Kevin T. Foley, MD's portrait
Kevin T. Foley, MD
Professor of Neurosurgery
University of Tennessee
Memphis, TN
Dr. Foley is a member of the SpineUniverse Editorial Board.

About Kevin T. Foley, MD

Dr. Kevin Foley is a professor of neurosurgery at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center in Memphis, TN. He also holds academic appointments at the University of Tennessee School of Biomedical Engineering and the Uniformed Services University for the Health Sciences in Bethesda, MD. He serves as Director of Complex Spine Surgery at Semmes-Murphey Neurologic & Spine Institute, Director of the Spine Fellowship Program for the University of Tennessee Department of Neurosurgery, and Medical Director for the Medical Education & Research Institute.

Dr. Foley received his Doctor of Medicine degree from UCLA in 1979. During his training, he was awarded the Eben J. Carey Memorial Anatomy Award and the Merck Manual Award for Academic Achievement and was elected to membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. He interned at Letterman Army Medical Center, where he received the Richard Mason Award for Outstanding Intern. He returned to UCLA in 1980, where he completed his neurosurgery residency.

Following residency, Dr. Foley served in the United States Army Medical Corps as Assistant Chief of Neurosurgery at Brooke Army Medical Center, Chief of Neurosurgery at Tripler Army Medical Center, and Chief of Neurosurgery at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, where he was also the director of the neurosurgical residency training program. During his military service, Dr. Foley was awarded the Army Commendation Medal, the Meritorious Service Medal with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters, the Order of Military Medical Merit, and the Surgeon General's Physician Recognition Award.

In 1992, Dr. Foley left the military to enter private practice and pursue an academic career. In addition to a full-time spine surgery practice, he is actively involved in research in image-guided spinal navigation, minimally invasive spine surgery, and spinal biomechanics. He has authored 20 book chapters and more than 80 journal publications. He has lectured at more than 200 scientific meetings and educational workshops and has been a visiting professor and invited lecturer at several universities in the US and abroad.

Dr. Foley is a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons and a member of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, the Congress of Neurological Surgeons, the AANS/CNS Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, the Cervical Spine Research Society, the North American Spine Society, the Society of University Neurosurgeons, the American Academy of Neurological Surgery, the International Society for Computer Aided Surgery, the Canadian Neurosurgical Society (Honorary), the Southern Neurosurgical Society, and the Tennessee Neurosurgical Association.

Publications

Books and Book Chapters
1. Foley KT. Sacral Infections. In Doty JP, Rengachary SS, eds. Surgical Disorders of the Sacrum. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 1992.

2. Klara PM, Foley KT. Surgical Correction of Swan Neck Deformity. In Rengachary SS, Wilkins RH eds. Neurosurgical Operative Atlas. Vol. 2(6). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1992.

3. Foley KT, Klara PM. Microlumbar Discectomy. In Rengachary SS, Wilkins RH eds. Neurosurgical Operative Atlas. Vol. 3(4). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1993.

4. Foley KT, Klara PM. Treatment of Unstable Lower Cervical Spine Injuries. In Rea GL, Miller CA eds. Spinal Trauma: Current Evaluation and Management. American Association of Neurological Surgeons, 1993.

5. Klara PM, Foley KT. Approaches to Multilevel Cervical Spondylitic Myelopathy: Posterior Cervical Decompression for Cervical Spondylitic Myelopathy. In Al-Mefty O, Origitano TC, Harkey HL eds. Controversies in Neurosurgery. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 1996.

6. Foley KT, Smith KR, Bucholz RD. Image-guided Intraoperative Spinal Localization. In Andrews, R ed. Intraoperative Neuroprotection. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1996.

7. Foley KT, Smith KR, Smith MM. Frameless Stereotactic Guidance of Cervical Spine Lateral Mass Screw Placement. In Nolte LP, Ganz R eds. Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery (CAOS). GÃttingen, Germany: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, 1999.

8. Rampersaud YR, Foley KT. Traumatic Spinal Injury-Thoracic and Lumbar Spine. In Kaye A, Black P eds. Operative Neurosurgery. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1999

9. Rodts GR, Haid RW, Foley KT. Ventral and Lateral Thoracic and Lumbar Fixation Techniques. In Benzel EC ed. Spine Surgery. Techniques, Complication Avoidance, and Management. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone, 1999.

10. Foley KT, Smith MM, Rampersaud YR. Microendoscopic Discectomy. In Schmidek HH ed. Operative Neurosurgical Techniques: Indicatons, Methods, and Results. Fourth edition. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders, 2000.

11. Lefkowitz MA, Foley KT. Advances in Neuronavigation: Computer-Assisted Image-Guided Fluoroscopy (Virtual Fluoroscopy). In Germano IM ed. Advanced Techniques in Image-Guided Brain and Spine Surgery, New York, NY: Thieme Medical Publishers, 2002.

12. Perez-Cruet MJ, Smith MM, Foley KT. Endoscopic Lumbar Microdiscectomy. In Perez-Cruet MJ, Fessler RG eds. Outpatient Spinal Surgery, St. Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing, 2002.

13. Gupta SK, Smith MM, Foley KT. Endoscopic Far Lateral Lumbar Discectomy. In Perez-Cruet MJ, Fessler RG eds. Outpatient Spinal Surgery, St. Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing, 2002.

14. Rampersaud YR, Foley KT. Virtual Fluoroscopy: Overview and Future Implications. In Haid RW, Subach BR, Rodts GE eds. Advances in Spinal Stabilization. Progress in Neurological Surgery. Volume 16. Basel: Karger, 2003.

15. Burkus JK, Foley KT, Haid RW. Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein: Results and Fusion Assessment. In Haid RW, Subach BR, Rodts GE eds. Advances in Spinal Stabilization. Progress in Neurological Surgery. Volume 16. Basel: Karger, 2003.

16. Foley KT, Smith MM, Rampersaud YR. Microendoscopic Discectomy (MED) for Lumbar Disc Herniations. Paramedian and Far Lateral Approaches. In Watkins RG ed. Surgical Approaches to the Spine. Second Edition. New York: Springer, 2003.

17. Foley KT. Atlantoaxial Fixation. In Papadopoulos SM ed. Manual of Cervical Spine Internal Fixation. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004.

18. Rodts GE, Mummaneni PV, Haid RW, Foley KT. Ventral and Lateral Thoracic and Lumbar Fixation Techniques. In Benzel EC ed. Spine Surgery: Techniques, Complication Avoidance and Management. Second Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, 2005.

19. Holly LT, Foley KT. Image-Guided Spine Surgery. In Schmidek HH, Roberts DW eds. Schmidek and Sweet's Operative Neurosurgical Techniques: Indications, Methods, and Results. Fifth edition. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, 2006.

20. Foley KT, Gupta S, Perez-Cruet MJ. Microendoscopic Far-Lateral Lumbar Discectomy. In Perez-Cruet MJ, Khoo LT, Fessler RG eds. An Anatomical Approach to Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery. St. Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing, 2006.

21. Holly LT, Foley KT. Minimally Invasive Approaches to the Cervical Spine. In Mummaneni PV, Lenke LG, Haid RW eds. Spinal Deformity: A Guide to Surgical Planning and Management. St. Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing, 2007.

Journals
1. Kauffman GG, Foley KT, Grossman MI. Cimetidine Does Not Inhibit Indomethacin-Induced Small Bowel Ulceration in the Rat. Proc Soc Exp Bio Med 1979; 161(4): 512-514.

2. Busuttil RW, Davidson RK, Foley KT, Livesay JT, Barker WF. Selective Management of Extracranial Carotid Arterial Aneurysms. American Journal of Surgery 1980; 140(1): 85-91.

3. Anders KA, Foley KT, Stern WE. Intracranial Sparganosis: An Uncommon Infection. J Neurosurg 1984; 60: 1303-1386.

4. Foley KT, Cahan LD, Hieshima GB. Intraoperative Angiography Using a Portable Digital Subtraction Unit. J Neurosurg 1986; 64(5): 816-818.

5. Mitchell GS, Foley KT, et al. Effects of Chronic Thoracic Dorsal Rhizotomy on Ventilatory Control During Mild Exercise in Goats. FASEB Journal 1988; 2: A1508.

6. Foley KT, Howell JD, Junck L. Progression of Hydrocephalus During Corticosteroid Therapy for Neurosarcoidosis. Postgrad Med J 1989; 65(765): 481-484.

7. Ducey JP, Deppe SA, Foley KT. A Comparison of the Effects of Suxamethonium, Atracurium and Vecuronium on Intracranial Haemodynamics in Swine. Anaesth Intensive Care 1989; 17(4): 448-455.

8. Mitchell GS, Douse MA, Foley KT. Receptor Interactions in Modulating Ventilatory Activity. Am J Physiol 1990; 259: R911-R920.

9. Sloan HE, Miletic V, Bowen KK, Foley KT, Mitchell GS. Chronic Thoracic Dorsal Rhizotomy Eliminates CGRP-Like Immunoreactivity in the Dorsal Horn of Goats. FASEB Journal 1990; 4: A948.

10. Sloan HE, Miletic V, Bowen KK, Foley KT, Mitchell GS. Chronic Thoracic Dorsal Rhizotomy Alters Immunoreactive CGRP and Substance P in the Dorsal Horn of Goats. (Abstract). Society of Neuroscience 1990; 16:1072.

11. Mitchell GS, Douse MS, Foley KT. Receptor Interaction in Modulating Ventilatory Activity. Am J Physiol 1990; 259(5 Pt 2): R911-R920.

12. Chapman WH, Foley KT, Lee YT. Pulmonary Embolism From a Venous Thrombosis Distal to the Popliteal Vein. Mil Med 1991; 156(5): 252-254.

13. Mitchell GS, Sloan HE, Foley KT, Brownfield MS, Miletic V. Increased Serotonin in the Thoracic Spinal Cord of Goats Following Chronic Thoracic Dorsal Rhizotomy (TDR). FASEB Journal 1992; 6: 1507.

14. Mitchell GS, Martin PA, Bach KB, Foley KT. Modulation and Plasticity of the Exercise Ventilatory Response. Proc Int Symp Respir Health and Disease Bochum, Germany, 1992.(Abstract)

15. Mitchell GS, Bach KB, Martin PA, Foley KT. Modulation and Plasticity of the Exercise Ventilatory Response. Functionsanalyse Biologischer Systeme 1993; 23: 269-277.

16. Foley KT, Klara PM. Review of the Synthes Modular Spine System. Neurosurgery 1993; 32(6): 1049-1050.

17. Foley KT, Klara PM. Surgical Treatment of Osteophytes and Calcified Discs of the Cervical Spine. Neurosurg Clin of N Am, 1993; 4(1): 53-60.

18. Mitchell GS, Bach KB, Martin PA, Foley KT. Modulation and Plasticity of the Exercise Ventilatory Response. Respir Physiol 91: 57-70.

19. Mitchell GS, Bach KB, Martin PA, Foley KT. Modulation and Plasticity of the Exercise Ventilatory Response, Functionsanalyse Biologischer Systeme 1993; 23: 269-277.

20. Mitchell GS, Martin PA, Turner D, Foley KT. Does Learning Play a Role in Exercise Hypernoea? Biological Phycol, 1993.

21. Roth BJ, Martin RR, Foley KT, Barcia PJ, Kennedy P. Roentgenographic Evaluation of the Cervical Spine. A Selective Approach. Arch Surg 1994; 129(6): 643-645.

22. Armonda R, Citrin CM, Foley KT, Ellenbogen RG. Quantitative Cine-Mode Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Chiari I Malformations: An Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics. Neurosurgery 1994; 35(2): 214-224.

23. Mitchell GS, Turner DL, Foley KT, and Bach KB. Spinal Serotonin Receptors are Necessary for Short Term Modulation (STM) of the Exercise Ventilatory Response in Goats. FASEB Journal 1995; 9: A666.

24. Turner DL, Mitchell GS, Bach KB, Foley KT. Spinal Serotonin Receptors Modulate Breathing Pattern During Exercise with Increased Dead Space in Goats. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1995; 21: 1886.

25. Smith KR, Bucholz RD, Foley KT. Free-Hand Stereotactic Computer Assisted Surgery. Computer Assisted Radiology-CAR 1995; 95: 859-864.

26. Dickman CA, Foley KT, Sonntag V, Smith MM. Cannulated Screws for Odontoid Screw Fixation and Atlantoaxial Transarticular Screw Fixation. J Neurosurg 1995; 83(6): 1095-1100.

27. DiAngelo D, Jansen T, Eckstein E, Dull S, Foley KT. A Testing Apparatus for Cervical Load Simulation of the C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation Techniques. 1996 Advances in Bioengineering; BED-Vol. 33: 357-358.

28. DiAngelo D, Jansen T, Eckstein E, Dull S, Foley KT. Biomechanical Analysis of the C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation Technique. 1996 Advances in Bioengineering; BED-Vol. 33: 359-360.

29. Foley KT, Smith MM. Image-Guided Spine Surgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am 1996; 7(2): 171-186.

30. Foley KT. The StealthStation: Three Dimensional Image-Interactive Guidance for the Spine Surgeon. Spinal Frontiers 1996; 3(1): 7-9.

31. Davies KG, Hermann BP, Dohan FC, Foley KT, Bush AJ, Wyler AR. Relationship of Hippocampal Sclerosis to Duration and Age of Onset of Epilepsy, and Childhood Febrile Seizures in Temporal Lobectomy Patients. Epilepsy Res 1996; 24: 119-126.

32. Davies KG, Hermann BP, Foley KT. Relation Between Intracarotid Amobarbital Memory Asymmetry Scores and Hippocampal Sclerosis in Patients Undergoing Anterior Temporal Lobe Resections. Epilepsia 1996; 37(6): 522-525.

33. Davies KG, Hermann BP, Dohan FC Jr, Foley KT, Bush AJ, Wyler AR. Relationship of Hippocampal Sclerosis to Duration and Age of Onset of Epilepsy, and Childhood Febrile Seizures in Temporal Lobectomy Patients. Epilepsy Res 1996; 24(2); 119-26.

34. Vrionis FD, Robertson JH, Foley KT, Gardner G. Image-Interactive Orientation in the Middle Cranial Fossa Approach to the Internal Auditory Canal: An Experimental Study. Computer Aided Surgery 1997; 2(1): 34-41.

35. Foley KT, Smith MM. Frameless Stereotactic Guidance of C1-2 Transarticular Screw Placement: Clinical Experience. (Abstract). J Neurosurg 1997; 86(2): 360A.

36. Foley KT, Smith MM, Wiles D. Anterior Cervical Plating Does Not Prevent Strut Graft Displacement in Multilevel Cervical Corpectomy. (Abstract). J Neurosurg 1997; 86(2): 355A.

37. Vrionis FD, Foley KT, Robertson JH, Shea JJ. Use of Cranial Surface Anatomic Fiducials for Interactive Image-Guided Navigation in the Temporal Bone: A Cadaveric Study. Neurosurgery 1997; 40(4): 755-764.

38. Turner DL, Bach KB, Martin PA, Olson EB, Brownfield M, Foley KT, Mitchell GS. Modulation of Ventilatory Control During Exercise. Respir Physiol 1997; 110(2-3): 277-285.

39. Foley KT, Smith MM. Microendoscopic Discectomy. Techniques in Neurosurgery 1997; 3(4): 301-307.

40. Foley KT, Rampersaud YR. Frameless Spinal Stereotaxis. Current Orthopaedics 1998; 12(2): 104-110.

41. DiAngelo D, Foley K, Jansen T, Vossel K. Anterior Cervical Plating Reverses the Load Transferred Through Multi-Level Strut-Grafts. (Abstract) JBJS[Br] 1998; 80-Bsuppl: 244.

42. Hermann B, Davies K, Foley K, Bell B. Visual Confrontation Naming Outcome After Standard Left Anterior Temporal Lobectomy with Sparing Versus Resection of the Superior Temporal Gyrus: ARandomized Prospective Clinical Trial. Epilepsia 1999; 40(8): 1070-1076.

43. Foley KT, Rampersaud YR. Stereotactic Image Guidance of Cervical Spine Lateral Mass Fixation. Techniques in Neurosurgery 1999; 5(2): 95-100.

44. Foley KT, DiAngelo DJ, Rampersaud YR, Vossel K, Jansen T. The in Vitro Effects of Instrumentation on Multi-Level Cervical Strut-Graft Mechanics. Spine 1999; 24(22):2366-2376.

45. Rampersaud YR, Foley KT, Shen AC, Williams S, Solomito M. Radiation Exposure During Fluoroscopically-Assisted Pedicle Screw Insertion. (Abstract) European Spine Journal 1999; 8(Suppl 1): S21.

46. Foley KT, Rampersaud YR, Simon DA. Virtual Fluoroscopy: Multiplanar X-Ray Guidance With Minimal Radiation Exposure. (Abstract) European Spine Journal 1999; 8(Suppl 1): S36.

47. Foley KT, Smith MM, Rampersaud YR. Microendoscopic Approach to Far-Lateral Lumbar Disc Herniation. Neurosurgical Focus 1999; 7(5):Article 5.

48. Rampersaud YR, Foley KT. Image-Guided Spinal Surgery. Operative Techniques in Orthopaedics 2000; 10(1): 64-68.

49. Foley KT, Simon DA, Rampersaud YR. Virtual Fluoroscopy. Operative Techniques in Orthopaedics 2000; 10(1): 77-81.

50. DiAngelo DJ, Foley KT, Vossel KA, Rampersaud YR, Jansen TH, Garvey TA. Anterior Cervical Plating Reverses Load Transfer Through Multi-Level Strut Grafts. Spine 2000; 25(7): 783-795.

51. Holly LT, Batzdorf U, Foley KT. Treatment of Severe Retromastoid Pain Secondary to C1-2 Arthrosis by Using Cervical Fusion. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine 2000; 92(2): 162-168.

52. Ludwig SC, Kramer DL, Balderston RA, Vaccaro AR, Foley KT, Albert TJ. Placement of Pedicle Screws in the Human Cadaveric Cervical Spine: Comparative Accuracy of Three Techniques. Spine 2000; 25(13): 1655-1667.

53. Mitchell GS, Bach KB, Martin PA, Foley KT, Olson EB, Brownfield MS, Miletic V, Behan M, McGuirk S, Sloan, HE. Increased Spinal Monoamine Concentrations After Chronic Thoracic Dorsal Rhizotomy in Goats. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89(4): 1266-1274.

54. Rampersaud YR, Foley KT, Shen AC, Williams S, Solomito M. Radiation Exposure to the Spine Surgeon During Fluoroscopically-Assisted Pedicle Screw Insertion. Spine 2000; 25(20): 2637-2645.

55. Foley KT, Simon DA, Rampersaud YR. Virtual Fluoroscopy: Computer Assisted Fluoroscopic Navigation. Spine 2001; 26(4): 347-351.

56. Rampersaud YR, Simon DA, Foley KT. Accuracy Requirements for Image-Guided Pedicle Screw Placement. Spine 2001; 26(4): 352-359.

57. Burkus JK, Foley K, Haid R, LeHeuc JC. Surgical Interbody Research Group. Radiographic Assessment of Interbody Fusion Devices: Fusion Criteria for Anterior Lumbar Interbody Surgery. Neurosurgical Focus 2001; 10(4): Article 11.

58. Foley KT, Gupta SK, Justis JR, Sherman MC. Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Fixation of the Lumbar Spine. Neurosurgical Focus 2001; 10(4): Article 10.

59. Hilibrand AS, Foley KT, Fardon D. Curve/Countercurve: Cervical Disc Herniation. SpineLine 2001; 2(3): 13-15.

60. Haid RW, Foley KT, Rodts GE, Barnes B. The Cervical Spine Study Group Anterior Cervical Plate Nomenclature. Neurosurgical Focus 2002; 12(1): Article 15.

61. Holly LT, Lefkowitz MA, Foley KT. Image-Guided Spine Surgery. SpineLine 2002; 3(2): 6-11.

62. Foley KT, Gupta SK. Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Fixation of the Lumbar Spine: Preliminary Clinical Results. Journal of Neurosurgery 2002; 97(Spine 1): 7-12.

63. Foley KT. Minimally Invasive Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion. Orthopedics Today August 2002: 5-7.

64. Perez-Cruet MJ, Foley, KT, Isaacs RE, Rice-Wyllie L, Wellington R, et al. Microendoscopic Lumbar Discectomy: Technical Note. Neurosurgery 2002 (Suppl); 51(5): 129-136.

65. Foley KT, Lefkowitz MA. Advances in Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery. Clinical Neurosurgery 2002; 49: 499-517.

66. Holly LT, Foley KT. Percutaneous Screw and Rod Insertion for Internal Fixation of the Lumbar Spine. Seminars in Spine Surgery 2002; 14(4): 302-319.

67. Holly LT, Foley KT. Intraoperative Spinal Navigation. Spine 2003; 28(15 Suppl): S54-61.

68. Guyer RD, Foley KT, Phillips FM, Ball PA. Minimally Invasive Fusion: Summary Statement. Spine 2003; 28(15 Suppl): S44.

69. Foley KT, Holly LT, Schwender JD. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Fusion. Spine 2003; 28(15 Suppl): S26-35.

70. Holly LT, Foley KT. Three-Dimensional Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Thoracolumbar Pedicle Screw Placement. Technical note. J Neurosurg 2003; 99(3 Suppl): 324-329.

71. Kang JD, An H, Boden S, Phillips F, Foley K, Abdu W. Cement Augmentation of Osteoporotic Compression Fractures and Intraoperative Navigation. Summary statement. Spine 2003; 28(15 Suppl): S62-63.

72. German JW, Foley KT, Yeung A, Wang JC. Curve/Countercurve: Discectomy: Endoscopic Foraminal or Standard Transcanal. SpineLine 2004; 5(3): 18-23.

73. DiAngelo DJ, Foley KT. An Improved Biomechanical Testing Protocol for Evaluating Spinal Arthroplasty and Motion Preservation Devices in a Multilevel Human Cadaveric Cervical Model. Neurosurgical Focus 2004; 17(3): E4.

74. DiAngelo DJ, Foley KT, Morrow BR, Schwab JS, Song J, et al. In Vitro Biomechanics of Cervical Disc Arthroplasty with the ProDisc-C Total Disc Implant. Neurosurgical Focus 2004; 17(3): E7.

75. Schuler TC, Subach BR, Branch CL, Foley KT, Burkus JK. Segmental Lumbar Lordosis: Manual Versus Computer-Assisted Measurement Using Seven Different Techniques. J Spinal Disord Tech 2004; 17(5): 372-379.

76. Schwender JD, Holly LT, Rouben DP, Foley KT. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF): Ttechnical Feasibility and Initial Results. J Spinal Disord Tech 2005; 18(Suppl 1): S1-6.

77. Andersson GB, Burkus JK, Foley KT, Haid RW, Nockels RP, Polly DW Jr, Sonntag VK, Traynelis VC, Weinstein JN. Summary Statement: Treatment of the Painful Motion Segment. Spine 2005; 30(16 Suppl): S1.

78. German JW, Foley KT. Minimal Access Surgical Techniques in the Management of the Painful Lumbar Motion Segment. Spine 2005; 30(16 Suppl): S52-59.

79. German JW, Foley KT. Disc Arthroplasty in the Management of the Painful Lumbar Motion Segment. Spine 2005; 30(16 Suppl): S60-67.

80. Holly LT, Foley KT. Percutaneous Placement of Posterior Cervical Screws Using Three-Dimensional Fluoroscopy. Spine 2006, 31(5): 536-540.

81. Holly LT, Rouben DP, Schwender JD, Foley KT. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Interbody Fusion: Indications, Technique, and Complications. Neurosurgical Focus 2006; 20(3): E6.

82. Schwab JS, DiAngelo DJ, Foley KT. Motion Compensation Associated with Single-Level Cervical Fusion: Where Does the Lost Motion Go? Spine 2006, 31(21): 2439-2448.

83. Zigler J, Delamarter R, Spivak JM, Linovitz RJ, Danielson GO 3rd, Haider TT, Cammisa F, Zuchermann J, Balderston R, Kitchel S, Foley K, Watkins R, Bradford D, Yue J, Yuan H, Herkowitz H, Geiger D, Bendo J, Peppers T, Sachs B, Girardi F, Kropf M, Goldstein J. Results of the Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption Study of the ProDisc-L Total Disc Replacement Versus Circumferential Fusion for the Treatment of 1-level Degenerative Disc Disease. Spine 2007, 32(11): 1155-1162.

84. Holly LT, Foley KT. Image Guidance in Spine Surgery. Orthop Clin N Am 2007; 38(3): 451-461.

85. Foley KT, Mroz TE, Arnold PM, Chandler HC Jr, Dixon RA, Girasole GJ, Renkens KL Jr, Riew KD, Sasso RC, Smith RC, Tung H, Wecht DA, Whiting DM. Randomized, Prospective, and Controlled Clinical Trial of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation for Cervical Fusion. Spine J 2008; 8(3): 436-442. Epub 2007 Jul 17.

86. Mitchell GS, Turner DL, Henderson DR, Foley KT. Spinal Serotonin Receptor Activation Modulates the Exercise Ventilatory Response with Increased Dead Space in Goats. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2008; 161(3): 230-238. Epub 2008 Feb 29.

87. Park P, Upadhyaya C, Garton HJ, Foley KT. The Impact of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery on Perioperative Complications in Overweight or Obese Patients. Neurosurgery 2008; 62(3): 693-699.

Articles Written by Kevin T. Foley, MD

Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF): Technical Feasibility and Initial Results

An abstract describing the use and results of minimally invasive TLIF techniques.

Minimally Invasive Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF): A Beneficial Union

Spinal surgery has advanced to a new level that utilizes Minimal Access Spinal Technologies (MAST). These innovative surgical techniques replace traditional open procedures.

Minimally Invasive TLIF (Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion)

PLIF and TLIF are two different types of fusion surgeries that may be effective in the treatment of spinal instability including spondylolisthesis, degenerative disc disease, or spinal nerve compression.

Case Report: 50-Year-Old Male Treated with PRODISC®

Read about the experience of a 50-year-old man who underwent disc replacement surgery as a participant in the nonrandomized portion of the PRODISC® disc replacement trial.

Microsurgical Treatment of Herniated Discs

Read about how minimally invasive spine surgery can be used to treat herniated discs.

Minimally Invasive TLIF

Although still being studied, the use and effectiveness of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) seems to be very promising.

Image-Guided Surgery: Space Age Technology Enters the Operating Room

Image-guided surgery enables spine surgeons to see and navigate through the patient's anatomy three-dimensionally (3D) in real time before and during surgery.

Artificial Discs and Degenerative Disc Disease

Artificial Discs and Degenerative Disc Disease, an interview with Kevin Foley, M.D.

Low Back Disc Disease and Herniated Discs

Lumbar herniated discs can cause lower back pain and sciatica. Article (written by a leading spine surgeon) includes table showing nerve-related symptoms.

A Morphometric Study of the C2 Pedicle and Pars - Part 2

A morphometric study of the C2 pedicle and pars

A Morphometric Study of the C2 Pedicle and Pars - Part 1

To provide anatomic and clinical information about the pertinent surgical anatomy for C2 pedicular vs. pars screws.

FluoroNav: Virtual Fluoroscopy System

FluoroNav is a surgical guidance system that combines a conventional C-arm fluoroscope with a surgical computer. By harnessing the power of the computer with the fluoroscope, FluoroNav allows the surgeon to see many views of the spine.

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