Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a type of arthritis that causes joint inflammation and stiffness for more than 6 weeks in children aged 16 or younger. Any joint in the body can be affected, and inflammation may limit the mobility of affected joints. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis was previously known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).
Researchers aren't sure the precise cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. They do know that JIA is an autoimmune disorder, which means that the body mistakenly identifies some of its own cells and tissues as foreign. The immune system, which normally helps to fight off harmful, foreign substances such as bacteria or viruses, begins to attack healthy cells and tissues. The result is inflammation—marked by redness, heat, pain, and swelling.
For juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), the main goals of treatment are to preserve a high level of physical and social functioning and maintain a good quality of life. To achieve these goals, doctors recommend treatments to reduce swelling, maintain full movement in the affected joints, relieve pain, and identify, treat, and prevent complications.
Most children with JIA need medication and physical therapy to reach these goals.
Possible medications include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), biologic response modifiers, anti-TNF (tumor recrosis factor) inhibitors, and/or non-TNF biologics.
For children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, surgery is rarely needed. Usually, non-surgical treatments, including medications and physical therapy, are sufficient.
However, there are a few scenarios where surgery may be recommended:
There are several types of surgeries the surgeon can use to correct the spinal problem caused by JIA. He or she will make the best recommendation based on the individual case.