Stewart G. Eidelson, MD's portrait
Stewart G. Eidelson, MD
SpineUniverse Founder, Orthopaedic Surgeon
South Palm Orthospine Institute
Boca Raton, FL
Dr. Eidelson is a member of the SpineUniverse Editorial Board.

About Stewart G. Eidelson, MD

Dr. Stewart Eidelson is a fellowship-trained and board certified orthopaedic spine surgeon with private offices in Delray Beach, FL and New York City, NY.

Dr. Eidelson received his medical degree from Thomas Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. He completed an internship at New York Medical College at Metropolitan Hospital in New York, NY, and an orthopaedic residency at the United States Public Health Service on Staten Island. Dr. Eidelson completed surgical residencies at the renowned Geisinger Medical Center in Danville, PA, and the Alfred I. DuPont Institute in Wilmington, DE. Under the direction of Dr. Arthur Stefee, Dr. Eidelson completed spine fellowship training at the Cleveland Spine and Arthritis Center in Cleveland, OH.

Dr. Eidelson has performed more than 4,000 spine surgeries utilizing the most advanced technologies. He is keenly interested in minimally invasive procedures to remedy degenerative disc disorders and treats complex spinal stenosis. Dr. Eidelson's primary area of research is spinal stenosis and outcome studies related to elderly patients who undergo spine surgery. This interest led him to found the Palm Beach Orthopaedic and Spinal Research Foundation located in Boca Raton, FL.

Dr. Eidelson has always viewed patient education as intrinsic to his medical practice and to improved patient outcomes. He has demonstrated his devotion to patient education by founding SpineUniverse.com, an award-winning website that provides both patients and spine professionals with accurate information about current treatment approaches. To support his patient education publishing projects, he established SYA Press and Research. Through SYA Press and Research, he has published several books for the layman, including Save Your Aching Back and Neck and  Advanced Technologies to Treat Neck and Back Pain, A Patient's Guide.

A prolific author, Dr. Eidelson has published and presented his research in peer-reviewed journals and at society meetings. In addition, Dr. Eidelson is a member of several professional organizations, including the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Medical Association, International Association for the Study of Pain, and North American Spine Society.

Publications

Publications & Presentations

1. Eidelson SG, Whitfield G, Lazar AM, Shults RJ, Cohn J. Scoliosis-Cardiopulmonary Complications. Hospital Physician. December 1979, pp. 32-37.

2. Eidelson SG. The Prophylactic Use of Ender's Pins Prior to Removal of a Femoral Tumor - A Case Report. 1979.

3. Eidelson SG. A Review of Treatment of CDH With a Minimum of Fifteen Years Follow-Up. A Retrospective presented at the Shriner's Hospital for Crippled Children, 1988.

4. Eidelson SG, Pizzutillo PD. Persistent Femoral Anteversion and Knee Pain. 1989.

5. Eidelson SG, Keppler L, Cochran J, Biscup R, Steffee A. Closing Wedge Osteotomy for the Reduction of Thoracolumbar Kyphosis. 1991.

6. Eidelson SG The Functional Recovery of Elderly Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spinal Decompression With and Without Pedicle Fixation. Florida Orthopaedic Society, October 1994.

7. Brown LE, Findlay BW, Whitehurst M, Eidelson SG, Gilbert R, Ferrigno V, Groo DR, Ward JA. Relationship Between the Shoulder Rotation Power Velocity Curve and Service Velocity in College Tennis Players. USTA National Conference on Sports Medicine and Science in Tennis, Key Biscayne, Florida. April 26-30, 1995.

8. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly . Second International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Curacao, Netherlands, Antilles. April 26-29, 1995.

9. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly. Advanced ISOLA Seminar, Kansas City, Missouri. May 4-5, 1995.

10. Groo DR, Brown LE, Findlay BW, Whitehurst M, Eidelson SG, Gilbert R, Ward JA. Effect of Single versus Reciprocal Repetitions on Acceleration in Females During Knee Extension on an Isokinetic Device. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota. May 30-June 2, 1995.

11. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Findlay BW, Whitehurst M, Gilbert R, Groo DR, Ward JA. Effect of Gender on Acceleration Fatigue During Knee Extension on an Isokinetic Device. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Mary 30-June 2, 1995.

12. Ward JA, Brown LE, Findlay BW, Whitehurst M, Eidelson SG, Gilbert R, Groo DR. Effect of Number of Reptitions on Acceleration in Females During Knee Extension on an Isokinetic Device. National Strength and Conditioning Association Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona. June 21-24, 1005.

13. Ward JA, Brown LE, Findlay BW, Whitehurst M, Eidelson SG, Groo DR, Ward JA. Anthropometric Effects on Power in Females During Knee Extension on an Isokinatic Device .National Strength and Conditioning Association Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona. June 21-24, 1995.

14. Ferigno ., Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Eidelson SG, Findlay BW, Gilbert R. The Shoulder Rotation Relative Power Velocity Curve in Elite Male Junior Tennis Players. National Strength and Conditioning Association Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona. June 21-24, 1995.

15. Brown LE, Eidelson SG, Findlay BW, Whitehurst M, Gilbert R, Groo DR, Ward JA. Effect of Muscle Fibre Type on Acceleration Fatigue During Knee Extension on an Isokinetic Device. National Strength and Conditioning Association Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona. June 21-24, 1995.

16. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly. GICD Congress, Asheville, North Carolina. September 12-13, 1995.

17. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Post-Surgical Laminectomy Functional Recovery in an Elderly Population. North American Spine Society Annual Meeting, Washington, DC. October 18-21, 1995.

18. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly. Florida Orthopaedic Society, Atlanta, Georgia. November 4, 1995.

19. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Three Month Functional Outcome Following Spinal Decompression in the Elderly. Southern Medical Association, 89th Annual Assembly, Kansasa City, Missouri. November 16-19, 1995.

20. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly. GICD Congress, Beaver Creek, Colorado. January 14-18, 1996.

21. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Surgery in the Elderly with Comparison to a Non-Operative Population. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Atlanta, Georgia. February 22-26, 1996.

22. Eidelson SG. Outcomes in Managed Care Following Spinal Surgery. Sofamor Danek, Tuscon, Arizona. May 8-11, 1996.

23. Whitehurst M, Brown LE, Eidelson SG. Spinal Surgery Improves Function in Elderly Patients. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1996. American Academy of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio. May 28-June 2, 1996.

24. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Lebwohl L, Brown M, Stambough J. A New Functional Index to Measure Surgical Outcomes: The Palm Beach Spine Index (PBSI). Third International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Munich, Germany. June 19-22, 1996.

25. Development of National Beta Site Centers, Spinal Outcomes Testing Protocols, Sofamor Danek.

26. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Gilreath G. Objective Outcome Measurements Following Lumbar Laminectomy Surgery. Third Annual International Course on Total Spine, Cancun, Mexico. February 1-3, 1997.

27. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Gilreath G. Objective Outcome Measurements Following Lumbar Laminectomy Surgery. Sixth Annual Course on Complications in the Surgical Management of Spinal Disorders, Beaver Creek, Colorado. January 18-22, 1997.

28. Eidelson SG, Whitehurst M, Brown LE. The Palm Beach Spine Index: A Functional Measure of Post-Laminectomy Patients. Operative Techniques in Orthopaedics Vol. 7, No. 1 (January 1997) pp. 1-5.

29. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Objective Outcome Measurements Following Lumbar Laminectomy Surgery. Southern Orthopaedic Association, Pebble Beach. California July 24-26, 1997.

30. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly. 8th Annual Meeting of the European Spine Society, Kos-Hellas, Greece. September 10-13, 1997.

31. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly. 8th International Conference on Lumbar Fusion and Stabilization (ICLFS 97), San Antonio, Texas. September 30-October 4, 1997.

32. Eidelson SG. Functional Outcome Measurements After Spinal Fusion. Fourth Stryker Cage Meeting, Bordeaux, France. April 30-May 1, 1998.

33. Eidelson SG. Performance Based Functional Tests: Assessing Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Spinal Stenosis. International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Sorrento, Italy. May 1-3, 1998.

35. Eidelson SG. Performance Based Functional Mobility Tests: Assessing Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Spinal Stenosis. Florida Orthopaedic Society Annual Meeting, May 15-17, 1998.

36. Eidelson SG. Performance Based Functional Mobility Tests: Assessing Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Spinal Stenosis. Southern Orthopaedic Association 15th Annual Meeting, Santa Fe, New Mexico. July 30-August 1, 1998.

37. Eidelson SG. Assessing Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Spinal Stenosis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, Anaheim, California. February 4-8, 1999.

38. Eidelson SG., Whitehurst M. Save Your Aching Back: A Patient's Guide. SYA Press, Inc., United States, published 1999.

39. Eidelson SG. Post Surgical Functional Outcomes in Patients with Spinal Stenosis. Ninth International Conference on Lumbar Fusion and Stabilization, Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom. May 31-June 4, 1999.

40. Eidelson SG. Orthopaedic in the New Millenium. The 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Orthopaedic Physicians Assistants, West Palm Beach, Florida. July 12-14, 2000.

41. Whitehurst M, Brown LE, Eidelson SG, D'Angelo A. Functional Mobility Performance in an Elderly Population with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. The Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 82, April 2001.

42. Eidelson SG, Merson MA, Adarmes DA. The Protective Role of Steroid Loading in the Post-Laminectomy Patient with Spinal Stenosis. The International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques (IMAST), Paradise Island, Bahamas. July 12-14, 2001.

43. Eidelson SG, Merson MA, Adarmes MA, Whitehurst M. Post-Operative Steroid Loading in Laminectomy Patietns: A Retrospective Look at Complication Rate and Length of Stay. (in review).

44. Eidelson SG. Lab Instructor. Challenges to Spine Surgery. Royal Sonesta Hotel, New Orleans, Louisiana. December 7-8, 2001.

45. Eidelson SG. The Role of the Internet in Building a Spine Practice. Challenges to Spine Surgery Symposium, The Venetian, Las Vegas, Nevada. April 27, 2002.

46. Eidelson SG. Post-Operative Steroid Loading in Laminectomy Patients: A Retrospective Review. Challenges to Spine Surgery Symposium, The Venetian, Las Vegas, Nevada. April 27, 2002.

47. Eidelson SG, Fessler RG, Garfin SG, Richeimer SH, Rodts Jr., GE, Spinasanta SA. Save Your Aching Back: Second Edition A Patient's Guide. SYA Press, Inc., United States, published 2002.

48. Eidelson SG. Table Instructor. Bioskills Workshop II: Lumbar Fixation/Break. Challenges to Spine Surgery. Hyatt Cerromar Beach Resort, Puerto Rico. January 10-11, 2003.

49. Eidelson SG. A New Protocol for Use in Elderly Patients Undergoing Spinal Decompression and Fusion. Poster presentation, 2003 Joint Meeting of the Eastern and Southern Orthopaedic Association meeting, Dublin, Ireland. July 31-August 1, 2003.

50. Radionics Radiofrequency & discTRODE Cadaver Lab. Hands-on training course. January 23, 2005.

51. Nucleotome for Automated Percutaneous Lumbar Discectomy Workshop. January 23, 2005.

52. Eidelson SG, Spinasanta SA. Advanced Technologies to Treat Neck and Back Pain, A Patient's Guide. SYA Press and Research, Inc., United States, published March 2005.

53. Eidelson SG, Wilkerson J. (of SYA Press and Research, Inc.). A Novel Procedure Using Bone Cement Techniques to Protect Against Adjacent Level Disc Destruction Due to Pedical Screw Penetration. International Intradiscal Therapy Society (IITS) 18th Annual Meeting, San Diego. California. May 2005.

54. Eidelson SG. Clinical Workshop Instructor. Spinal Study Group, Aesculap, Inc. Four Seasons Hotel, Palm Beach, Florida. June 11, 2005.

55. Proven and Effective Approach to Patient Education, Orthopaedic Education Summit, Encore Medical, L.P., Bachelor Gulch, Colorado. January 5-8, 2006

56. Analysis of Postoperative Complications in Lumbar Decompression with Fusion and Instrumentation Patients As a Function of Comorbidity in the Elderly, Florida Orthopaedic Society and Alabama Orthopaedic Society, Sandestin Golf and Beach Resort, Sandestin, Florida. May 18-21, 2006

57. Analysis of Postoperative Complications in Lumbar Decompression with Fusion and Instrumentation Patients as a Function of Comorbidity in the Elderly, 16th Annual Meeting, European Orthopaedic Research Society, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy. June 8, 2006

58. New Fixation Technique to Treat Loosening of Lumbar Pedicle Screws, The Society for Back Pain Research, Gisborough Hall, Guisborough North Yorkshire, England. November 2-3, 2006

59. Review of Postoperative Complications as a Function of Comorbidities in Lumbar Instrumentation Cases, Gisborough Hall, Guisborough North Yorkshire, England. November 2-3, 2006.

60. Eidelson SG, Wilkerson J of SYA Press and Research, Inc., Novel Use of IPD:  Greater Decompression with Laminectomy,  Florida Orthopaedic Society, Disney’s Contemporary Resort.  Orlando, Florida. May 17-20, 2007.

61. Eidelson SG, Wilkerson J of SYA Press and Research, Inc., Spinal Flexometer:  Measurements that potentially reflex changes in pain, Neuropathic Pain Second International Conference, Intercontinental Berlin Hotel, Berlin, Germany. June 7-10, 2007.

62. Eidelson SG, Wilkerson J of SYA Press and Research, Inc., Pilot Study on a New Anchoring Technique to Treat Loosening Screws and Retrospective Study on Lumbar Instrumentation Cases:  Postoperative Complications as a Function of Comorbidity. The International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine 24th Annual Meeting, Grand Hyatt Hotel, Hong Kong, China. June 10-14, 2007.

63. Eidelson SG, Wilkerson J of SYA Press and Research, Inc., Analysis of Postoperative Complications as a Function of Comorbidity in Elderly Lumbar Instrumentation Cases. Eastern & Southern Orthopaedic Associations, Fairmont Empress Hotel, Victoria, BC, Canada. August 1-4, 2007

64. Eidelson SG, Eidelson Sarah. "IPD - Interspinous Process Decompression". Ocean Reef Club, Florida Keys. May 16, 2008.

65. Eidelson SG, "Analysis of Elderly Patients Undergoing Lumbar Decompression and Fusion Using Minimally Invasive Implants as a Function of Co morbidity". 2008 Annual Meeting of the Society for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery. Green Valley Ranch Resort, Henderson, NV. November 14, 2008.

66. Eidelson SG, Eidelson Sarah. "IPD - Interspinous Process Decompression With Bone Dowel Fusion". First International Bauerfeind Meeting of the Spine. Ritz Carlton Hotel, Palm Beach, FL. April 16th - 18, 2009.

67. Eidelson SG, "Evaluation of New Less Invasive Implants (IPI), Treating Significant Lumbar Spinal Stenosis In High Risk Elderly Patients". Poster presentation at Southern Orthopedic Association 26th Annual Meeting. Amelia Island Plantation, Amelia Island, FL. July 15-18, 2009.

68. Eidelson SG, Eidelson David, Ingwer Zach, Geisse Hildegarde. "A Less Invasive Technique Using Interspinous Process Decompression Implants (IPI) with Bone Dowel Fusion for Moderate to Severe Spinal Stenosis". Society for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery 2009 Meeting. Las Vegas, NV. October 9-12, 2009.

69. Eidelson SG, Geisse Hildegarde, Fleming John, Eidelson David. "New Techniques Treating Elderly Patients with Radicular Pain and Neuropathic Symptoms Using Interspinous Process Implants (MLIF) for Severe Lumbar Spondylosis." 3rd International Congress on Neuropathic Pain. Athens, Greece. May 27-30, 2010.

70. Eidelson SG, Geisse Hildegarde, Eidelson David, Fleming John. "Treating 25 Elderly Patients With Multiple Comorbidities Using Interspinous Process Implants (MLIF) for Severe Lumbar Spondylosis With No Postoperative Surgical Wound Infections." Southern Orthopaedic Association 27th Annual Meeting. Fajardo, Puerto Rico. June 16-19, 2010.

71. Eidelson SG, Geisse Hildegarde, Fleming John, Eidelson David, Eidelson Sarah. "Treating 25 Elderly Patients with Multiple Comorbidities Using Interspinous Process Implants (IPI) for Severe Lumbar Spondylosis with no Postoperative Surgical Wound Infections." 13th World Congress on Pain Montreal, Quebec, Canada. August 29 - September 2, 2010.

72. Eidelson SG, Geisse Hildegarde, Eidelson David, Eidelson Sarah. "Treating 25 Elderly Patients with Multiple Comorbidities Using Interspinous Process Implants (IPI) for Severe Lumbar Spondylosis with No Postoperative Surgical Wound Infections." Eastern Orthopaedic Association 41st Annual Meeting, Naples, FL. October 13-16, 2010.

73. Eidelson SG, Fleming John, Eidelson Sarah, Eidelson David. "A New Technique for Providing Minimally Invasive 360 Degree Spinal Fusions Using A Combination of Min- Peek* Inserted Through A Unique Tube With Posterior Instrumentations For Patients With Foraminal Stenosis." 2010 Annual Meeting - Society For Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery. Miami, FL. November 5-7, 2010.

74. Eidelson SG, Fleming John, Eidelson Sarah. "A New Technique for Treating Elderly Patients with Moderate to Severe Spinal Stenosis with Interspinous Process Implants (IPI) and Bone Dowel after Foraminal Decompression." 7th. Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back & Pelvic Pain, Los Angeles, CA. November 9-12, 2010.

Articles Written by Stewart G. Eidelson, MD

Avoid Stressing Your Back

Here are some tips for avoiding stress on your spine while behind the desk at work.

Causes of Upper Back Pain

Upper back pain can be caused by many different spinal problems, such as sprain or strain. Here are 10 potential causes of upper back pain.

Diagnostic Tests: Bone Density, Nerve Function, Discography, Lab Tests

A bone scan, bone density scan, nerve function tests and basic lab work can help your doctor confirm the diagnosis.

Diagnostic Tests: X-Ray, CT Scan, MRI

X-ray, CT Scan and MRI are types of tests used to help diagnose certain spinal disorders. Learn about these and other diagnostic tests.

Lumbar Radiculopathy: Proper Diagnosis Key to Effective Treatment of Back and Leg Pain

Leg and back pain, including sciatica, can be caused by a variety of reasons, not all of which originate from your spine.

Lumbago: Mild to Severe Low Back Pain

Lumbago is a seldom used term to mean mild to severe low back pain. The pain can be acute or chronic and affects both young and old.

Sciatica: Treatment Options

What will help you find pain relief from sciatica? Read about medications, injections, and surgery as sciatica treatment options.

Drugs, Medications, and Spinal Injections to Relieve Sciatica

The goal of using medications, which may include an epidural steroid injection to address sciatic nerve pain is to provide pain relief. Learn about treatments your doctor may include with your treatment plan.

Physical Therapy to Relieve Sciatica

Your doctor may refer you to a physical therapist to help you relieve your sciatica and restore movement. Physical therapy includes both passive and active treatments.

Wellness Center

Exercise. Good nutrition. A balanced diet. Getting enough sleep. All of these "wellness" choices help prevent back pain.

Facts and FAQs About Sciatica, Low Back and Leg Pain

Sciatica is defined as a severe pain in a leg along the course of the sciatic nerve. Sciatic pain is felt in the back of the leg running from the buttock down the back of the thigh into the calf and foot.

Bone Growth Stimulation is Wearable Therapy After Spinal Fusion

Your body’s ability to heal and repair is particularly important during a spine surgery that involves fusion—joining two or bone spinal bones together.

5 Things About Spinal Stenosis You Need to Know

Five important things you need to know about spinal stenosis that can affect your low back and/or neck.

Upper Back Pain Center

Pain in the upper and/or mid back is less common than lower back or neck pain. The upper back is the region below the cervical spine (neck) and above the low back (lumbar spine).

Is a Sit-Stand Desk Right for Me? 7 Things to Consider

People are quickly catching on to the benefits of ergonomically sound tools that goes far beyond a simple piece of office equipment.

Articles Reviewed by Stewart G. Eidelson, MD

Opioid Pain Relievers

An in-depth description of opioid pain relievers with a view towards new technology.

Plane Speaking: Your flight plan to avoid back pain

Anyone who’s ever flown in coach or economy class already knows that the design of airplane seats is neither anatomically-friendly nor comfortable and that most seats “offer no lumbar support."

Neck Pain Center

You have to know what spinal condition is causing your neck pain before you can know how to treat it.

Lumbar Spine Surgery: Will You Need Surgery for Your Lower Back Pain?

You have lower back pain: Will you need surgery? Detailed article to help you understand spinal anatomy, lower back pain treatment options, including surgical procedures.

Triclosan-Coated Sutures May Reduce the Risk of Surgical Site Infection After Spinal Surgery

Use of triclosan-coated sutures instead of non-coated sutures was associated with a significantly lower incidence of surgical site infections in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

Chronic Back Pain in United States Compared to United Kingdom

Backache is major issue in the United Kingdom and the United States of America and it’s thought to be one of the most common causes of work absence.

Transforaminal Selective Endoscopic Discectomy: Extremely Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment for Low Back and Leg Pain

Selective Endoscopic Discectomy (SED) is an alternate treatment procedure for some chronic pain patients.

Back and Neck Pain Relief Wish List

Back pain, neck pain, chronic pain—chances are, someone on your holiday list has at least one of those conditions. If you’re looking for a gift that keeps giving long after the holiday season ends, the list below offers you some ideas.

Neck Pain Treatments

Neck pain treatments overview written by a spine specialist: Learn how doctors help patients with cervical spine pain.

Transforaminal Selective Endoscopic Discectomy: Recovery, Complications, Procedure and Contraindications

An explanation of why selective endoscopic discectomy works as well as possible complications and contraindications.

Financial Disclosures

SpineUniverse, a Vertical Health, LLC website, is committed to ensuring that the medical information it presents is accurate, balanced, objective, and trustworthy. 

To help achieve this goal, SpineUniverse requires all authors, editors, and reviewers to disclose any financial relationships or affiliations they have with companies whose products or services may be mentioned in the content they author, edit, or review.

The intent of this policy is to identify any perceived, potential, or real conflicts of interest so that readers can make their own judgments about the value of information being presented.

Author's Statement

I, the undersigned, declare that neither I nor members of my immediate family have a financial interests or affiliation with commercial companies whose products and / or services may be mentioned in the materials I have authored, edited or reviewed for presentation on Vertical Health, LLC’s websites.
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