Stephen Lewis, MD's portrait
Stephen Lewis, MD
Orthopaedic Spine Surgeon
Toronto Western Hospital and Hospital for Sick Children
Toronto, ON

About Stephen Lewis, MD

Doctor Stephen Lewis is a board certified and dual fellowship trained orthopaedic spine surgeon at the Toronto Western Hospital and the Hospital for Sick Children affiliated with the University of Toronto, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In addition, he is an Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery at UHN.

Dr. Lewis received his medical degree at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec and completed a surgical internship at Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto in Ontario. This highly trained and experienced surgeon completed a Spine Fellowship at Washington University in St. Louis, MO under the tutelage of Doctors Keith Bridwell, Lawrence Lenke, and Daniel Riew. A Spine and Trauma Fellowship at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto followed under Doctors Robert McBroom and James Waddell.

During Dr. Lewis' career he has received many honors and awards for his teaching, contributions, and excellence. Further, he is an active member of prestigious medical and scientific organizations including North American Spine Society, Scoliosis Research Society, Spine Deformity Study Group, Canadian Orthopaedic Association, and Canadian Spine Society.


Peer Reviewed - Journal Publications - Published
1. Lewis SJ, Bell RS, Fernandes BJJ, Burkes RL: Malignant Lymphoma of Bone. Canadian Journal of Surgery 1994: 37: pp 43-49.

2. Lewis SJ, Wunder JS, Couture J, Davis M, Catton C, Kandel RA, Kotwall C, O'Sullivan B, Bell RS: Soft tissue sarcomas involving the pelvis. Journal of Surgical Oncology 2001: 77: pp 8-14.

3. Bridwell KH, Kuklo TR, Lewis SJ, Sweet FA, Lenke LG, Baldus C: String test measurement to assess the effect of spinal deformity correction on spinal canal length. Spine 2001: 26: pp 2013-2019.

4. Kuklo TR, Bridwell KH, Lewis SJ, Baldus C, Blanke K, Iffrig TM, Lenke LG: Minimum 2-year analysis of sacropelvic fixation and L5-S1 fusion using S1 and iliac screws. Spine 2001: 26: pp 1976-1983.

5. Lewis SJ, Lenke LG, Raynor B, Long J, Bridwell KH, Padberg A: Triggered electromyographic threshold for accuracy of thoracic pedicle screw placement in a porcine model. Spine 2001: 26: pp 2485-2489.

6. Long J, Lewis S, Kuklo T, Zhu Y, Riew KD: The effect of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors on spinal fusion. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American) 2002: 84: pp 1763-1768.

7. Cunningham BW, Lewis SJ, Long J, Dmitriev AE, Linville DA, Bridwell KH: Biomechanical evaluation of lumbosacral reconstruction techniques for spondylolisthesis: an in vitro porcine model. Spine 2002: 27(21): pp 2321-2327.

8. Bridwell KH, Lewis SJ, Lenke LG, Baldus C, Blanke K: Pedicle subtraction osteotomy for the treatment of fixed sagittal imbalance. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American) 2003: 85: pp 454-463.

9. Riew KD, Long J, Rhee J, Lewis SJ: Time-dependent inhibitory effects of indomethacin on spine fusion. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, AM 2003: 85: pp 632.

10. Bridwell KH, Lewis SJ, Edwards C, Lenke L, Iffrig T, Berra A, Baldus C, Blanke K: Complications and Outcomes of Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomies for Fixed Saggittal Imbalance. Spine 2003: 28/18: pp 2093-2101.

11. Bridwell KH. Lewis SJ. Rinella A. Lenke LG. Baldus C. Blanke K: Pedicle subtraction osteotomy for the treatment of fixed sagittal imbalance. Surgical techniques. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004: 86-A Sup 1: pp 44-50.

12. Brett D. Crist, LG Lenke, SJ Lewis: Osteoid Osteoma of the Lumbar Spine. A case report highlighting a novel reconstruction technique. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American) 2005: 87(2): pp 414-8.

13. Rampersaud YR, Moro ERP, Neary MA, White K, Lewis SJ, Massicotte EM, Fehlings MG: Intraoperative adverse events and related postoperative complications spine surgery: Implications for enhacing patient safety founded on evidence-based protocols. Spine 2006: 31: pp 1503-10.

14. Raja Rampersaud, Ali AlBelooshi, Stephen Lewis,: Outpatient Spinal Stenosis Decompression Using a Minimally Invasive Modified Lumbar Laminoplasty Technique: Feasibility and Early Outcomes. Spine 2006: 6: pp 148s.

15. Christian Zaarour, Thomas Engelhardt, Samuel Strantzas, Carolyne Pehora, Stephen Lewis, and Mark W. Crawford: Effect of Low-Dose Ketamine on Voltage Requirement for Transcranial Electrical Motor Evoked Potentials in Children. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 2007: 32: pp E627.

16. Furlan JC, Perrin RG,. Govender PV, Petrenko, Massicotte EM, Rampersaud YR, Lewis S, Fehlings MGS: Use of Osteogenic Protein-1 in patients at high risk for spinal pseudoarthrosis: prospective cohort study assessing safety, health-related quality of life and radiographic fusion. Journal of Neurosurgery 2007: 5: pp 486-95.

17. Rampersaud, Y Raja. Ravi, Bheesma. Lewis, Stephen J. Stas, Venessa. Barron, Ronald. Davey, Roderick. Mahomed, Nizar: Assessment of health-related quality of life after surgical treatment of focal symptomatic spinal stenosis compared with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. Spine 2008: 8(2): pp 296-3.

18. Wong, Jean. El Beheiry, Hossam. Rampersaud, Yoga Raja. Lewis, Stephen. Ahn, Henry. De Silva, Yoshani. Abrishami, Amir. Baig, Naseer. McBroom, Robert J. Chung, Frances: Tranexamic Acid reduces perioperative blood loss in adult patients having spinal fusion surgery. Anaesthesia and Analgesia 2008: 107(5): pp 1479-1486.

19. Masaki Anraku, Thomas K. Waddell, Marc de Perrot, Stephen J. Lewis, Andrew F. Pierre, Gail E. Darling, Michael R. Johnston, Rebecca E. Zener, Yoga R. Rampersaud, Frances A. Shepherd, Natasha Leighl, Andrea Bezjak, Alexander Y. Sun, David M. Hwang, Ming-Sound Tsao and Shaf Keshavjee: Induction chemoradiotherapy facilitates radical resection of T4 non-small cell lung cancer invading the spine. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 2009: 137/2: pp 441.

20. Subir Jhaveri, Reinhard Zeller, Stephen Miller, Stephen Lewis: The Effect of Intra-operative Skeletal (skull femoral) Traction on Apical Vertebral Rotation. European Spine Journal 2009. European Spine Journal 2009: 18: pp 352.

21. Lewis SJ, Canavese F, Keetbaas S: Intralaminar screw insertion of thoracic spine in children with severe spinal deformities. Spine 2009: 34(7): pp E251-E254. PA

Accepted for Publication
1. Elise M. Halarn,Sarah A. Bacon, Tomoaki Kitagawa, Stephen J. Lewis: Posterior Transdiscal Three Column Shortening in the Surgical Treatment of Vertebral Discitis/Osteomylitis with Collapse Spine. Spine.

2. Stephen J. Lewis, Kenny David, Syndie Singer, Sarah Bacon, Michaela Kopka, Randolph Gray: A Technique of Anterior Screw Removal Through a Posterior Costotransversectomy Approach for Posterior-based Osteotomies. Spine.

3. Tony Lang, Tan Gamaliel, Stephen Lewis, Susan Fox, Renato Puppi: Surgical Correction of Kyphosis in patients with Camptocormia due to Parkinson's disease - A Retrospective Evaluation. BMJ.

Non Peer Reviewed - Journal Publications - Published
1. Riew KD, Lewis SJ, McCulloch JA: Microlumbar Discectomy and Decompression in the Treatment of Lumbar Radiculopathies. Techniques in Orthopaedics 2000: 10: pp 288-300.

2. Bridwell KH, Lenke LG, Lewis SJ: Treatment of spinal stenosis and fixed sagittal imbalance. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 2001: 384: pp 35-44.

3. Stephen J Lewis: Blood Conservation in Elective Spinal Fusion Surgery: Case Examples. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 2004.

4. Stephen Lewis: Direct Decompressive Surgery and Radiation Therapy Improved Walking Ability in Metastatic Epidural Spinal Cord Compression. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 2006: 88-A: pp 1169.

5. Stephen Lewis, M.D., MSc, FRCSC: Idiopathic Scoliosis Complex Procedures: Revision Surgeries and Spinal Osteotomies. Canadian Orthopaedic Association Bulletin 2009: 85: pp 26-30. PA

Books/Chapters in Books/Proceedings Published
1. K.Daniel Riew and Stephen Lewis: Decompression for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. In: Spinal Deformities - The Comprehensive Text (Vincent Arlet, Allen L. Carl, Michael F. O'Brien, eds). Thieme Medical Publishers, New York 2003: pp 528-539.

Invited Reviews Published
1. Stephen J. Lewis, Jameel Ali: ATLS - Trauma Demonstration Video. 1997.

2. John R. Johnson, Steven D. Glassman, Rolando, M. Puno, John R. Dimar, Mitchell J. Campbell, George Frey, Thomas Kiaer, Pierre Lascombes, Carlos Villanueva Leal, Edward P. Abraham, Stephen J. Lewis, Daniele Fabris Monterumici: CD Horizon Legacy 5.5 Spinal System - Degenerative Surgical Technique. Medtronic Sofamor Danek 2004.

Articles Published
1. Stephen J Lewis: Blood Conservation in Elective Spinal Fusion Surgery: Case Examples. Anemia and Surgery 2004.

2. Stephen Ondra, MD, Lawrence G. Lenke, MD, Stephen J. Lewis, MD: Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy and Vertebral Column Resection Utilizing the PSO/VCR Instruments Set. Medtronic,. Medtronic 2009.

1. Y.R. Rampersaud, V. Stas, N. Khattab, S. Zhang, J. R. Davey, S.J. Lewis, N. Mahomed: Postoperative Change in Quality of Life: A Comparison Between Primary Hip Osteoarthritis and Spinal Stenosis. Canadian Spine Society, Beaupre, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Surgery 2005: 48: pp 10.

2. S.J. Lewis, Y.R. Rampersaud, G. Darling, M. Johnson, S. Keshavjee, A. Pierre, T. Waddell, S. Zhang: Primary En-Bloc Resection in the Treatment of Primary Tumours with Local Invasion of the Spinal Column. Canadian Spine Society, Beaupre, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Surgery 2005: 48: pp 5-6.

3. Christian Zaarour, BSc, MD, Thomas Engelhardt, MD, FRCA, PhD, Samuel Strantzas, MSc, DABNM, Carolyne Phora RN, MN, Stephen Lewis, MD, FRCSC, Mark W. Crawford, MBBS, FRCPC: Effect of Low-Dose Ketamine on Voltage Requirement for Transcranial Electrical Motor Evoked Potentials in Children. The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON. 2007.

4. Wong. J., El-beheiry H, Rampersaud R, Lewis S, Fehlings M, Chung F: Tranexamic Acid Reduce Blood Loss and Transfusion in Adult Patients Having Spinal Fusion Surgery. Canadian Journal of Surgery 2007: 50: pp 12.

Case Studies Presented by Stephen Lewis, MD

Lytic Lesion of the C2 Body

Presented by: S. Lewis MD
The patient is a 71-year-old female with progressive neck pain. She’s neurologically intact and has decreased neck ROM. How would you treat her? See how one spine surgeon chose to treat this elderly patient.

Woman with Ankylosing Spondylitis

Deformity Makes It Difficult to Look People in the Eye
Presented by: S. Lewis MD

The patient is a 66-year-old female with ankylosing spondylitis who independently ambulates without any aids.  Her deformity makes horizonal gaze difficult.  How would you approach treatment, and what risks are involved?

Harrington Hook in Canal: Woman with Previous Surgery Presents with Low Back Pain and Neuroclaudication

Presented by: S. Lewis MD
The patient is a 35-year-old woman who had a Harrington rod implanted at age 14 for idiopathic scoliosis. She presented with low back pain and neuroclaudication. How would you treat her?

Paraplegic with Charcot Spine: Complains of Back Pain and Instability

Presented by: S. Lewis MD

A 40-year-old female paraplegic complains of back pain and instability: how would you treat this case? Case submitted by Stephen Lewis, MD.

Flexion-distraction Fracture at T12-L1: Brace or Surgery?

Presented by: S. Lewis MD

A 17-year-old female presents post-MVA. She was a rear seat belted passenger. She had isolated trauma to her back. She presents with back pain without any neurologic dysfunction. She has no past medical history, and she’s on birth control pills.

Grade IV Spondylolisthesis

Presented by: S. Lewis MD

The patient is an active 14-year-old male with progressive back pain and difficulty with gait. He has radicular pain in his buttocks and posterior thighs.

Osteoporotic Burst Fracture

Presented by: S. Lewis MD

A 71-year-old priest presents with chronic pain in the upper thoracic and neck for about 2 months. Pain is progressive.

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Author's Statement

I, or an immediate family member, have a financial interest(s) or affiliation(s) with the following commercial companies whose products and / or services may be mentioned in the materials I have authored, edited or reviewed for presentation on Vertical Health, LLC’s websites.

Disclosed Relationships

Consultant/Independent Contractor
Medtronic, DePuy, Stryker
Other Relationships/Disclosures
Fellow support (Synthes, Medtronic, DePuy)