Stephen M. Perle, DC, MS's portrait
Stephen M. Perle, DC, MS
Professor of Clinical Sciences
University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic
Bridgeport, CT
Dr. Perle is a member of the SpineUniverse Editorial Board.

About Stephen M. Perle, DC, MS

Dr. Stephen M. Perle holds a tenured appointment as a Professor of Clinical Sciences in the University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic. He is the first chiropractor in the U.S. to be appointed to a university’s faculty to teach chiropractic and the first one to reach the rank of professor.

Over the past 23 years with UBCC he has taught a variety of courses including ethics, biomechanics, evidence-based practice, manipulation, and soft tissue treatment methods. He is a member of the University of Bridgeport Institutional Review Board. Currently, Dr. Perle is the ethics columnist for Dynamic Chiropractic and the American Chiropractic Association’s ACANews.

His research interests include human performance effects of manipulation of the extremities, biomechanics of manipulation, measurement of therapeutic 'dosage' of manipulation, comparative evaluation of chiropractic treatment methods and measurement of quality of chiropractic care and quality improvement.

A 1983 graduate of the Texas Chiropractic College, he earned his MS in Exercise Sciences from Southern Connecticut State University in 2002. Prior to his 1991 appointment to the faculty of UBCC, he practiced in New York City, specializing in sports chiropractic. In 1991, Dr. Perle was the first chiropractor to be appointed medical director for a major sport national governing body’s championships when he served as medical director of the 1991 Mobil/USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships. In 2004 he was honored by the American Chiropractic Association as their Academician of the Year.

Publications

Publications
Textbook Chapters

1. Ames R, Perle SM. Overview of Sports Injuries Management. In: Gengenbach M, Hyde T, editors. Conservative Management of Sports Injuries. Second Edition. Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2007: 3-16.

2. Ierna GF, Perle SM. Conservative Rehabilitation of Athletic Injuries. In: Gengenbach M, Hyde T, editors. Conservative Management of Sports Injuries. Second Edition. Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2007: 59-156.

3. Perle SM, Ames R. Athletic Injuries of the Pelvis, Hip and Thigh. In: Gengenbach M, Hyde T, editors. Conservative Management of Sports Injuries. Second Edition. Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2007: 613-61.

4. Perle SM. Ethics in Chiropractic Clinical Practice. In Wyatt LH, editor. Handbook of Clinical Chiropractic, Second Edition, 2004. p. 329-38.

5. Perle SM. Soft Tissue Manual Techniques. In Haldeman S, editor. Principles and Practice of Chiropractic, Third Edition, McGraw Hill. 2004 p. 805-820.

6. Perle SM. Sports Chiropractic. In Redwood D, Cleveland CS, III, editors. Contemporary Chiropractic. Second Edition, St. Louis: Mosby, 2003. p. 409-22.

7. Perle SM. Overview of Sports Injuries Management. In: Gengenbach M, Hyde T, editors. Conservative Management of Sports Injuries. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1997. p. 3-13.

8. Perle SM. Athletic Injuries of the Pelvis, Hip and Thigh. In: Gengenbach M, Hyde T, editors. Conservative Management of Sports Injuries. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1997. p. 321-63.

Peer-Reviewed Publications
1. Kawchuk GN, Perle SM. The relation between the application angle of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) and resultant vertebral accelerations in an in situ porcine model. Manual Therapy, 2009 Oct;14(5):480-3.

2. Murphy DR, Schneider MJ, Seaman DR, Perle SM, Nelson CF. How can chiropractic become a respected mainstream profession? The example of podiatry. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2008 Aug 29;16(1):10.

3. Schneider MJ, Brady DB, Perle SM. Differential diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. Journal of Manipulative Physiological Therapeutics 2006 29(6):493-501.

4. Keating JC Jr, Charlton KH, Grod JP, Perle SM, Sikorski D, Winterstein JF. Subluxation: dogma or science? Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 2005 Aug 10;13(1):17.

5. Gleberzon BJ, Cooperstein R, Perle SM. Can chiropractic survive its chimerical nature. Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 2005; 49(2):69-74.

6. Wyatt LH, Perle SM, Murphy DR, Hyde TE. The Necessary Future of Chiropractic Education: A North American Perspective. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2005 Jul 7;13(1):10.

7. Nelson CF, Lawrence D, Triano JJ, Bronfort G, Perle SM, Metz D, Hegetschweiler K, LaBrot T. Chiropractic as Spine Care: A Model for the Profession. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2005 Jul 6;13(1):9.

8. Perle SM, Kawchuk GN. Pressures generated during spinal manipulation and their association with hand anatomy. Journal of Manipulative Physiological Therapeutics. 2005;28(4):e1-7.

9. Schneider MJ, Murphy DM, Perle SM, Hyde TE, Vincent RE, Ierna GF. 21st-Century Paradigm for Chiropractic. Journal of the American Chiropractic Association 2005: 8-15.

10. Jahn WT, Cupon LN, Perle SM. Guidelines of conduct in forensic practice. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine 2004;3:63-6.

11. Perle SM. Critical Thinking and Technique Systems. Journal of the American Chiropractic Association 2004;41(2): 26-7.

12. Perle SM. Commentary: Credentialing CAM providers. Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 2003; 47(2):81-3.

13. Cooperstein R, Perle SM, Condition-specific indications for chiropractic adjustive procedures for the low back: Literature and clinical effectiveness ratings of an expert panel. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 2002; 9(3):19-29.

14. Perle SM. The Illusion of Specificity. Journal of the American Chiropractic Association 2002;39(4): 30-1.

15. Gatterman MI, Cooperstein R, Lantz C, Perle SM, Schneider MJ. Rating specific chiropractic technique procedures for common low back conditions. Journal of Manipulative Physiological Therapeutics 2001;24(7):449-56.

16. Cooperstein R, Perle SM, Gatterman M, Lantz C, Schneider MJ. Chiropractic technique procedures for specific low back conditions: characterizing the literature. Journal of Manipulative Physiological Therapeutics 2001;24:407-24.

17. Perle SM. The Dichotomy in the Profession. Journal of the American Chiropractic Association 2000;37(3): 48-9.

18. Perle SM, Schneider MJ, Seaman DR. Chiropractic Management of Peripheral Neuropathy: Pathophysiology, Assessment and Treatment. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 1999;6(4):6-19.

19. Maharam LG, Bauman PA, Kalman D, Skolnick H, Perle SM. Masters athletes: Factors affecting performance. Sports Medicine 1999;28(4):273-85.

20. Perle SM, Speck AM. The Effects of the Mock Technique System: Teaching Students Technique Evaluation. Journal of Chiropractic Education 1999;13(2):100-109.

21. Perle SM, Mutell DB, Romanelli R. Age related changes in skeletal muscle strength and modifications through exercise: A literature review. Journal of Sports Chiropractic and Rehabilitation 1997;11(3): 97-103.

22. Perle SM. The Biomechanics and Physiology of Non Traumatic Soft Tissue Injury and Repair: A Literature Review. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 1997;4(2):1-8.

23. Perle SM. Technique System Overview: Applied Kinesiology (AK). Chiropractic Technique 1995;7(3):103-7.

24. Perle, SM. Clinician's Corner: Myofascial Trigger Points. Chiropractic Sports Medicine 1994;9(3):106-108.

25. Perle SM. Clinician's Corner: Tennis Elbow Tendinosis (Lateral Epicondylitis [Tennis Elbow] and Medial Epicondylitis [Golfer's Elbow]). Chiropractic Sports Medicine 1994;8(3):121-123.

26. Perle SM. Guest Editorial: Professional Pride, Chiropractic Sports Medicine 1991;5(3):61 Perle SM, Murphy DR. Clinician's Notebook: Hamstring Strains (Pulls). Chiropractic Sports Medicine 1991;5(1).

27. Perle SM. Clinician's Notebook: Acromioclavicular Joint Sprain (A/C Separation), Chiropractic Sports Medicine 1990;4(3),115-116.

28. Perle SM. Book Review: Tissue Nutrition and Viability, Edited by Hargens, Chiropractic Sports Medicine 1990;4(3),108.

29. Peer-Reviewed Letters to the Editor Hebert JJ, Perle SM. Letter to the editor concerning "Independent evaluation of a clinical prediction rule for spinal manipulative therapy: a randomised controlled trial" (M. Hancock et al.), European Spine Journal. 2008 Oct;17(10):1401-2.

30. Perle SM, Cooperstein R, Lantz C, Schneider MJ. Letter to the Editor: Rating specific chiropractic technique procedures for common low back conditions. Journal of Manipulative Physiological Therapeutics 2003;26(1):60-2.

31. Perle SM. Letter to the Editor: Mechanical force spinal manipulation increases trunk muscle strength assessed by electromyography: A comparative clinical trial. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2002;25(5):345.

32. Perle SM. Letter to the Editor: Tender Points/Fibromyalgia vs. Trigger Points/Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A need for clarity in terminology and differential diagnosis. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1996;19(2):146.

Peer-Reviewed Abstracts In Conference Proceedings
1. Kawchuk GN, Perle SM. Therapeutic forces and their transmission from the skin surface into the spine. Proceedings of International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine. Hong Kong, June 2007.

2. Perle SM, Perry DG, Carey MT. Effects of Graston Technique on Soft Tissue Conditions: A Prospective Case Series. In: WFC's 7th Biennial Congress; 2003; Orlando, FL: World Federation of Chiropractic; 2003. p. 344-5.

3. Ball KA, Perle SM. Effect of a Single Manipulation of the Tibiotalar (Ankle) Joint upon Lower Extremity Joint Alignment In: 2002 International Conference on Spinal Manipulation; 2002; Toronto, ONT, Canada: The Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research; 2002. p.123.

4. Perle SM, Kawchuk GN, Perrault T, Adams W. Radiographically determined anatomical location of point of peak pressure during pisiform and hypothenar contact manipulation procedures. In: 2002 International Conference on Spinal Manipulation; 2002; Toronto, ONT, Canada: The Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research; 2002. p. 20-2.

5. Perle SM. The Effect of Manipulation of the Tibiotalar Joint in Asymptomatic Students on Ankle Motion During Walking and on Ankle Isokinetic Strength. In: ACC IX/RAC VII Conference 2002. New Orleans, Louisiana March 13 - 16, 2002.

6. Perle SM, Kawchuk, GN. Radiographically Determined Anatomical Location of Point of Peak Pressure During Pisiform and Hypothenar Contact Manipulation Procedures: A Pilot Study. In: ACC IX/RAC VII Conference 2002. New Orleans, Louisiana March 13 - 16, 2002.

7. Zolli F, Perle SM, Mullin L. The effect of examination and imaging on treatment termination decisions of an Independent Medical Examiner. In: ACC IX/RAC VII Conference 2002. New Orleans, Louisiana March 13 - 16, 2002.

8. Gatterman MI, Cooperstein R, Perle SM, Lantz C, Schneider M, Forrester, JI. Rating chiropractic technique procedures for specific low back conditions: A process for guidelines development. In: Proceedings of the 5th World Federation of Chiropractic Congress, Auckland, New Zealand ;May 18-22, 1999.

9. Perle SM, Speck AM. The Effects of the Mock Technique System: Teaching Students Technique Evaluation. Journal of Chiropractic Education 1998;13(1):34-5.

10. Ross A, Perle SM, Braudt T. Variation in Back SEMG Patterns Associated with Gait in Normal Adults. Journal of Chiropractic Education 1998;13(1):37-8.

11. Gatterman M, Cooperstein R, Lantz C, Perle S, Schneider M. Rating chiropractic technique procedures for specific low back conditions. In: Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spinal Manipulation; 1998 July 16-19; Vancouver (BC). Des Moines (IA): Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research 1998: 162-3.

12. Perle SM. Using a Mock Chiropractic Technique System to Help Teach Evaluation of Technique. Journal of Chiropractic Education 1998;11(4):169.

Professional Trade Publications
1. Ethics. Columnist. ACANews 2008 - Present

2. Professional Ethics. Columnist. Dynamic Chiropractic 2002 - Present

3. Perle SM. Opinion: Perspectives: What are some of today's most troubling ethical issues in chiropractic and is the profession addressing them as well as it should? ACANews 2005;1(5):18.

4. Murphy DR, Kowalski M, Perle SM, Ierna GF, Wyatt L, Hammer W, Schneider M, Vincent RE, Hyde TE, Liebenson C. Bringing Chiropractic Into the Mainstream in the 21st Century - Part II Dynamic Chiropractic 2005;23(18).

5. Murphy DR, Kowalski M, Perle SM, Ierna GF, Wyatt L, Hammer W, Schneider M, Vincent RE, Hyde TE, Liebenson C. Bringing Chiropractic Into the Mainstream in the 21st Century - Part I Dynamic Chiropractic 2005;23(16).

6. Nolet PS, Perle SM. Neural Scanning Technology, Canadian Chiropractor 2004;9(5):5.

7. Perle SM, Lawson G. Stimulating Healing by Initiating Inflammatory Response: Patented stainless steel instruments aid in soft tissue treatment. Canadian Chiropractor 2004;9(2):10,11-2.

8. Perle S. The Leading Edge. Training & Conditioning 2003; 13(7):27-31.

9. Cooperstein R, Lantz C, Perle S, Schneider M. Growing Pains? We Don't Think So! Dynamic Chiropractic 2002; 20(19):32-5.

10. Perle SM. Letter to the Editor: Never beneath my dignity. Dynamic Chiropractic 1995;13(15):6.

11. Perle SM. Sports Injuries of the Pediatric Athlete, Delaware Chiropractic Society Journal 1994;1(1):29-31.

12. Perle SM. Letter to the Editor: I will keep inviolate all things revealed to me as a physician Dynamic Chiropractic 1993;11(19).

13. Perle SM. Letter to the Editor: Dogma-Spouting Dinosaurs Dynamic Chiropractic 1993;11(10).

14. Perle SM. The Sports Medicine Team, Dynamic Chiropractic 1992;10(4):14,37.

15. Perle SM. "Team Chiro" on ESPN. Dynamic Chiropractic 1991;9(17).

16. Perle SM. Track and Field Injuries, ICA Review 1991;47(6):27-29,31.

17. Perle SM. How To Build a Track and Field Practice, ICA Review 1991;47(6):30.

18. Perle SM. Bikefit. Connecticut Yankee: Newsletter Connecticut Chiropractic Association 1991; 1st Quarter: 26-27.

19. Perle SM. Take a Podiatrist to Lunch. Connecticut Yankee: Newsletter Connecticut Chiropractic Association 1990; 4th Quarter: 21-22
Contributing Editor for Sports Chiropractic, Chiropractic Journal monthly column, 1988-90
Guest Columnist, NYSCA District 6 Newsletter, 1989-90

20. Perle SM. A Theory for Control of Digestion. Texas Chiropractic College Review 1983;4.

Lay Publications
1. Perle SM. Stretching our thinking about stretching. Running & FitNews, 2004;22(3):4.

2. Perle SM. Running and Spine Health. Running & FitNews, 2004;20(9):7.

3. Perle SM. Put Sciatica in the Garbage. Running & FitNews, 1998;12(12):4-5.

4. Perle SM. Lower Back and Leg Pain in Facet Syndrome, Running & FitNews, 1994;12(3):2-3.

5. Perle SM. A Common Cause of Low Back Pain: Facet Syndrome, Sports Medicine Newsletter, Metropolitan Athletics Congress, Inc. 1993;1(1):2-3.

Presentations
Peer-Reviewed Conference Presentations
1. The Effect Of Line Of Drive On Vertebral Acceleration. Thirteenth Annual Educational Conference & Research Agenda Conference XI 2006. Association of Chiropractic Colleges & Consortial Center for Chiropractic Research Washington, DC.

2. Vertebral Subluxation Based Chiropractic- an Ethical Analysis. 2004. International Research and Philosophy Symposium, Sherman College of Straight Chiropractic, Spartanburg, SC.

3. Radiographically Determined Anatomical Location of Point of Peak Pressure During Pisiform and Hypothenar Contact Manipulation Procedures. 2002. International Conference on Spinal Manipulation. 2002 Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research Toronto, ONT.

4. The Effect of Manipulation of the Tibiotalar Joint in Asymptomatic Students on Ankle Motion During Walking and on Ankle Isokinetic Strength. Radiographically Determined Anatomical Location of Peak Pressure During Pisiform and Hypothenar Contact Manipulation Procedures. Seventh Annual Educational Conference & Research Agenda Conference VII. 2002 Association of Chiropractic Colleges & Consortial Center for Chiropractic Research New Orleans, LA.

5. The Effects of the Mock Technique System: Teaching Students Technique Evaluation. 1999. Sixth Annual Educational Conference. Association of Chiropractic Colleges Orlando, FL.

6. Chiropractic Management of Tendon Disorders. 1998. 1998 Annual Meeting GNYRC - American College of Sports Medicine New York, NY.

7. Sacroiliac Joint Kinematics. 1997. 1997 Annual Meeting GNYRC - American College of Sports Medicine New York, NY.

8. Management of Golfer's Low Back Pain. 1996. 1996 Annual Meeting GNYRC - American College of Sports Medicine New York, NY.

9. Manipulation: What We Know and What We Don't Know-- Biomechanics. 1995. 1995 Annual Meeting GNYRC - American College of Sports Medicine New York, NY.

10. Myofascial Trigger Point Pain Syndromes in Athlete's Low Back Pain.1994. 1994 Annual Meeting GNYRC - American College of Sports Medicine New York, NY.

11. Governance of Track and Field & Muscle Dysfunction. 1992. International Chiropractic Sports Symposium '92. Fédération Internationale de Chiropratique Sportive. College of Chiropractic Sports Sciences (Canada) Montreal, Canada.

12. Chiropractic and Sports Injuries. 1992. Back to the Foot. Connecticut Chiropractic Association. Connecticut Podiatric Medical Association Trumbull, CT.

13. Thermal Injuries & Moderator. 1991. Hands-On II, ACA Council on Sports Injuries and Physical Fitness. San Diego, CA.

Poster Presentations
1. Therapeutic Forces and Their Transmission from the Skin Surface into the Spine. Kawchuk GN, Perle SM. 34th Annual Meeting 2007 International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine. Hong Kong, China.

2. Organizing the Technique Curriculum: A Case Report. Good C, Funk F, Perle S, Greenstein G, Sherman S. Fourteenth Annual Educational Conference & Research Agenda Conference XII. 2007. Association of Chiropractic Colleges & Consortial Center for Chiropractic Research Phoenix, AZ.

3. Evidence Based Practice and Curriculum Development at UBCC. Greenstein G, Funk M, Sherman P, Good C, Perle S. Fourteenth Annual Educational Conference & Research Agenda Conference XII. 2007. Association of Chiropractic Colleges & Consortial Center for Chiropractic Research Phoenix, AZ.

4. Searching for Chiropractic Literature: A Study of Medline Indexing of Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. Thirteenth Annual Educational Conference & Research Agenda Conference XI. 2006. Association of Chiropractic Colleges & Consortial Center for Chiropractic Research Washington, DC.

5. Effects of Graston Technique on Soft Tissue Conditions: A Prospective Case Series. Eleventh Annual Educational Conference & Research Agenda Conference IX. 2004. Association of Chiropractic Colleges & Consortial Center for Chiropractic Research Las Vegas, NV. 7th Biennial Conference. 2003. World Federation of Chiropractic Orlando, FL.

6. Using a Mock Chiropractic Technique System to Help Teach Evaluation of Technique. 1998. Fifth Annual Educational Conference. Association of Chiropractic Colleges Las Vegas, NV.

Invited Presentations
1. Using Web 2.0 in Education. Sixteenth Annual Educational Conference. 2009. Association of Chiropractic Colleges Las Vegas, NV.

2. Transition Ceremony Keynote Speaker. 2009. New York Chiropractic College Seneca Falls, NY.

3. Exercise and Weight Control. 2008. 6th Symposium on Nutrition & Chiropractic - Conquering Obesity. Palmer Chiropractic College Davenport, IA.

4. Professional Ethics & Evidence Based Practice. 2008. Extravaganza Symposium. Southern California University of Health Sciences Long Beach, CA.

5. Chiropractic and Pain Control. 2006, 2008. Complimentary Medicine Masters Program in Pain Research, Education & Policy Tufts University, School of Medicine Boston, MA.

6. Evidence Based Rehabilitation. 2007. Translating Evidence Into Practice Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research Tacoma, WA.

7. Chiropractic Care: Evidence on Effectiveness and Safety. 2006. Medical Grand Rounds Department of Medicine, Stamford Hospital Stamford, CT.

8. Research and Treatment Ethics and Informed Consent. 2005. Translating Evidence Into Practice Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research Boston, MA.

9. How Specific are Chiropractic Adjustments? 2005. Twelfth Annual Educational Conference & Research Agenda Conference X Association of Chiropractic Colleges & Consortial Center for Chiropractic Research Las Vegas, NV.

10. How to Search the Literature. Inappropriate Uses of the Scientific Literature. 2004 American College of Chiropractic Consultants Chicago, IL.

11. Ethics- Problems and Solutions. House of Delegates Annual Meeting. 2004. American Chiropractic Association St. Petersburg, FL; 78th Annual Educational Conference. 2004. Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards Denver, CO. Asserting Chiropractic Leadership in an Integrated Health Care Environment 2004 New York State Chiropractic Association Seneca Falls, NY.

12. Ethics and Best Practices. Eleventh Annual Educational Conference & Research Agenda. Conference IX. 2004. Association of Chiropractic Colleges & Consortial Center for Chiropractic Research Las Vegas, NV.

13. The Weekend Warrior- Chiropractic Evaluation of the Shoulder Soft Tissue Injuries. Annual Meeting Greater New York Regional Chapter. 2003. American College of Sports Medicine New York, NY.

14. Evidence for Various EMG Studies the State of the Subluxation- Analysis of the Evidence. 2003 American College of Chiropractic Consultants Chicago, IL.

15. Calculating Sensitivity, Specificity, Pos. Predictive Values, NNTS; Using Valid, Important Evidence in Caring for A Patient; Self Evalaution. 2002. American College of Chiropractic Consultants Charlotte, NC.

16. Expert Panel Member. 2002. Long Range Planning for the Profession New York State Chiropractic Association Saratoga, NY.

17. Developming Scholarly Presentation Skills. Seventh Annual Educational Conference & Research Agenda Conference VII. 2002. Association of Chiropractic Colleges & Consortial Center for Chiropractic Research New Orleans, LA.

18. Changing Responsibilities in Health Care: Who is Responsible the Patient of the Health Care Professional? Institute for the Study of Values and Ethics 2001 University of Bridgeport Bridgeport, CT.

Postgraduate and Continuing Education Presentations
1. Soft Tissue Technique- Trauma 2007-9. Pinnacle Learning Center Marlboro, NY; Illinois Chiropractic Society Chicago, IL; Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent Physicians Association Tulsa, OK.

2. Soft Tissue Technique- Dysfunction 2007-9. Wyoming Chiropractic Association Casper, WY; New York Chiropractic College Levittown, NY; Utah College of Chiropractic Orthopedists Salt Lake City; Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent Physicians Association Oklahoma City, OK.

3. Management of Myofascial Pain Syndrome. 2009. Illinois Chiropractic Society, Chicago, IL.

4. Evidence Based Practice 2003, 2005, 200-9. Utah College of Chiropractic Orthopedists, Salt Lake City; North Dakota Chiropractic Association, Bismarck, ND; Alabama State Chiropractic Association, Birmingham, AL; Ohio State Chiropractic Association, Columbus, OH; California Chiropractic Association, San Deigo, CA; Chiropractic Society of Rhode Island, Seekonk, MA; New York State Chiropractic Association, Uncas, CT.

5. Risk Management. 2006. Pinnacle Learning Center, Marlboro, NY; New York Chiropractic College, Levittown, NY; New York State Chiropractic Association, Verona, NY.

6. Is it Fraud or Philosophy? 2006. 6th Annual Advance Forensic Workshop, College on Forensic Sciences, Scottsdale, AZ.

7. Spinal Rehabilitation. 2005, 2007-9 Wyoming Chiropractic Association Casper, WY; Illinois Chiropractic Society Chicago, IL; American College of Chiropractic Consultants Oak Brook, IL; South Carolina Chiropractic Association Charleston, SC; Pinnacle Learning Center Marlboro, NY; West Virginia Chiropractic Society Charleston, WV; Texas Chiropractic College Homecoming Galveston, TX; New Hampshire Chiropractic Association Manchester, NH; Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent Physicians Association Oklahoma City, OK; Maine Chiropractic Association Portland, ME; Ohio State Chiropractic Association Columbus, OH; Tennessee Chiropractic Association Memphis, TN.

8. Outcomes Based Practice. 2001, 2003, 2005-7 New York State Chiropractic Association Uncas, CT; New York Chiropractic College Levittown, NY; Tennessee Chiropractic Association Memphis, TN; University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic Bridgeport, CT; New York State Chiropractic Association District 15 Rochester, NY.

9. Ethical Considerations for the Forensic Practitioner. 2005. 5th Annual Advance Forensic Workshop, College on Forensic Sciences St. Paul, MN.

10. Ethics 2005-6. Illinois Chiropractic Society Chicago, IL; Utah College of Chiropractic Orthopedists Salt Lake City American Specialty Health 2005 Clinical Quality Conference San Diego, CA; New York Chiropractic College Levittown, NY; Pinnacle Learning Center Marlboro, NY; Ohio State Chiropractic Association Columbus, OH; Mississippi Chiropractic Association Jackson, MS; American Specialty Health 2005 Clinical Quality Conference San Diego, CA; New York State Chiropractic Association Verona, NY; New York State Chiropractic Association Uncas, CT; Tennessee Chiropractic Association Memphis, TN.

11. How to Search the Literature. 2006. Connecticut Chiropractic Association & University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic Bridgeport, CT.

12. Ethical Considerations for the Forensic Practitioner. 2005. 5th Annual Advance Forensic Workshop College on Forensic Sciences St. Paul, MN.

13. Ethics, Evidence Based Practice, Outcomes Based Practice, & Low Tech Rehab. 2005. Tennessee Chiropractic Association & NCMIC Memphis, TN.

14. Ergonomics for Chiropractors. 2004. University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic Bridgeport, CT.

15. How to Search the Literature. 2004. Connecticut Chiropractic Association, District 3 Westport, CT.

16. Critical Look at Ergogenic Effects of Chiropractic Care Biomechanics and Physiology of Soft Tissue Injury and Repair Breakout (Hands-On) Graston Technique. 2004. ACA Sports Council's Annual Symposium San Francisco, CA.

17. Sports Injuries of the Pelvis, Hip, Thigh and Knee. 2003. Sports Injuries of the Spine and Viscera. 2003. American Academy of Chiropractic Educators PA University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic.

18. Etiology and Clinical Implications of Soft Tissue Injuries. 2002. The Olympic Sports Chiropractic Symposium; The NJ Chiropractic Society Sports Council, ACA Sports Council New York Chiropractic College Rutherford, NJ.

19. Cervical Spine Outcomes. 2001. MPI Advanced Seminar Motion Palpation Institute Cincinnati, OH.

20. Starting and Developing a Sports Chiropractic Practice. 2001. University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic Purchase, NY.

21. Impacting the Healing of Soft Tissues. 2001. Connecticut Chiropractic Association, District 3 Norwalk, CT.

22. Myofascial Causes of Back Pain. 2000. University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic Bridgeport, CT.

23. Surviving a Dental Hygiene Career: Ergonomics and Preventing Job Related Injuries. 1994, 2000. Dental Hygiene Continuing Education Sigma Phi, Alpha Gamma Chapter at the Fones School of Dental Hygiene University of Bridgeport Bridgeport, CT.

24. Soft Tissue Trauma. 2000 University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic Bridgeport, CT.

25. Soft Tissue Procedures I - Trauma Soft Tissue Procedures II - Dysfunction. 1998, 2000. Diplomate of the American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians Program National College of Chiropractic Lombard, IL.

26. Diagnosis and Treatment of Injuries of the Lower Extremity. 1992, 93, 95 - 98 Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician Program Texas Chiropractic College Pasadena, TX.

27. Motion Palpation of the Spine and Extremities. 1997. Academy of Chiropractic General Practice University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic Bridgeport, CT.

28. Sports Injuries. 1997. Academy of Chiropractic General Practice Bloomfield College Bloomfield, NJ.

29. Tempromandibular Dysfunction. 1995. Dental Hygiene Continuing Education Sigma Phi, Alpha Gamma Chapter at the Fones School of Dental Hygiene Bridgeport, CT.

30. Management of Sports Injuries of the Lower Extremity. 1994. 1994 Convention Delaware Chiropractic Society Wilmington, DE.

31. Management of Thermal Injuries, Asthma and Diabetes. 1993. Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician Program Northwestern College of Chiropractic Bloomington, MN.

32. Diagnosis and Treatment of Soft Tissue Injuries. 1991 - 92 Diplomate Program in Chiropractic Sports Injuries New York Chiropractic College & Logan College of Chiropractic Orlando, FL.

33. The Role of the Chiropractic Subluxation Complex in Sports Injuries. 1991. Combined Venezuelan Military Branches, Medical Corps, and Venezuelan Institute of Sports Caracas, Venezuela.

34. The Role of the Chiropractic Subluxation Complex in Work Related Injuries. 1991. Medical Staff - PDVSA (The national oil holding company) Caracas, Venezuela.

35. The Treatment of Chronic Muscle Tightness. 1991. New York County Chiropractic Society New York, NY.

36. Assessment and Treatment of Injuries of Ligaments, Muscle, Tendon and Bursae. 1990 American Massage Therapy Association, Mid-Atlantic Conference Atlantic City, NJ.

37. Myofascial Trigger Points in Sports Chiropractic Practice. 1990 The F.I.C.S. 2nd Annual International Symposium on Sports Chiropractic Fédération Internationale de Chiropratique Sportive E. Rutherford, NJ.

38. Moderator. 1990 Hand On Seminar 1990 ACA Council on Sports Injuries and Physical Fitness Orlando, FL.

39. Biomechanics and Mechanism of Running Injuries. 1990. Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician Program New York Chiropractic College Greenvale, NY.

40. Sports Nutrition. 1989 The Academy of Chiropractic New York, NY.

41. Sports Nutrition. 1989. 8th Annual Coaches' Development Seminar The Athletics Congress (TAC/USA) Syracuse, NY.

42. Physiology of Manipulation and Manipulation of the Foot in Sport Medicine. 1988-92 New York College of Podiatric Medicine New York, NY.

43. Referral of Pain, Physiology of Manipulation Manipulation of the Foot in Sports Medicine. 1988 Pennsylvania College of Podiatric Medicine Philadelphia, PA.

44. Exercise Physiology, Sports Nutrition First Aid for Typical Injuries Presenting at the Finish of a Marathon. 1988 Sports Massage Symposium American Massage Therapists Association, New York State Chapter Huntington, NY.

45. First Aid for Typical Injuries Occurring During Triathalons.1987 Greenwich Red Cross Greenwich, CT.

46. Causes of Neuromusculoskeletal Pain and Treatment by Chiropractic Methods. 1988, 95 Disability Law Seminar, Connecticut Legal Services, Inc. Middletown, CT.

47. Athletic Taping The Use of a Medical Library for Research. 1983 Texas Chiropractic College Pasadena, TX.

Articles Written by Stephen M. Perle, DC, MS

Chiropractic Care: What Are the Real Risks?

Chiropractic procedures may appear dangerous or intimidating or risky. However, spinal manipulation and other chiropractic therapies are widely documented to be safe and effective, especially when in the hands of a properly trained practitioner.

Chiropractic Care for Low Back Pain

Seeing a doctor of chiropractic, otherwise known as a chiropractor, chiropractic physician or DC, can be a beneficial step towards effectively treating low back pain.

Chiropractic Care to Manage Chronic Low Back Pain

Low back pain is not necessarily an acute problem that goes away within 6 weeks.This can require patients to receive additional chiropractic care, along with any other medical services they may need.

How Often is Chiropractic Needed for Low Back Pain?

For acute low back pain, 6 to 12 sessions over the course of 2 to 4 weeks is standard. These initial treatments do emphasize the "passive" (nonexercise) approaches of manual therapy to relieve pain and improve function.

Chiropractic Care for Spondylolisthesis

Chiropractic care is a non-surgical treatment option for spondylolisthesis. If you have spondylolisthesis, learn how the various chiropractic techniques can help relieve your back pain.

Articles Reviewed by Stephen M. Perle, DC, MS

What Disorders Do Chiropractors Treat?

This article highlights several spine-related problems that may be evaluated and treated by chiropractic care.

The History of Chiropractic

Chiropractic started in the late 1800s, and it has come a long way since then. Learn about the development of chiropractic and its various techniques, such as spinal manipulation.

Chiropractor Education and Training

Chiropractic education and training is much more than spinal manipulation and includes anatomy, physiology, microbiology, and pathology.

What is a Chiropractor?

Chiropractors are trained to diagnose and treat disorders of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems.

Chiropractic Therapies

Although their main method of treatment is the spinal manipulation, many chiropractors also use other therapies to treat their patients. This article provides patients with information about many of the most common chiropractic therapies.

Questions to Consider When Choosing a Chiropractor

Chiropractors can specialize in many areas, including orthopaedics, neurology, sports injuries, and nutrition. Answer these questions to determine if you've chosen the right chiropractor to fit your needs.

What Is the Relation Between Chiropractic and Spinal Manipulation?

Spinal manipulation is a chiropractic treatment that uses manual thrusts to reduce pain and improve joint function. Your chiropractor may also call this chiropractic adjustment. This article provides an overview of spinal manipulation.

Financial Disclosures

SpineUniverse, a Vertical Health, LLC website, is committed to ensuring that the medical information it presents is accurate, balanced, objective, and trustworthy. 

To help achieve this goal, SpineUniverse requires all authors, editors, and reviewers to disclose any financial relationships or affiliations they have with companies whose products or services may be mentioned in the content they author, edit, or review.

The intent of this policy is to identify any perceived, potential, or real conflicts of interest so that readers can make their own judgments about the value of information being presented.

Author's Statement

I, the undersigned, declare that neither I nor members of my immediate family have a financial interests or affiliation with commercial companies whose products and / or services may be mentioned in the materials I have authored, edited or reviewed for presentation on Vertical Health, LLC’s websites.
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