Frank M. Phillips, MD's portrait
Frank M. Phillips, MD
Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
Director, Section of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery
Director, Division of Spine Surgery
Rush University Medical Center
Chicago, IL

About Frank M. Phillips, MD

Dr. Frank Phillips is Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Director of the Section of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery, and Director of the Division of Spine Surgery at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago, IL. Dr. Phillips specializes in minimally invasive spine surgery, motion-preserving spinal procedures (ie, artificial disc replacement) and spinal reconstruction surgery of the cervical and lumbar spine. His research interests also include intervertebral disc biology and regeneration.

Dr. Phillips received his medical degree from the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. He completed an orthopaedic surgical residency at The University of Chicago Hospitals in Chicago, followed by a spine fellowship at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, OH. Dr. Phillips is board certified by the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery.

Dr. Phillips’ research is widely published in peer-reviewed journals and he lectures extensively presenting at meetings and spinal educational courses for spine surgeons. He is a contributing member of several spine societies, including the Cervical Spine Research Society, International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery, International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine, North American Spine Society, Orthopaedic Research Society, and Society for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery.


Peer-Reviewed Publications

1. Cohen I, Mitchell D, Seider R, Kahn A, Phillips FM. The effects of water deficit on body temperature during rugby. S Afr Med J, 60:11-14, 1981.

2. Phillips FM, Pottenger LA: Acute septic arthritis in chronic osteonecrosis of the hip.  J Rheumatol, 15:1713-1716, 1988.

3. Phillips FM, Pottenger LA: In vitro reconstitution of the cartilage matrix granule network. Anat. Rec, 225:26-34, 1989.

4. Phillips FM, Pottenger LA, Hay RV: In situ cross-linking of cartilage proteoglycans.  J Orthop Res,  8:189-198, 1990.

5. Pottenger LA, Phillips FM, Draganich LF: The effect of marginal osteophytes on reduction of varus-valgus instability of osteoarthritic knees. Arthritis and Rheum  33:853-858, 1990.

6. Kahn A, Pottenger LA, Phillips FM, Viola, BA: Evidence for proteoglycan-proteoglycan interactions within cartilage aggregates. J Orthop Res,  9:777-787, 1991.

7. Phillips FM, Pottenger LA, Finn HA, VanderMolen, J: Cementless total hip arthroplasty in patients with steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the hip.  A 62-month follow-up study. Clin Orthop Rel Res, 303:147-154, 1994.

8. Posever J, Phillips FM, Pottenger LA: Effects of bFGF, TGF-ß, IGF-I, and insulin on osteoarthritic human articular cartilage explants. J Orthop Res 13:832-837, 1995.

9. Pokharna HK, Phillips FM: Changes in pyridinoline and pentosidine in human lumbar intervertebral discs with aging. Arth Rheum 39:1460, 1996.

10. Phillips FM, Carlson G, Emery SE, Bohlman HH: Anterior cervical pseudarthrosis: Natural history and treatment. Spine 22:1585-1589, 1997.

11. Wetzel FT, Phillips FM, Bernard TN, Aprill CN, LaRocca SH: Extradural sensory rhizotomy in the management of chronic lumbar radiculopathy: A minimum two-year follow-up study. Spine 22(19): 2283-2292, 1997.

12. Pokharna HK, Phillips FM: Collagen crosslinks in human lumbar intervertebral disc aging. Spine 23(15): 1654-1658, 1998.

13. Wetzel FT, Tansey LP, Phillips FM, Sinclair DM: A critical appraisal of pain associated with iatrogenic adult spinal deformity and treatment by spinal cord stimulation. Neuromodulation, 2(1): 15-22, 1999.

14. Phillips FM, Phillips CS, Wetzel FT, Gelinas C: Occipito-cervical neutral position: Possible surgical implications. Spine 24(8):775-778, 1999.

15. Wetzel FT, Brustein M, Phillips FM, Trott S: Hardware failure in unconstrained lumbar pedicle screw system:  A two-year follow-up study. Spine 24(11):1138-1143, 1999.

16. Vraney RT, Phillips FM: Peridiscal arterial anatomy of the lumbar spine: An endoscopic perspective. Spine 24(21):2183-2187, 1999.

17. Wetzel FT, Hassenbusch S, Willis KD, Phillips FM: Failed Back Surgery. Biomechanics 6(11):51-62, 1999.

18. Phillips FM: Current surgical management of metastatic spinal disease. Oncology 14(7):1029-1030, 2000.

19. Wetzel FT, Phillips FM: Management of Metastatic Disease of the Spine. Orthop. Clin. N. America 31(4):32-43, 2000.

20. Phillips FM, Carlson G, Bohlman HH, Hughes S: The results of surgery for spinal stenosis adjacent to a previous lumbar fusion. J Spinal Disorder’s 13(5):432-437, 2000.

21. Wetzel FT, Andersson GB, Lee C, Yuan H, Rashbaum R, Peloza J, Phillips FM. Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy (IDET) to treat discogenic low back pain: Preliminary results of a multi-center prospective trial. Pain Med 1(2);201-202, 2000.

22. Wetzel F, McCracken L, Robbins RA, Lahey DM, Carnegie M, Phillips FM: Temporal stability of the MMPI in patients undergoing lumbar fusion: A poor predictor of surgical outcome. American J Orthopaedic Surgery 30(6):469-474, 2001.

23. Phillips FM, Paul R, Lieberman I: Kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic and osteolytic vertebral compression fractures. Adv Osteopor Fracture Management 1(1):7-11, 2001.

24. Phillips FM, Cunningham B. Inter-transverse lumbar interbody fusion (ILIF). A new technique.  Spine, 27(2):37-41, 2002.

25. Wetzel FT, McNally T, Phillips FM: Lumbar Discography. Seminars in Spine Surgery, 13(4):268-274, 2002.

26. Phillips FM, Reuben J, Wetzel FT: Intervertebral disc degeneration adjacent to inter-transverse lumbar spine fusion - An experimental rabbit model. J Bone Joint Surg, 84(2);289-294, 2002.

27. Phillips FM, T Wetzel, Lieberman I, M Campbell-Hupp. An in vivo comparison of the potential for extra-vertebral cement leak after vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty.  Spine, 27(19);2173-2177, 2002.

28. Wetzel FT, McNally T, Phillips FM: Intradiscal electrothermal therapy used to manage chronic discogenic low back pain.  Spine, 27(22);2621-2626, 2002.

29. Phillips FM, Cunningham B: Managing chronic pain of spinal origin after lumbar surgery: The role of decompressive surgery.  Spine, 27(22);2547-2553, 2002.

30. Phillips FM, Pfeifer BA, Lieberman IH, Kerr EJ 3rd, Choi IS: Minimally invasive treatments of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty; AAOS Instr Course Lect.52:559-67, 2003.

31. Paul RJ, Haydon R, Chen H, Ishikawa A, Nenadovich N, Jiang W, Zhou L, Breyer B, Feng T, Gupta P, He TC, Phillips FM. Potential use of Sox-9 gene therapy in degenerative disc disease. Spine, 15:28(8);755-763, 2003.

32. Sun M, Cheng H, Phillips FM, Peng Y, Kang Q, Haydon R, He TC Bone morphogenic proteins and bone regeneration: From biology to clinical applications. Adv Osteopor Fracture Management  2(3);70-78, 2003.

33. Zdeblick TA, Phillips FM: Interbody Cage Devices. Spine 28(15):S2-7, 2003.

34. Phillips FM. Minimally invasive treatments for osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Spine 28(15):S45-53, 2003.

35. Phillips FM, Ho E, McNally T, Wetzel FT, Gupta P. Early clinical and radiographic results of kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteopenic vertebral compression fractures. Spine 1;28(19):2260-5, 2003.

36. Cheng H, Jiang W, Phillips FM, Haydon RC, Peng Y, Zhou L, Luu HH, An N, Breyer B, Vanichakarn P, Szatkowski JP, Park JY, He TC. Osteogenic Activity of the 14 Types of Human Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs).  J Bone and Joint Surg  85(8): 1544-1552, 2003.

37. Patwardhan A, Caradang G, Ghanayem A, Voronov L, Cunningham B, Phillips FM. Compressive preload improves the stability of the anterior lumbar interbody fusion cage construct. J Bone Joint Surg 85(9): 17491756, 2003.

38. Sun M, Cheng H, Phillips FM, Peng Y, Kang Q, Haydon R, He TC Bone morphogenic proteins and bone regeneration: From biology to clinical applications. Adv Osteopor Fracture Management  2(3);70-78, 2003.

39. Vaccaro A, Patel T, McCulloch JA, Truumees E, Fischgrund J, Herkowitz H, Hilibrand A, Phillips FM, Albert T. A pilot safety and efficacy study of OP-1 (rhBMP-7) with iliac crest autograft in posterolateral lumbar fusions for degenerative spondylolisthesis. Eur Spine J 12(5):495-500, 2003.

40. Phillips FM. Noninstrumented posterolateral fusion for patients with spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Spine. 29(2): 170-2, 2004.

41. Groen RJ, Du Toit DF, Phillips FM, Hoogland PV, Kuizenga K, Coppes MH, Muller CJ, Grobbelaar M, Mattyssen J.  Anatomic and pathologic considerations in percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty: A reappraisal of the vertebral venous system. Spine. 1;29(13):1465-1471, 2004.

42. Phillips FM, Cunningham B, Caradang G, Voronov L, Ghanayem A, Havey RM, Patwardhan AG.  Effect of supplemental translaminar facet screw fixation on the stability of stand-alone ALIF cages under physiologic compressive loads. Spine. 29(16):1731-1736, 2004.

43. Yuan H, Brown C, Phillips FM. Osteoporotic Spinal Deformity:  A Biomechanical Rationale for the Clinical Consequences and Treatment of Vertebral Body Compression Fractures.  J Spinal Disorders 17(3):236-242, 2004.

44. Phillips FM, Ho E, Cunningham BW. Radiographic criteria for placement of translaminar facet screws. The Spine Journal 4(4);465-467, 2004.

45. Vaccaro A, Patel T, Fischgrund J, Anderson DG, Truumees E, Herkowitz HN, Phillips FM, Hilibrand A, Albert T, Wetzel T, McCulloch JA.  A pilot study evaluating the safety and efficacy of OP-1 putty (rhBMP-7) as a replacement for iliac crest autograft in posterolateral lumbar fusions for degenerative spondylolisthesis.  Spine. 29(17):1885-1892, 2004.

46. Lieberman IH, Phillips FM, Togawa D, Modic M, Masaryk T, Obuchowski N, Slipman CW. Vertebral augmentation and the limits of interpreting complications reported in the food and drug administration manufacturer and user facility device experience database. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 15(11):1193-6, 2004.

47. Vaccaro AR, Patel T, Fischgrund J, Anderson DG, Truumees E, Herkowitz H, Phillips F, Hilibrand A, Albert TJ. A 2-year follow-up pilot study evaluating the safety and efficacy of OP-1 putty (rhBMP-7) as an adjunct to iliac crest autograft in posterolateral lumbar fusions. Eur Spine J. 26, 2005.

48. Gaitanis IN, Voronov LI, Ghanayem AJ, Carandang G, Magovern B, Havey RM, Zindrick MR, Phillips, FM,  Hadjipavlou AG, Patwardhan AG.  Effect of balloon (bone tamp) inflation on restoring geometric and loading alignment in thoracic vertebral compression fractures.  Accepted Eur Spine J, 2003.

49. Gaitanis IN, Carandang G, Phillips, FM,  Voronov LI, Ghanayem AJ, Magovern B, Havey RM, Zindrick MR, Hadjipavlou AG, Patwardhan AG. Restoring geometric and loading alignment of thoracic spine with vertebral compression fracture.  Effects of balloon tamp inflation and spinal extension. Spine J. 5(1):45-54; 2005.

50. Seldomridge JA, Phillips FM. Minimally invasive spine surgery. Am J Orthop. 36(5);224-232, 2005.

51. Phillips FM, Garfin S. Cervical disc replacement. Spine. 30(17S):S27-33, 2005.

52. Phillips FM, Bolt PM, He TC, Haydon R.  Gene therapy for spine fusion. Spine J. 5(6):S250-8, 2005.

53. Singh K, Strom J, Manning D, Campbell-Hupp M, Wetzel FT, Gupta P, Phillips FM. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study evaluating the efficacy of postoperative continuous local anesthetic infusion at the iliac crest bone graft site after spinal arthrodesis. Spine. 30(22):2477-83, 2005.

54. Zhang Y, Li Z, He T-C, Thonar E, An HS, Pietryla, D, Phillips, FM.  Transduced bovine articular chondrocytes affect the metabolism of cocultured nucleus pulposus cells in vitro: implications for chondrocyte transplantation into the intervertebral disc.  Spine 30(23):2601-7, 2005.

55. Singh K, Heller JG, Samartzis D, Price S, An HS, Yoon ST, Rhee J, Ledlie J, Phillips FM. Open cement augmentation combined with lumbar decompression for the operative management of thoracolumbar stenosis secondary to osteoporotic burst fractures. J Spinal Disord Tech. 18(5):413-419, 2005.

56. Singh K, Samartzis D, Vaccaro AR, Nassr A, Andersson GB, Yoon ST, Phillips FM, Goldberg EJ, An HS. Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective, control-matched, cohort radiographic analysis.  Spine J. 5(6):615-22, 2005.

57. Vaccaro A, Anderson DG, Patel T, Fischgrund J, Truumees E, Herkowitz HN, Phillips FM, Hilibrand A, Albert T, Wetzel T, McCulloch JA.  Comparison of OP-1 Putty (rhBMP-7) to iliac crest autograft for posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis: a minimum 2-year follow-up pilot study. Spine. 15;30(24):2709-16, 2005.

58. Hughes SS, Pringle T, Phillips FM,Emery S. Settling of Fibula Strut Grafts Following Multilevel Anterior Cervical Corpectomy: A Radiographic Evaluation. Spine. 31(17):1911-1915, 2006.

59 Phillips FM, Sulpizio BS, Mohr K, Turner S, MacLeay J, Toth CA,  Wheeler D. In vivo BMP- 7 enhancement of osteoporotic vertebral bodies in an ovine model.  Spine J. 6(5):500-6. 2006.

60. Manson NA, Phillips FM. Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. J Bone Joint Surg. Am. 88(8):1862-72. 2006.

61. Frantzides CT, Zeni TM, Phillips FM, Mathur S, Zografakis JG, Moore RM, Laguna LE. L5-S1 Laparoscopic anterior interbody fusion. Submitted J Soc Laparoendoscopic Surg. 10(4):488-92. 2006.

62. Zhang Y, An HS, Thonar E, Pietryla, D, Chubinskaya S, He T-C, Phillips, FM. Comparative Effects of Adenovirus Expressing Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Sox9 on Extracellular Matrix Metabolism of Bovine Nucleus Pulposus Cells. Spine 31(19):2173-2179, 2006.

63. Phillips FM, Voronov, L, Gaitanis, I, Carandang, G, Havey, R, Patwardhan, A G.  Biomechanics of posterior dynamic stabilizing device (DIAM) after facetectomy and discectomy.  Spine J. 6(6):714-22, 2006.

64. DuBois CM, Bolt PM, Todd AG Gupta P, Wetzel FT, Phillips FM. Static versus dynamic plating for multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Spine J. 7:188-193, 2007.

65. Vaccaro AR, Whang PG, Patel T, Phillips FM, Anderson DG, Albert TJ, Hilibrand AS, Brower RS, Kurd MF, Appannagari A, Patel M, Fischgrund JS. The safety and efficacy of OP-1 (rhBMP-7) as a replacement for iliac crest autograft for posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis: minimum 4-year follow-up of a pilot study. Spine J. 8(3):457-65; 2008.

66. Zhang Y, Anderson DG, Phillips FM, Thonar EJ, He TC, Pietryla D, An HS. Comparative effects of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Sox9 overexpression on matrix accumulation by bovine anulus fibrosus cells - Implications for annular repair.  Spine 32(23): 2515-2520, 2007.

67. Singh K, Campbell-Hupp M, Kuo E, Phillips FM. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy of postoperative continuous local anesthetic infusion at the iliac crest bone graft site after posterior spinal arthrodesis: A minimum of four-year follow-up. Spine. 1;32(25):2790-6; 2007.

68. Tzermiadianos MN, Renner SM, Phillips FM, Hadjipavlou AG, Zindrick MR, Havey RM, Voronov M, Patwardhan AG. Altered disc pressure profile after an osteoporotic vertebral fracture is a risk factor for adjacent vertebral body fracture. Eur Spine J, 2008.

69. Phillips FM, Tzermiadianos MN, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Caradang G, Renner SM, Rossler DM, Ochoa J, Patwardhan AG. Effect of the Total Facet Arthroplasty System after complete laminectomy-facetectomy on the biomechanics of implanted and adjacent segments. Spine J. 9(1):96-102, 2009.

70. Zhang Y, Phillips FM, Thonar EJ, Oegema T, An HS, Roman-Blas JA, He TC, Anderson DG. Cell therapy using articular chondrocytes overexpressing BMP-7 or BMP-10 in a rabbit disc organ culture model. Spine 33(8):831-838; 2008.

71. Kwon BK, Mann C, Sohn HM, Hilibrand AS, Phillips FM, Wang JC, Fehlings MG. Hypothermia for spinal cord injury. Spine J. 2008.

72. Li X, An HS, Ellman M, Phillips FM, Thonar EJ, Park D, Udayakumar RK, Im HJ.  The catabolic and anti-anabolic action of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor on the intervertebral disc.  Arthritis Res Ther. 10(2), 2008.

73. Rihn JA, Gates C, Glassman SD, Phillips FM, Schwender JD, Albert TJ. The use of bone morphogenetic protein in lumbar spine surgery.  J Bone Joint Surg Am. 90(9):2014-25, 2008.

74. Li X, Phillips FM, An HS, Ellman M, Thonar E, Wu W, Park D, Im HJ. The action of resveratrol, a Phytoestrogen found in grapes, on the intervertebral disc.  Spine 13(24): 2586-2595, 2008.

75. Phillips FM, Allen RT, Regan JJ, Albert TA, Capuccino A, Devine JG, Ahrens JE, Hipp JA, McAfee PC. Cervical Disc Replacement in Patients with and without Previous Adjacent Level Fusion Surgery: A Prospective Study. Spine. 15;34(6):556-65, 2009.

76. Zhang Y, Markova D, Im HJ, Hu W, Thonar EJ, He TC, An HS, Phillips FM, Anderson DG. Primary bovine intervertebral disc cells transduced with adenovirus over-expressing 12 BMPs and Sox9 maintain appropriate phenotype.  Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 88(6):455-63, 2009.

77. Rihn JA, Berven S, Phillips FM, Currier BL, et al. Defining value in spine care. Am J Med Qual. 24(6):4-14, 2009.

78. Allen RT, Rihn JA, Glassman SD, Currier B, Albert TJ, Phillips FM. An evidence-based approach to spine care. Am J Med Qual. 24(6):15-24, 2009.

79. Smith HE, Rihn JA, Brodke DS, Guyer R, Coric D, Lonner B, Shelokov AP, Currier BL, Riley L, Phillips FM, Albert TA. Spine Care: Evaluation of the efficacy and cost of emerging technology. Am J Med Qual. 24(6):25-32, 2009.

80. Phillips FM, Tzermiadianos MN, Voronov LI, Havey RM, Carandang G, Dooris A, Patwardhan AG. Effect of two-level total disc replacement on cervical spine kinematics. Spine 15:34(22):794-9, 2009.

81. McAfee PC, Cappucino A, Cunningham BW, DeVine JG, Phillips FM, Regan JJ, Albert TJ, Ahrens JE.  Lower incidence of dysphagia with cervical arthroplasty compared with ACDF in a prospective randomized clinical trial. J Spinal Disord Tech 23:1–8, 2010.

82. Park DK, Lee MJ, Lin EL, Singh K, An HS, Phillips FM. The Relationship of Intrapsoas Nerves During a Transpsoas Approach to the Lumbar Spine: Anatomic Study. J Spinal Disord Tech. 23(4):223-8, 2010.

83. Pelinkovic D, Udayakumar RK, Phillips FM.  Balloon-assisted fracture reduction in high energy burst fractures. Seminars in Spine Surgery 22(2): 67-72, 2010.

84. Park DK, Lin EL, Phillips FM.  Index and adjacent level kinematics after cervical disc replacement and anterior fusion; In vivo radiographic analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 20;36(9):721-30, 2011.

85. Singh K, Dumonski M, Stanley T, Ponnappan R, Phillips FM.  Repeat use of rhBMP-2 for second level lumbar arthodesis. Spine 36(3):192-196, 2011.

86. Lee M, Dumonski M, Phillips F, Voronov L, Renner S, Carandang G, Havey R, Patwardhan A. disc replacement adjacent to cervical fusion: A biomechanical comparison of hybrid construct vs. two-level fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1;36(23):1932-9, 2011.

87. McAfee PC, Phillips FM, Andersson G, Buvenenadran A, Kim CW, Lauryssen C, Isaacs RE, Youssef JA, Brodke DS, Cappuccino A, Akbarnia BA, Mundis GM, Smith WD, Uribe JS, Garfin S, Allen RT, Rodgers WB, Pimenta L, Taylor W. Minimally invasive spine surgery. Spine 15;35: S271-3, 2010.

88. Mundis GM, Akbarnia BA, Phillips FM. Adult deformity correction through minimally invasive lateral approach techniques. Spine 15;35:S312-21, 2010,

89. Isaacs RE, Hyde J, Goodrich JA, Rodgers WB, Phillips FM. A prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter evaluation of extreme lateral interbody fusion for the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis: perioperative outcomes and complications. Spine 15;35:S322-30, 2010.

90. Kim CW, Siemionow K, Anderson DG, Phillips FM. The current state of minimally invasive spine surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 93(6):582-96, 2011.

91. Phillips FM, Garfin SR. Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion. Orthopedics 34(8):600-1, 2011.

92. McAfee PC, Garfin SR, Rodgers WB, Allen RT, Phillips FM, Kim C. An attempt at clinically defining and assessing minimally invasive surgery compared with traditional open spinal surgery.  SAS Journal 5;125-130 2011.

93. Papanastassiou ID, Phillips FM, Van Meirhaeghe J, Berenson JR, Andersson GB, Chung G, Small BJ, Aghayev K, Vrionis FD. Comparing the effects of kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty, and nonsurgical management in a meta-analysis of nonrandomized controlled studies. Eur Spine J. 21(9):1826-43 2012.

94. Pelton MA, Phillips FM, Singh K. A Comparison of Peri-operative Costs and Outcomes in Patients With and Without Workers' Compensation Claims Treated with MIS or Open TLIF. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 37(22):1914-9 2012.

95. Singh K, Phillips FM, Park DK, Pelton MA, An HS, Goldberg EJ. Factors affecting reoperations after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion within and outside of a Federal Drug Administration investigational device exemption cervical disc replacement trial. Spine J. 12(5):372-8 2012

96. Badlani N, Boden S, Phillips F.  Orthopaedic specialty hospitals; Centers of excellence or greed machines?  Orthopedics. 35(3):420-5 2012.

97. Kornblum MB, Turner AW, Cornwall GB, Zatushevsky MA, Phillips FM. Biomechanical evaluation of stand-alone lumbar polyether-ether-ketone interbody cage with integrated screws. Spine J. 13: 77-84 2013.

98. Phillips FM, Slosar PJ, Youssef JA, Andersson G. Lumbar spine fusion for chronic low back pain due to degenerative disc disease: A Systematic Review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 38(7):E409-22 2013

99. Lee J, Whang PG, Lee JY, Phillips FM, Patel AA.  Lumbar spinal stenosis. AAOS.Instr Course Lect. 62:383-96. 2013.

100. Badlani N, Foran JR, Phillips FM, Pelton M, Singh K, Garfin SR, Allen RT. Patient perceptions of physician reimbursement for spine surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 38(15):1288-1293  2013.

101. Phillips FM, Lee JY, Geisler FH, Cappuccino A, Chaput CD, Devine JG, Reah C, Gilder KM, Howell KM, McAfee PC. A Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical investigation comparing PCM cervical disc arthroplasty to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: Two-year results from the US IDE clinical trial.  Spine. 38(15):E907-E918, 2013.

102. Rihn JA, Currier BL, Phillips FM, Glassman SD, Albert TJ.  Defining the value of spine care.  J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 21(7):419-26 2013.

103. Phillips FM, Isaacs RE, Rodgers WB, Khajavi K, Tomeh AG, Deviren V, Peterson MD, Hyde J, Kurd M. Adult Degenerative Scoliosis Treated with XLIF: Clinical and Radiographic Results of a Prospective Multi-center Study with 24-Month Follow-Up. Spine 38(21):1853-61 2013.

104. Singh K, Nandyala SV, Marquez-Lara A, Fineberg SJ, Oglesby M, Pelton MA, Andersson GB, Isayeva D, Jegier BJ, Phillips FM A perioperative cost analysis comparing single-level minimally invasive and open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Spine J 14(8):1694-701 2014.

105. Phillips FM, Geisler FH, Gilder KM, Reah C, Howell KM, McAfee PC. Long-Term Outcomes of the US FDA IDE Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing PCM® Cervical Disc Arthroplasty to Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion. Spine 40(10):674-683 2015. 

106. Tabaraee E, Ahn J, Bohl DD, Phillips FM, Singh K: Quantification of Multifidus Atrophy and Fatty Infiltration Following a Minimally Invasive Microdiscectomy. Int J Spine Surg 9(25) 2015.

107. Phillips FM, Cheng I, Rampersaud YR, Akbarnia BA, Pimenta L, Rodgers WB, Uribe JS, Khanna N, Smith WD, Youssef JA, Sulaiman W, Tohmeh A, Cannestra A, Wohns R, Okonkwo DO, Acosta F, Rodgers EJ, Andersson G.  Breaking through the glass ceiling of minimally invasive spine surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). Suppl 8:S39-43 2016.

108. Goldstein CL, Phillips FM, Rampersaud YR.  Comparative effectiveness and economic evaluations of open versus minimally invasive posterior or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.  A systematic review.  Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 8:S74-8. 2016.

109. Saigal R, Mundis GM Jr, Eastlack R, Uribe J, Phillips F, Akbarnia BA.  Anterior column realignment (ACR) in adult sagittal deformity correction. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 8:S66-73. 2016/

110. Siemionow K, Janusz P, Phillips FM, Youssef JA, Isaacs R, Tyrakowski M, McCormack B. Clinical and Radiographic Results of Indirect Decompression and Posterior Cervical Fusion for Single-Level Cervical Radiculopathy Using an Expandable Implant with 2-Year Follow-Up. J Neurol Surg Eur 2016.

111. Voronov LI, Siemionow KB, Havey RM, Carradang, G, Phillips FM, Patwardhan, AG.  Bilateral posterior cervical cages provide biomechanical stability: assessment of stand-alone and supplemental fixation for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Med Devices. 13;9:223-30 2016.

112. Virk S, Phillips FM, Khan S. Reimbursement and charges related to a 90-day episode of care for a one- or two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 17;98(16):1378-84. 2016.

113. Singh K, Bohl DD, Ahn J, Massel DH, Mayo BC, Narain AS, Hijji FY, Louie PK, Long WW, Modi KD, Kim TD, Kudaravalli KT, Phillips FM, Buvanendran A. Multimodal Analgesia versus Intravenous Patient-controlled Analgesia For Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Procedures. Spine (Phila Pa 1976 1;42(15):1145-1150 2017.

114. Shifflett GD, Hellman MD, Louie PK, Mikhail C, Park KU, Phillips FM.  Return to golf after lumbar fusion. Sports Health. 9(3):280-284 2017.

115. Rihn JA, Radcliff K, Norvell DC, Eastlack R, Phillips FM, Berland D, Sherry N, Freedman M, Vaccaro AR.  Comparative Effectiveness of Treatments for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Multiple Treatment Comparison Analysis. Clin Spine Surg. 30(5):204-225 2017.

116. Jain N, Virk SS, Phillips FM, Yu E, Khan SN. A 90-day Bundled Payment for Primary Single-level Lumbar Discectomy/Decompression: What Does "Big Data" Say?  Clin Spine Surg. Clin Spine Surg. 31(3):120-126 2018.

117. Louie PK, Narain AS, Hijji FY, Yacob A, Yom KH, Phillips FM, Singh K.  Radiographic Analysis of Psoas Morphology and its Association with Neurovascular Structures at L4-5 with Reference to Lateral Approaches. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 15;42(24):1386-1392  2017.

118. Virk SS, Phillips FM, Khan SN. Patterns of healthcare resource utilization prior to anterior cervical decompression and fusion in patients with radiculopathy. Int J Spine Surg. 11(4):201-207 2017.

119. Virk SS, Diwan A, Phillips FM, Sandhu H, Khan SN. What is the Rate of Revision Discectomies After Primary Discectomy on a National Scale? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 475(11):2752-2762 2017.

120. Saifi C, Cazzulino A, Park C, Laratta JL, Louie P, Shillingford JS, Lehman RA, An HS, Phillips FM. National Trends for Primary and Revision Lumbar Disc Arthroplasty Throughout the United States. Global Spine Journal. Accepted July 2017. In Press.

121. Saifi C, Lombardi JM, Phillips FM. Transpsoas lateral lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative spine and adult deformity: Surgical Technique and the Evidence. Seminars in Spine Surgery. 30: 230-236  2018.

122. Saifi C, Fein A, Cazzulino A, Lehman Jr. RA, Phillips FM, An HS, Riew KD.  Trends in Resource Utilization and Rate of Cervical Disc Arthroplasty and Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion throughout the United States from 2006 to 2013. Spine J. Nov 2017 [Epub ahead of print].

123. Jain N, Phillips FM, Shimer AL, Khan SN. Surgeon Reimbursement Relative to Hospital Payments for Spinal Fusion: Trends from 10-year Medicare Analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 43(10):72-31 2018.

124. Virk SS, Phillips FM, Khan SN. The Influence of Geography, Time, and Payer Type on the Utilization of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Between 2005 and 2015. Clin Spine Surg. 31(4):174-79. 2018.

125. Jain N, Phillips FM, Khan SN. Ninety-Day Reimbursements for Primary Single-Level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion From Commercial and Medicare Data. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 43(3):193-200. 2018.

126. Virk SS, Phillips FM, Khan SF. Bundled payment reimbursement for anterior and posterior approaches for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: An analysis of private payer and Medicare databases. J Neurosurg Spine. 28(3):244-251 2018.

127. Jain N, Phillips FM, Khan SN. Distribution and determinants of 90-day payments for multi-level posterior lumbar fusion: A Medicare analysis. Clin Spine Surg. 31(3):E197-E203 2018.

128. Jain N, Phillips FM, Weaver T, Khan SN.  Pre-operative Chronic Opioid Therapy: A Risk Factor for Complications, Readmission, Continued Opioid Use and Increased Costs After One- and Two-Level Posterior Lumbar Fusion. Spine. (19):1331-1338 2018.

129. Sivaganesan A, Hirsch B, Phillips FM, McGirt MJ. Spine Surgery in the Ambulatory Surgery Center Setting: Value-Based Advancement or Safety Liability? Neurosurgery. 1: 83(2):159-65. 2018.

130. Jain N, Himed K, Toth JM, Briley KC, Phillips FM, Khan SN. Opioids delay healing of spinal fusion: A rabbit posterolateral lumbar fusion model. Spine J. 18(9):1659-1668, 2018.

131. Louie PK, Varthi AG, Narain AS, Lei V, Bohl DD, Shifflett GD, Phillips FM. Lateral lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration following previous lumbar fusion. Spine J. 18; 2025-2032, 2018.

132. Virk SS, Phillips FM, Moffatt-Bruce S, Khan SN. What factors influence reimbursement for 1-2 level anterior discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures? Spine. (Phila Pa 1976). 2018 Jun 26. [Epub ahead of print].

133. Jain N, Brock JL, Phillips FM, Weaver T, Khan SN. Chronic pre-operative opioid use is a risk factor for increased complications, resource use and costs after cervical fusion. Spine J. 18: 1989-1998, 2018.

134. Virk SS, Phillips FM, Samora WP, Khan SN.  The use of magnetic resonance imaging and plain radiographs among adolescents with back pain and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Int J Spine Surg 12(2) 54-159 2018.

135. Virk SS, Phillips FM, Khan SN. Factors utilization of steroid injections in the treatment of lumbosacral degenerative conditions in the United States. Int J Spine Surg 12(2) 139-148 2018.

136. Sravisht I, Louie PK, Nolte M, Phillips FM. The Relationship Between Low Grade Infection and Degenerative Disc Disease: A Review of Basic Science and Clinical Data.  Accepted J AAOS 2018.

137. Jain N, Brock JL, Tariq AM, Phillips FM, Khan SN. Prediction of Complications, Readmission and Revision Surgery Based on Duration of Pre-operative Opioid Use: Analysis of Major Joint Replacement and Lumbar Fusion. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 101(5): 384-391, 2019.

138. Jain N, Brock JL, Phillips FM, Weaver T, Khan SN. 30-day emergency department visits after primary lumbar fusion: Incidence, causes, risk factors, and costs. Clin Spine Surg. Accepted, November 2018.

139. Virk SS, Phillips FM, Moffatt-Bruce SD, Khan SN. What factors influence reimbursement for 1- to 2-level anterior discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures? Spine. 1;44(1):E33-E38 2019.

Book Chapters

1. Pottenger LA, Phillips FM, McGuire MS: Evidence for a hyaluronic acid-proteoglycan-link protein network in cartilage. In: Zarins CK (ed.) Essays in Surgery. New York: Churchill Livingstone Ch. 26  pp. 203-210, 1989.

2. Weinstein JN, Boriani S, Phillips FM Wetzel FT: Management of Benign Tumors of the Spine. In: Simon MA, and Springfield DS. (eds.) Surgery for Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven. Ch.19  pp. 207-226, 1998.

3. Phillips FM, Reider B: Lumbar Spine. In: Reider B (ed). The Orthopaedic Physical Examination. WB Saunders. Ch. 9 pp. 343-370, 1999.

4. Phillips FM and Wong W:  Vertebroplastyy and Kyphoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages. In: Resnick DK, Garfin SR (eds). Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty. Thieme Medical Publishers, NY. Ch. 12 pp.84-89, 2005.

5. Phillips FM: Kyphoplasty for the Treatment of Osteopaenic Vertebral Compression Fractures. In: Vaccaro AR, Albert TJ (eds). Tricks of the trade in Spinal Surgery. Thieme Medical Publishers, NY. Chapter 42, 2002.

6. Phillips FM, Pfeifer B, Liebeman I, Kerr E, Choi I, Pazianos A. Minimally Invasive Treatments of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures. AAOS Instructional Course Lecture Series. Ch. 48 pp.559-568, 2003.

7. Phillips FM. Failed Surgery and revision surgery: Failed Instrumentation. In: Herkowitz HN (ed.). Lumbar Spine. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia. Ch. 92 pp. 877-884  2004.

8. Haydon R, Phillips FM. Primary tumors of the Spine. In: McLain RF (ed.). Cancer in the Spine Handbook of Comprehensive Care. The Humana Press, NJ. Ch. 21 pp. 171-186 2006.

9. Phillips FM.  Complications of Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty. In. Vaccaro A, Crawford A, Anderson AG (eds.) Complications of Pediatric and Adult Spine Surgery. Marcel Dekker, New York. Ch. 37 593-614 2004.

10. Phillips FM. Osteoporosis: Surgical Strategies. In. Herkowitz F, Garfin S, Eismont F, Bell G, Balderston RA (eds.) Rothman-Simone The Spine 5th ed. WB Sauders, Philadelphia Ch. 79 pp. 1341-1356 2006.

11. Phillips FM, Sun MH. Thoracolumbar decompression: Anterior and posterior. In: Bono CM and Garfin SR (eds.) Spine  Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia Ch. 27  pp. 246-253 2004.

12. Wetzel FT, Phillips FM. The Surgeon's Perspective: Image-Guided Therapy and Its Relationship to Conventional Surgical Management. In John Mathis, ed. Image-Guided Spine Interventions. Springer-Verlag, New York. Ch. 4  pp. 371-380 2003.

13. Deol G, Haydon R, Phillips FM. Tumors of the Spine. In: Vacacaro A (ed.) Orthopaedic Knowledge Update (OKU) 8. AAOS, Rosemont. Chapter 48 pp. 587-598 2005.

14. Phillips FM. Section Editor: Degenerative Cervical Disorders. Instructional Course Lecture Series. Section 1 pp.5-62, AAOS 2003.

15. Phillips FM. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation. In: An HS, Jenis LG (eds.) Complications of Spinal Surgery.  Ch. 17 pp. 157-166, 2005.

16. Fiyyazi AA, Phillips FM. Kyphoplasty technique. In: Slipman CW, Derby R, Simeone F, Mayer T (eds.). Interventional spine: an algorithmic approach.  Elsevier Science. Ch. 33 pp. 377-384, 2007.

17. Co-Editor. Biologics in Spine. The Spine Journal Special Issue. 2005

18. Singh K, Phillips FM. DIAM Spinal Stabilization System. In: Kim D, Cammisa FP, Fessler RG (eds). Dynamic Reconstruction of the Spine. Thieme Medical Publishers (New York). Ch. 35 pp.274-283 2006.

19. Singh K, Phillips FM.  The Biomechanics and Biology of the Spinal Degenerative Cascade. In: Kuklo TR (ed). The Aging Spine. Seminars in Spine Surgery. 17(3): 128-137, 2005.

20. Lowe R and Phillips FM. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for malignant disease of the spine. In: Peabody T (ed). Current Opinion in Orthpaedics. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins (London). 16:489-493,  2005.

21. Singh K and Phillips FM: Posterior interspinous implants. In: Vaccaro AR, Albert TJ (eds). Tricks of the trade in Spinal Surgery. Thieme Medical Publishers, NY. Ch. 76, 2008.

22. Manson NA and Phillips FM: Minimally Invasive Techniques for the Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures. In: Marsh JL (ed).  Instructional Course Lecture Series. Ch. 27, 2006.

23. Faciszewski T and Phillips FM: Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty In: Marsh JL (ed).  Instructional Course Lecture Series. Ch. 27.1, 2006.

24. Kalluri P, Phillips FM. Surgical Treatment of the osteopenic patient.  Decision making in spine care.  Eds Anderson G, Vaccaro A (eds.)  Chapt. 55  Thieme (New York) 55  pp. 365-371 2006.

25. Phillips FM and Mather S: Minimally-invasive TLIF.  In: Bono CM, Vaccaro AR (eds.). Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery. Marcel-Decker (New York). Ch. 25  pp. 237-244 2007.

26. Phillips FM, Lee MJ, Park DK: XLIF: Degenerative Scoliosis. In, Goodrich JA, Volcan IJ (eds.). Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion. Quality Medical Publishing (St. Louis). Ch. 15 pp. 163-188 2008.

27. Lin E, Park DK, Whang PG, An HS, Phillips FM: O-arm surgical imaging.  In; Wiesel SW, Boden SD (eds.) Seminars in Spine Surgery. Elsevier (NY); 20 (3)  pp.209-213  2008.

28. Rihn JA, Gates C, Glassman SD, Phillips FM, Schwender JD, Albert TJ. The use of bone morphogenetic protein in lumbar spine surgery. In: Azar FM (ed).  Instructional Course Lecture Series (Illinois). Vol. 58 Ch. 64, pp: 677-688, 2009.

29. Allen RT, Phillips FM.  Thoracolumbar disc disease.  In: Miller MD, Hart JA, MacKnight JM (eds.) Essential Orthopaedics. Saunders Elsevier (Philadelphia).  Ch. 118  pp. 495-500  2009.

30. Singh K, Park D, Phillips FM. The biology and biomechanics of the spinal degenerative cascade. In: Phillips FM and Lauryssen C. The lumbar intervertebral disc. Ch. 6 pp. 53-66 2009.

31. DuBois C, Phillips FM, Foley KT.  Decompressive surgery for herniated nucleus pulposus.  In: Phillips FM and Lauryssen C. The lumbar intervertebral disc. Ch. 11 pp. 104-112 2009.

32. Lee M, Phillips FM. Kyphoplasty for the treatment of vertebral body fractures.  In: Shen FH and Shaffrey CI. Arthritis and Arthroplasty: The Spine. Saunders Elsevier (Philadelphia). Ch. 41 pp. 312-318 2010.

33. Phillips FM. Posterior cervical approach from Occiput to C-2; Posterior cervical approach to the subaxial spine; posterior cervical approach for laminoplasty; posterior iliac crest bone harvest.  Selective Exposures in Orthopaedic Surgery: The Spine.  Ed: Truumees E, Majid K. AAOS (Illinois) 2011.

34. Sabet H, Phillips FM. Pedicle screw fixation in the aging spine.  IN; Yue JJ ed. The comprehensive treatment of the aging spine. Saunders Elsevier (Philadelphia). Ch. 57 pp. 381-383 2011.

35. Phillips FM, Lee MJ. Osteoporosis: Surgical Strategies. In. Herkowitz F, Garfin S, Eismont F, Bell G, Balderston RA (eds.) Rothman-Simone The Spine. WB Sauders, Philadelphia Ch. 88 pp. 1596-1611. 2011.

36. Kim CW, Siemionow K, Anderson GD, Phillips FM.  The current state of minimally invasive spine surgery.  In: Egol KA, Tornetta P. (ed).  Instructional Course Lecture Series (Illinois). Vol. 60 Ch. 30, pp: 353-372, 2011.

37. Allen, RT, Phillips FM.  Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty.  In: Wang JC (ed.). Advanced Reconstruction: Spine.  Ch. 70 pp. 651-660. 2011.

38. Phillips FM, Harris CB. Transoral odontoidectomy.  In: Baaj AA, Mummaneni PV, Uribe JS, Vaccaro AR, Greenberg MS (eds).  Handbook of Spine Surgery.  Thieme, NY. Ch. 28 pp. 209-214. 2011.

39. Shukairy MS, Phillips FM.  Anterior cervical corpectomy. In: Baaj AA, Mummaneni PV, Uribe JS, Vaccaro AR, Greenberg MS (eds).  Handbook of Spine Surgery.  Thieme, NY. Ch. 28 pp. 209-214. 2011.

40. Ali M, Phillips FM. Cervical disc herniation.  Anterior cervival diskectomy and fusion versus arthroplasty.  In: Jandial R, Garfin SR (eds.). Best evidence for spine surgery.  Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia.  Ch. 1 pp. 1-13, 2012.

41. Phillips FM, Harris CB. Spinal fusion: Dorsal approach. In Benzel EC (ed).  Spine Surgery. Techniques, complication avoidance and management. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia.  Ch. 224 pp. 2123-2149, 2012.

42. Siemionow KB, Phillips FM. Adjacent segment disease.  In Benzel EC (ed). The Cervical Spine.  Lippincott, Philadelphia PA.  Ch. 116 pp. 1332-1336, 2012.

43. Badlani N, Phillips FM. Lateral lumbar interbody fusion. In Zdeblick TA, Albert TJ (eds). The Spine.  Third Edition.  Lippincott, Philadelphia.  Ch. 29 pp. 357-372, 2014.

44. Badlani N, Phillips FM. Posterior cervical decompression.  In Phillips FM, Lieberman IH, Polly DW (eds). Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery: Surgical Techniques and Disease Management.  Springer (New York) Ch. 10 pp. 91-98, 2014.

45. Presciutti SM, Moss IL, Phillips FM. Adult Scoliosis.  In Phillips FM, Lieberman IH, Polly DW (eds). Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery: Surgical Techniques and Disease Management.  Springer (New York) Ch. 29 pp, 315-335, 2014.

46. Banagan K, Phillips FM. Subaxial cervical spine injuries. In Shen FH, Samartzis D, Fessler RG (eds). Textbook of the Cervical Spine.  Elsevier, Missouri. Ch. 18  pp. 184-191, 2014.

47. Saifi C, Lombardi JM, Phillips FM. Anterior and Lateral Interbody Fusion: Indications and Techniques in Lumbar Scoliosis. In: Hart RA et al. International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine (ISSLS) Textbook. In Press.

48. Phillips FM, Kurd MF, Schroeder GD, Kreitz T. Osteoporosis: Surgical Strategies. In. Garfin S, Eismont F, Bell G, Fischgrund JS, Bono CM (eds.) Rothman-Simone The Spine. WB Sauders, Philadelphia Ch. 89 pp. 11611-1623 2018.


1. Selective Exposures in Orthopaedic Surgery: The Spine.  Ed: Phillips FM. AAOS (Illinois) 2004.

2. The lumbar intervertebral disc.  Eds; Phillips FM, Lauryssen C. Thieme (New York) 2009.

3. Treatment of complex cervical spine disorders: Orthopaedic Clinics of North America. Ed: Phillips FM, Kahn SN. WB Saunders (Philadelphia) 2011.

4. Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery: Surgical Techniques and Disease Management.  Eds: Phillips FM, Lieberman IH, Polly DW.  Springer (New York) 2014.

Articles Reviewed by Frank M. Phillips, MD

Cervical Artificial Disc Replacement Outcomes at 5 to 10 Years

During ISASS19, Frank Phillips, MD, presented 5 to 10 year cervical artificial disc replacement outcomes; one of the most rigorously studied procedures to date in spine surgery.

Financial Disclosures

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Disclosed Relationships

Consultant/Independent Contractor
NuVasive, SI-Bone, Stryker
Board of Directors
Board of Directors/Scientific Advisory Board: International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery, Society for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery, TheraCell, Vital 5, EDGe Surgical, Providence Medical Technology, Vertiflex, Surgio
Scientific/Other Advisory Board
Scientific Advisory Board: NuVasive, SI-Bone, Stryker
Other Relationships/Disclosures
Royalities: NuVasive, Medtronic