinal Surgery. Current Issues in Spinal Surgery Symposium. Edinburgh, Scotland. October 9, 1997.

85. Kalfas, IH: Image Guided Spinal Surgery. Neurosurgery Grand Rounds. The New York Neurological Institute. Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. New York, NY. October 23, 1997.

86. Kalfas, IH: Surgical Options for Upper Cervical Spine Trauma. A Contemporary Update on Disorders of the Spine (Symposium). Whistler, British Columbia. January 18, 1998.

87. Kalfas, IH: Anterior vs Posterior Cervical Spine Fixation. Spinal Surgery: Current and Innovative Theory and Techniques (Symposium). Aspen, Colo. January 25, 1998.

88. Kalfas, IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation: Spinal Surgery: Current and Innovative Theory and Techniques (Symposium). Aspen, Colo. January 27, 1998.

89. Kalfas, IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation: Clinical Experience in 206 Cases. Combined Meeting of the Orthopedic Associations of the English Speaking World. Auckland, New Zealand. February 4, 1998.

90. Kalfas, IH: Advances and Pitfalls of Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Rancho Mirage, CA. Feb. 14, 1998.

91. Kalfas, IH: Image Guided Spinal Navigation in the Cervical Spine. Cervical Spine Fixation Workshop. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Philadelphia, PA. April 25, 1998.

92. Kalfas, IH: Pitfalls in Advances in Image Guided Spinal Navigation. Image Guided Spinal Navigation Workshop. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Philadelphia, PA. April 26, 1998.

93. Kalfas, IH: Image Guided Spinal Navigation. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Philadelphia, PA. April 29, 1998.

94. Kalfas, IH: Image Guided Spinal Navigation. Spine Symposium. Marbella, Spain. May 14, 1998. 95. Kalfas, IH: Upper Cervical Fixation Techniques. Spine Symposium. Marbella, Spain. May 15, 1998.

95. Kalfas, IH: Posterior Cervical Fixation. Spine Symposium. Marbella, Spain. May 16, 1998.

96. Kalfas, IH: Thoracic and Lumbar Deformity Correction. AANS Spinal Surgery Hands-On Course. Albuquerque, New Mexico. May 21, 1998.

97. Kalfas, IH: Image-Guided Soinal Navigation. AANS Spinal Surgery Hands-On Course. Albuquerque, New Mexico. May 21, 1998.

98. Kalfas, IH: Spinal Surgery Strategies. AANS Spinal Surgery Hands-On Course. Albuquerque, New Mexico. May 21, 1998.

99. Kalfas, IH: Lumbo-Sacaral-Pelvic Anatomy. AANS Spinal Surgery Hands-On Course. Albuquerque, New Mexico. May 22, 1998.

100. Kalfas, IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation: Principles and Clinical Applications. Cervical Spine Hands-On Workshop. Bethesda, Maryland. June 5, 1998.

101. Kalfas, IH: Application of Image-Guided Spinal Navigation to the Cervical Spine. Cervical Spine Hands-On Workshop. Bethesda, Maryland. June 5, 1998.

102. Kalfas, IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation: Principles and Clinical Applications. Guest Speaker, New England Neurosurgical Society. Boston, MA. June 6, 1998.

103. Kalfas, IH: Upper Cervical Fixation. Spinal Surgery: Current Concepts and Techniques (Symposium). San Francisco, California. July 18, 1998.

104. Kalfas, IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Spinal Surgery: Current Concepts and Techniques (Symposium). San Francisco, California. July 18, 1998.

105. Kalfas, IH: Anterior vs Posterior Cervical Fixation. Spinal Surgery: Current Concepts and Techniques (Symposium). San Francisco, California. July 18, 1998

106. Kalfas IH: Pitfalls of Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Teton Neurosurgical Society. Jackson , Wyoming. August 7, 1998.

107. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Update in Spinal Cord Trauma (Symposium) Zurich, Switzerland. August 28,1998.

108. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Society for the Study of Surgical Techniques for the Spine and Spinal Nerves. Tokyo, Japan. September 5, 1998.

109. Kalfas IH: Avoidance of Complications in Spinal Surgery. Society for the Study of Surgical Techniques for the Spine and Spinal Nerves. Tokyo, Japan. September 5, 1998.

110. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. Melbourne, Australia. September 18, 1998.

111. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. (Spinal Navigation Workshop) Seattle, Washington. October 4, 1998.

112. Kalfas IH: Spinal Localization and Navigation. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Seattle, Washington. October 5, 1998.

113. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Seattle, Washington. October 6, 1998.

114. Kalfas IH: Surgical Management of Spinal Disease. Contemporary Spine Care for the Primary Care Physician Symposium. Cleveland, Ohio. November 4, 1998.

115. Kalfas IH: Anterior vs Posterior Cervical Spine Fixation. Spinal Surgery: Current Concepts and Techniques Symposium. Dallas, Texas. November 7, 1998.

116. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Spinal Surgery: Current Concepts and Techniques Symposium. Dallas, Texas. November 7, 1998.

117. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Grand Rounds, Barrow Neurological Institute. Phoenix, Arizona. November 13, 1998.

118. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Anterior Column Support of the Spine Symposium. Phoenix, Arizona. November 14, 1998.

119. Kalfas IH: Treatment of Pathologies in the Transition Zones: O-C1-C2 and C7-T1. Anterior Column Support of the Spine Symposium. Phoenix, Arizona. November 14, 1998.

120. Kalfas IH: Indications for Posterior Cervical Surgery. Anterior Column Support of the Spine Symposium. Phoenix, Arizona. November 14, 1998.

121. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. International Meeting on Oncologic Spine Surgery. Porto, Portugal. December 2, 1998.

122. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Spinal Surgery: Current Concepts and Techniques Symposium. Los Angeles, California. January 9, 1999.

123. Kalfas IH: Posterior Cervical Fixation. Spinal Surgery: Current Concepts and Techniques Symposium. Los Angeles, California. January 9, 1999.

124. Kalfas IH: Radiology and Classification of Cervical Spine Trauma. A Contemporary Update on Disorders of the Spine (Symposium). Whistler, British Columbia. January 19, 1999.

125. Kalfas IH: Principles of Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Orlando, Florida. February 11, 1999.

126. Kalfas IH: Posterior Cervical Fixation. Mayfield Clinic - Cleveland Clinic Neuroscience Symposium. Snowmass, Colorado. February 22, 1999.

127. Kalfas IH: Application of Image-Guided Intracranial Navigational Systems. Mayfield Clinic - Cleveland Clinic Neuroscience Symposium. Snowmass, Colorado. February 23, 1999.

125. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Mayfield Clinic - Cleveland Clinic Neuroscience Symposium. Snowmass, Colorado. February 23, 1999.

126. Kalfas IH: Evolution of Anterior Cervical Fixation. Codman National Sales Meeting. San Diego, California. February 26, 1999.

127. Kalfas IH: Methods of Anterior Cervical Fixation. Big Time Spine Symposium. Snowbird, Utah. March 7, 1999.

128. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Big Time Spine Symposium. Snowbird, Utah. March 9, 1999.

129. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Visiting Professor, Allegheny General Hospital. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. March 16,1999.

130. Kalfas IH: Diagnosis and Evaluation of Cervical Axial Pain and Radiculopathy. AO/ASIF Comprehensive Spine Course. Cancun, Mexico. April 9, 1999.

131. Kalfas IH: Failed Back Syndrome. AO/ASIF Comprehensive Spine Course. Cancun, Mexico. April 10, 1999.

132. Kalfas IH: Application of Image-Guided Spinal Navigation to the Cervical Spine. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. New Orleans, Louisiana. April 24, 1999.

133. Kalfas IH: Pitfalls and Advances of Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. New Orleans, Louisiana. April 25, 1999.

134. Kalfas IH: Management of Upper Cervical Instability. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. New Orleans, Louisiana. April 26, 1999.

135. Kalfas IH: Anterior Surgery for Cervical Spondylosis. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. New Orleans, Louisiana. April 27, 1999.

136. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. New Orleans, Louisiana. April 29, 1999.

137. Kalfas IH: Surgical Management of Lumbar Fractures. Turkish Neurosurgical Society. Istanbul, Turkey. May 17, 1999.

138. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Turkish Neurosurgical Society. Istanbul, Turkey. May 17, 1999.

139. Kalfas IH: Application of Image-Guided Navigation to Cervical Spine Surgery. Big Time Spine Down Under (Symposium). Coolum, Australia. May 26, 1999.

140. Kalfas IH: Anterior vs Posterior Cervical Spine Surgery. Big Time Spine Down Under (Symposium). Coolum, Australia. May 26, 1999.

141. Kalfas IH: Application of Image-Guided Navigation to Thoracic and Lumbosacral Spine Surgery. Big Time Spine Down Under (Symposium). Coolum, Australia. May 28, 1999.

142. Kalfas IH: Principles and Applications of Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Japanese Spine Society. Tokyo, Japan. June 19, 1999.

143. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Lebanese Spine Symposium. Beirut, Lebanon. June 24, 1999.

144. Kalfas IH: Management of Upper Cervical Spine Disorders. Lebanese Spine Symposium. Beirut, Lebanon. June 24, 1999.

145. Kalfas IH: Posterior Cervical Spine Fixation. Lebanese Spine Symposium. Beirut, Lebanon. June 24, 1999.

146. Kalfas IH: Classification of Subaxial Cerivcal Spine Injuries. Lebanese Spine Symposium. Beirut, Lebanon. June 24, 1999.

147. Kalfas IH: Management of Thoracolumbar Trauma. Lebanese Spine Symposium. Beirut, Lebanon. June 24, 1999.

148. Kalfas IH: Upper Cervical Spine Fixation. Spinal Surgery: Current Concepts and Techniques Symposium. Boston, MA. June 26, 1999.

149. Kalfas IH: Posterior Cervical Spine Fixation. Spinal Surgery: Current Concepts and Techniques Symposium. Boston, MA. June 26, 1999.

150. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Spinal Surgery: Current Concepts and Techniques Symposium. Boston, MA. June 26, 1999.

151. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Image-Guided Surgery Symposium. Boston, MA. June 27, 1999.

152. Kalfas IH: Management of Spinal Cord Injury. Visiting Professor, St. Elizabeth Hospital. Youngstown, Ohio. August 19, 1999.

153. Kalfas IH: Classification and Management of Spinal Column Fractures. Visiting Professor, St. Elizabeth Hospital. Youngstown, Ohio. August 19, 1999.

154. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. European Spine Society. Munich, Germany. September 9, 1999.

156. Kalfas IH: Evolution and Principles of Anterior Cervical Fixation. Korea-Japan Conference on Spinal Surgery. Seoul, Korea. September 15, 1999.

157. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Korea-Japan Conference on Spinal Surgery. Seoul, Korea. September 16, 1999.

158. Kalfas IH: Principles of Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Image-Guided Surgery Workshop. Phoenix, Arizona. October 1, 1999.

159. Kalfas IH: Application of Image-Guided Spinal Navigation to Cervical Spine Surgery. Image-Guided Surgery Workshop. Phoenix, Arizona. October 1, 1999.

160. Kalfas IH: Pitfalls and Advances in Imgae-Guided Spinal Navigation. Congress of Neurological Surgery. Boston, Massachusetts. October 30, 1999.

161. Kalfas IH: Imaging of the Spine and Neural Elements: Practical Applications. Anterior Column Support of the Spine (Symposium). Nassau, Bahamas. November 8, 1999.

162. Kalfas IH: Imaging of Lumbar Stenosis and Spondylolisthesis. Anterior Column Support of the Spine (Symposium). Nassau, Bahamas. November 9, 1999.

163. Kalfas IH: Conventional Lumbar Discectomy vs Percutaneous Techniques. Anterior Column Support of the Spine (Symposium). Nassau, Bahamas. November 10, 1999.

164. Kalfas IH: Advances in Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Anterior Column Support of the Spine (Symposium). Nassau, Bahamas. November 10, 1999.

165. Kalfas IH: Posterior Surgery for Cervical Spondylosis. Comprehensive Spine Management Symposium. Tucker Town, Bermuda. November 11, 1999.

166. Kalfas IH: Anterior Cervical Fusion Without Fixation. Comprehensive Spine Management Symposium. Tucker Town, Bermuda. November 13, 1999.

167. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Comprehensive Spine Management Symposium. Tucker Town, Bermuda. November 14, 1999.

168. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Big Time Spine Symposium. Key Largo, Florida. November 20, 1999.

169. Kalfas IH: Principles and Applications of Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Visiting Professor. Chicago Institute of Neurosurgery and Neurology, Rush Presbyterian Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois. December 2, 1999.

170. Kalfas IH: Management of Cervical Spine Metastasis. Contemporary Update on Disorders of the Spine. Whistler, British Columbia. January 19, 2000.

171. Kalfas IH: Upper Cervical Spine Fixation. Big Time Spine Symposium. Keystone, Colorado. January 30, 2000.

172. Kalfas IH: Posterior Cervical Spine Fixation. Big Time Spine Symposium. Keystone, Colorado. January 30, 2000.

173. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Big Time Spine Symposium. Keystone, Colorado. Februrary 2, 2000

174. Kalfas IH: Pedicle Screw Fixation and Posterolateral Fusion. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Palm Desert, California. Februrary 23, 2000.

175. Kalfas IH: Advances in Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Palm Desert, California. Februrary 23, 2000.

176. Kalfas IH: Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. Grand Rounds. Wayne State University. Department of Neurosurgery. Detroit, Michigan. March 8, 2000.

177. Kalfas IH: Advances and Pitfalls in Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. San Francisco, California. April 8, 2000.

178. Kalfas IH: Application of Image-Guided Spinal Navigation to Cervical Spine Surgery. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. San Francisco, California. April 9, 2000.

179. Kalfas IH: Principles and Applications of Image-Guided Spinal Navigation. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. San Francisco, California. April 12, 2000.

180. Kalfas IH: Cervical Disc Disease: Surgical Options and Controversies. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. San Francisco, California. April 13, 2000.

Articles Written by Iain Kalfas, MD

Neurosurgeon Education and Training

Neurosurgeons are highly educated and specially trained spine specialists. It can take upwards of 8 years after medical school to become a neurosurgeon.

Neck Pain Center

You have to know what spinal condition is causing your neck pain before you can know how to treat it.

What Is a Neurosurgeon?

A neurosurgeon is a medical specialist who treats diseases and conditions affecting the nervous system, which includes the brain, the spine and spinal cord, and the peripheral nerves.

Neck Pain Treatments

Neck pain treatments overview written by a spine specialist: Learn how doctors help patients with cervical spine pain.

Questions to Ask Your Neurosurgeon

Not every patient with back or neck pain needs a neurosurgeon. Usually, the patient's primary care physician or chiropractor makes the referral to a neurosurgeon.

What Treatments Do Neurosurgeons Provide?

Neurosurgeons are trained in the latest surgical techniques to treat spinal disorders.Neurosurgeons are also able to prescribe medication and refer patients for physical therapy and rehabilitation.

What Disorders Do Neurosurgeons Treat?

Neurosurgeons treat many different dieases and conditions affecting the brain, spine, nervous system, and related structures.

Case Studies Presented by Iain Kalfas, MD

Cervical Spondylosis with Myelopathy

Presented by: I. Kalfas MD
The patient is a 68-year-old male who presents with a several-month history of progressive gait difficulty and neck pain.

Lumbar Disc Degeneration: 2 Previous Spine Surgeries and Constant Low Back Pain

Presented by: I. Kalfas MD
A 57-year-old, slightly overweight male presented with a 2 year history of progressive low back pain. It was predominantly left sided-pain, and the pain was present at all times. However, it worsens with increased activity.

Post-laminectomy Cervical Kyphosis

Presented by: I. Kalfas MD

This 58-year-old male patient presents with severe neck pain with mild bilateral arm pain.

Articles Reviewed by Iain Kalfas, MD

Epidural Steroid Injections and Low Back Pain

Epidural steroid injections are an effective method of treatment for more serious lower back pain.

Bone Grafts: New Developments

The use of BMP-2 in spinal fusions will eliminate the need for taking the patient's own bone.

Gene Therapy: On the Cutting-Edge

Gene therapy is a cutting-edge technique that has moved from theoretical fantasy into a potential medical therapy.

Low Back Disc Disease and Herniated Discs

Lumbar herniated discs can cause lower back pain and sciatica. Article (written by a leading spine surgeon) includes table showing nerve-related symptoms.

Vertebral Wedge Fracture

A wedge fracture is a vertebral compression fracture occurring anteriorly (front) or laterally (side). Viewed, the affected vertebra resembles a wedge.

Compression and Wedge Fractures

Injury or trauma to the spine may cause compression and wedge fractures, which are very painful and require immediate medical attention.

Burst Fractures: Defined and Diagnosed

A burst fracture is a descriptive term for an injury to the spine in which the vertebral body is severely compressed. They typically occur from severe trauma, such as a motor vehicle accident or a fall from a height. With a great deal of force vertically onto the spine, a vertebra may be crushed.

Burst Fractures: Treatment and Recovery

A vertebral burst fracture can cause extreme pain and requires immediate professional medical assistance.

Spinal Pumps and Spinal Cord Stimulators

Although far from panaceas, spinal pumps and spinal cord stimulators have proven to be very effective with carefully selected patients whose severe pain persists despite prior treatment efforts.

Compression and Wedge Fractures: Treatment and Recovery

Osteoporosis may cause vertebral compression and wedge fractures; some of these fractures can now be treated using vertebroplasty.

Osteoporosis and Compression Fractures

Learn more about osteoporosis compression fractures, which can cause you back pain. Orthopaedic surgeon-written article on osteoporosis treatments and diagnosis.

Financial Disclosures

SpineUniverse, a Vertical Health, LLC website, is committed to ensuring that the medical information it presents is accurate, balanced, objective, and trustworthy. 

To help achieve this goal, SpineUniverse requires all authors, editors, and reviewers to disclose any financial relationships or affiliations they have with companies whose products or services may be mentioned in the content they author, edit, or review.

The intent of this policy is to identify any perceived, potential, or real conflicts of interest so that readers can make their own judgments about the value of information being presented.

Author's Statement

I, the undersigned, declare that neither I nor members of my immediate family have a financial interests or affiliation with commercial companies whose products and / or services may be mentioned in the materials I have authored, edited or reviewed for presentation on Vertical Health, LLC’s websites.
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