Stewart G. Eidelson, MD's portrait
Stewart G. Eidelson, MD
SpineUniverse Founder, Orthopaedic Surgeon
South Palm Orthospine Institute
Boca Raton, FL
Dr. Eidelson is a member of the SpineUniverse Editorial Board.

About Stewart G. Eidelson, MD

Dr. Stewart Eidelson is a fellowship-trained and board certified orthopaedic spine surgeon with private offices in Boca Raton, Boynton Beach, and Delray Beach, FL.

At Thomas Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, Dr. Eidelson received a medical degree. He completed an internship at New York Medical College at Metropolitan Hospital in New York, NY, and an orthopaedic residency at the United States Public Health Service on Staten Island. Dr. Eidelson completed surgical residencies at the Geisinger Medical Center in Danville, PA, and the Alfred I. DuPont Institute in Wilmington, DE. Under the direction of Dr. Arthur Stefee, Dr. Eidelson completed spine fellowship training at the Cleveland Spine and Arthritis Center in Cleveland, OH.

Dr. Eidelson has performed more than 3,000 spine surgeries utilizing the most advanced technologies. He is keenly interested in minimally invasive procedures to remedy disc disorders and treats complex spinal stenosis. Dr. Eidelson's primary area of interest is spinal stenosis and outcome studies related to elderly patients who undergo spine surgery. This interest led him to found the Palm Beach Orthopaedic and Spinal Research Foundation located in Boca Raton, FL.

In addition, Dr. Eidelson views patient education as intrinsic to his medical practice. He has demonstrated his devotion to patient education by founding SpineUniverse.com, an award-winning website that is the most visited spine site on the Internet. To support his patient education publishing projects, he established SYA Press and Research. Through SYA Press and Research, he has published several books for the layman, including Save Your Aching Back and Neck and  Advanced Technologies to Treat Neck and Back Pain, A Patient's Guide.

A prolific author, Dr. Eidelson has published and presented his research in peer-reviewed journals and at society meetings. In addition, Dr. Eidelson is a member of several professional organizations, including the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Medical Association, International Association for the Study of Pain, and North American Spine Society.

Publications

Publications & Presentations

1. Eidelson SG, Whitfield G, Lazar AM, Shults RJ, Cohn J. Scoliosis-Cardiopulmonary Complications. Hospital Physician. December 1979, pp. 32-37.

2. Eidelson SG. The Prophylactic Use of Ender's Pins Prior to Removal of a Femoral Tumor - A Case Report. 1979.

3. Eidelson SG. A Review of Treatment of CDH With a Minimum of Fifteen Years Follow-Up. A Retrospective presented at the Shriner's Hospital for Crippled Children, 1988.

4. Eidelson SG, Pizzutillo PD. Persistent Femoral Anteversion and Knee Pain. 1989.

5. Eidelson SG, Keppler L, Cochran J, Biscup R, Steffee A. Closing Wedge Osteotomy for the Reduction of Thoracolumbar Kyphosis. 1991.

6. Eidelson SG The Functional Recovery of Elderly Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spinal Decompression With and Without Pedicle Fixation. Florida Orthopaedic Society, October 1994.

7. Brown LE, Findlay BW, Whitehurst M, Eidelson SG, Gilbert R, Ferrigno V, Groo DR, Ward JA. Relationship Between the Shoulder Rotation Power Velocity Curve and Service Velocity in College Tennis Players. USTA National Conference on Sports Medicine and Science in Tennis, Key Biscayne, Florida. April 26-30, 1995.

8. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly . Second International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Curacao, Netherlands, Antilles. April 26-29, 1995.

9. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly. Advanced ISOLA Seminar, Kansas City, Missouri. May 4-5, 1995.

10. Groo DR, Brown LE, Findlay BW, Whitehurst M, Eidelson SG, Gilbert R, Ward JA. Effect of Single versus Reciprocal Repetitions on Acceleration in Females During Knee Extension on an Isokinetic Device. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota. May 30-June 2, 1995.

11. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Findlay BW, Whitehurst M, Gilbert R, Groo DR, Ward JA. Effect of Gender on Acceleration Fatigue During Knee Extension on an Isokinetic Device. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Mary 30-June 2, 1995.

12. Ward JA, Brown LE, Findlay BW, Whitehurst M, Eidelson SG, Gilbert R, Groo DR. Effect of Number of Reptitions on Acceleration in Females During Knee Extension on an Isokinetic Device. National Strength and Conditioning Association Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona. June 21-24, 1005.

13. Ward JA, Brown LE, Findlay BW, Whitehurst M, Eidelson SG, Groo DR, Ward JA. Anthropometric Effects on Power in Females During Knee Extension on an Isokinatic Device .National Strength and Conditioning Association Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona. June 21-24, 1995.

14. Ferigno ., Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Eidelson SG, Findlay BW, Gilbert R. The Shoulder Rotation Relative Power Velocity Curve in Elite Male Junior Tennis Players. National Strength and Conditioning Association Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona. June 21-24, 1995.

15. Brown LE, Eidelson SG, Findlay BW, Whitehurst M, Gilbert R, Groo DR, Ward JA. Effect of Muscle Fibre Type on Acceleration Fatigue During Knee Extension on an Isokinetic Device. National Strength and Conditioning Association Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona. June 21-24, 1995.

16. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly. GICD Congress, Asheville, North Carolina. September 12-13, 1995.

17. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Post-Surgical Laminectomy Functional Recovery in an Elderly Population. North American Spine Society Annual Meeting, Washington, DC. October 18-21, 1995.

18. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly. Florida Orthopaedic Society, Atlanta, Georgia. November 4, 1995.

19. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Three Month Functional Outcome Following Spinal Decompression in the Elderly. Southern Medical Association, 89th Annual Assembly, Kansasa City, Missouri. November 16-19, 1995.

20. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly. GICD Congress, Beaver Creek, Colorado. January 14-18, 1996.

21. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Surgery in the Elderly with Comparison to a Non-Operative Population. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Atlanta, Georgia. February 22-26, 1996.

22. Eidelson SG. Outcomes in Managed Care Following Spinal Surgery. Sofamor Danek, Tuscon, Arizona. May 8-11, 1996.

23. Whitehurst M, Brown LE, Eidelson SG. Spinal Surgery Improves Function in Elderly Patients. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1996. American Academy of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio. May 28-June 2, 1996.

24. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Lebwohl L, Brown M, Stambough J. A New Functional Index to Measure Surgical Outcomes: The Palm Beach Spine Index (PBSI). Third International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Munich, Germany. June 19-22, 1996.

25. Development of National Beta Site Centers, Spinal Outcomes Testing Protocols, Sofamor Danek.

26. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Gilreath G. Objective Outcome Measurements Following Lumbar Laminectomy Surgery. Third Annual International Course on Total Spine, Cancun, Mexico. February 1-3, 1997.

27. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Gilreath G. Objective Outcome Measurements Following Lumbar Laminectomy Surgery. Sixth Annual Course on Complications in the Surgical Management of Spinal Disorders, Beaver Creek, Colorado. January 18-22, 1997.

28. Eidelson SG, Whitehurst M, Brown LE. The Palm Beach Spine Index: A Functional Measure of Post-Laminectomy Patients. Operative Techniques in Orthopaedics Vol. 7, No. 1 (January 1997) pp. 1-5.

29. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Objective Outcome Measurements Following Lumbar Laminectomy Surgery. Southern Orthopaedic Association, Pebble Beach. California July 24-26, 1997.

30. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly. 8th Annual Meeting of the European Spine Society, Kos-Hellas, Greece. September 10-13, 1997.

31. Eidelson SG, Brown LE, Whitehurst M. Functional Outcome Following Corrective Spine Surgery in the Elderly. 8th International Conference on Lumbar Fusion and Stabilization (ICLFS 97), San Antonio, Texas. September 30-October 4, 1997.

32. Eidelson SG. Functional Outcome Measurements After Spinal Fusion. Fourth Stryker Cage Meeting, Bordeaux, France. April 30-May 1, 1998.

33. Eidelson SG. Performance Based Functional Tests: Assessing Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Spinal Stenosis. International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Sorrento, Italy. May 1-3, 1998.

35. Eidelson SG. Performance Based Functional Mobility Tests: Assessing Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Spinal Stenosis. Florida Orthopaedic Society Annual Meeting, May 15-17, 1998.

36. Eidelson SG. Performance Based Functional Mobility Tests: Assessing Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Spinal Stenosis. Southern Orthopaedic Association 15th Annual Meeting, Santa Fe, New Mexico. July 30-August 1, 1998.

37. Eidelson SG. Assessing Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Spinal Stenosis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, Anaheim, California. February 4-8, 1999.

38. Eidelson SG., Whitehurst M. Save Your Aching Back: A Patient's Guide. SYA Press, Inc., United States, published 1999.

39. Eidelson SG. Post Surgical Functional Outcomes in Patients with Spinal Stenosis. Ninth International Conference on Lumbar Fusion and Stabilization, Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom. May 31-June 4, 1999.

40. Eidelson SG. Orthopaedic in the New Millenium. The 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Orthopaedic Physicians Assistants, West Palm Beach, Florida. July 12-14, 2000.

41. Whitehurst M, Brown LE, Eidelson SG, D'Angelo A. Functional Mobility Performance in an Elderly Population with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. The Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 82, April 2001.

42. Eidelson SG, Merson MA, Adarmes DA. The Protective Role of Steroid Loading in the Post-Laminectomy Patient with Spinal Stenosis. The International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques (IMAST), Paradise Island, Bahamas. July 12-14, 2001.

43. Eidelson SG, Merson MA, Adarmes MA, Whitehurst M. Post-Operative Steroid Loading in Laminectomy Patietns: A Retrospective Look at Complication Rate and Length of Stay. (in review).

44. Eidelson SG. Lab Instructor. Challenges to Spine Surgery. Royal Sonesta Hotel, New Orleans, Louisiana. December 7-8, 2001.

45. Eidelson SG. The Role of the Internet in Building a Spine Practice. Challenges to Spine Surgery Symposium, The Venetian, Las Vegas, Nevada. April 27, 2002.

46. Eidelson SG. Post-Operative Steroid Loading in Laminectomy Patients: A Retrospective Review. Challenges to Spine Surgery Symposium, The Venetian, Las Vegas, Nevada. April 27, 2002.

47. Eidelson SG, Fessler RG, Garfin SG, Richeimer SH, Rodts Jr., GE, Spinasanta SA. Save Your Aching Back: Second Edition A Patient's Guide. SYA Press, Inc., United States, published 2002.

48. Eidelson SG. Table Instructor. Bioskills Workshop II: Lumbar Fixation/Break. Challenges to Spine Surgery. Hyatt Cerromar Beach Resort, Puerto Rico. January 10-11, 2003.

49. Eidelson SG. A New Protocol for Use in Elderly Patients Undergoing Spinal Decompression and Fusion. Poster presentation, 2003 Joint Meeting of the Eastern and Southern Orthopaedic Association meeting, Dublin, Ireland. July 31-August 1, 2003.

50. Radionics Radiofrequency & discTRODE Cadaver Lab. Hands-on training course. January 23, 2005.

51. Nucleotome for Automated Percutaneous Lumbar Discectomy Workshop. January 23, 2005.

52. Eidelson SG, Spinasanta SA. Advanced Technologies to Treat Neck and Back Pain, A Patient's Guide. SYA Press and Research, Inc., United States, published March 2005.

53. Eidelson SG, Wilkerson J. (of SYA Press and Research, Inc.). A Novel Procedure Using Bone Cement Techniques to Protect Against Adjacent Level Disc Destruction Due to Pedical Screw Penetration. International Intradiscal Therapy Society (IITS) 18th Annual Meeting, San Diego. California. May 2005.

54. Eidelson SG. Clinical Workshop Instructor. Spinal Study Group, Aesculap, Inc. Four Seasons Hotel, Palm Beach, Florida. June 11, 2005.

55. Proven and Effective Approach to Patient Education, Orthopaedic Education Summit, Encore Medical, L.P., Bachelor Gulch, Colorado. January 5-8, 2006

56. Analysis of Postoperative Complications in Lumbar Decompression with Fusion and Instrumentation Patients As a Function of Comorbidity in the Elderly, Florida Orthopaedic Society and Alabama Orthopaedic Society, Sandestin Golf and Beach Resort, Sandestin, Florida. May 18-21, 2006

57. Analysis of Postoperative Complications in Lumbar Decompression with Fusion and Instrumentation Patients as a Function of Comorbidity in the Elderly, 16th Annual Meeting, European Orthopaedic Research Society, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy. June 8, 2006

58. New Fixation Technique to Treat Loosening of Lumbar Pedicle Screws, The Society for Back Pain Research, Gisborough Hall, Guisborough North Yorkshire, England. November 2-3, 2006

59. Review of Postoperative Complications as a Function of Comorbidities in Lumbar Instrumentation Cases, Gisborough Hall, Guisborough North Yorkshire, England. November 2-3, 2006.

60. Eidelson SG, Wilkerson J of SYA Press and Research, Inc., Novel Use of IPD:  Greater Decompression with Laminectomy,  Florida Orthopaedic Society, Disney’s Contemporary Resort.  Orlando, Florida. May 17-20, 2007.

61. Eidelson SG, Wilkerson J of SYA Press and Research, Inc., Spinal Flexometer:  Measurements that potentially reflex changes in pain, Neuropathic Pain Second International Conference, Intercontinental Berlin Hotel, Berlin, Germany. June 7-10, 2007.

62. Eidelson SG, Wilkerson J of SYA Press and Research, Inc., Pilot Study on a New Anchoring Technique to Treat Loosening Screws and Retrospective Study on Lumbar Instrumentation Cases:  Postoperative Complications as a Function of Comorbidity. The International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine 24th Annual Meeting, Grand Hyatt Hotel, Hong Kong, China. June 10-14, 2007.

63. Eidelson SG, Wilkerson J of SYA Press and Research, Inc., Analysis of Postoperative Complications as a Function of Comorbidity in Elderly Lumbar Instrumentation Cases. Eastern & Southern Orthopaedic Associations, Fairmont Empress Hotel, Victoria, BC, Canada. August 1-4, 2007

64. Eidelson SG, Eidelson Sarah. "IPD - Interspinous Process Decompression". Ocean Reef Club, Florida Keys. May 16, 2008.

65. Eidelson SG, "Analysis of Elderly Patients Undergoing Lumbar Decompression and Fusion Using Minimally Invasive Implants as a Function of Co morbidity". 2008 Annual Meeting of the Society for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery. Green Valley Ranch Resort, Henderson, NV. November 14, 2008.

66. Eidelson SG, Eidelson Sarah. "IPD - Interspinous Process Decompression With Bone Dowel Fusion". First International Bauerfeind Meeting of the Spine. Ritz Carlton Hotel, Palm Beach, FL. April 16th - 18, 2009.

67. Eidelson SG, "Evaluation of New Less Invasive Implants (IPI), Treating Significant Lumbar Spinal Stenosis In High Risk Elderly Patients". Poster presentation at Southern Orthopedic Association 26th Annual Meeting. Amelia Island Plantation, Amelia Island, FL. July 15-18, 2009.

68. Eidelson SG, Eidelson David, Ingwer Zach, Geisse Hildegarde. "A Less Invasive Technique Using Interspinous Process Decompression Implants (IPI) with Bone Dowel Fusion for Moderate to Severe Spinal Stenosis". Society for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery 2009 Meeting. Las Vegas, NV. October 9-12, 2009.

69. Eidelson SG, Geisse Hildegarde, Fleming John, Eidelson David. "New Techniques Treating Elderly Patients with Radicular Pain and Neuropathic Symptoms Using Interspinous Process Implants (MLIF) for Severe Lumbar Spondylosis." 3rd International Congress on Neuropathic Pain. Athens, Greece. May 27-30, 2010.

70. Eidelson SG, Geisse Hildegarde, Eidelson David, Fleming John. "Treating 25 Elderly Patients With Multiple Comorbidities Using Interspinous Process Implants (MLIF) for Severe Lumbar Spondylosis With No Postoperative Surgical Wound Infections." Southern Orthopaedic Association 27th Annual Meeting. Fajardo, Puerto Rico. June 16-19, 2010.

71. Eidelson SG, Geisse Hildegarde, Fleming John, Eidelson David, Eidelson Sarah. "Treating 25 Elderly Patients with Multiple Comorbidities Using Interspinous Process Implants (IPI) for Severe Lumbar Spondylosis with no Postoperative Surgical Wound Infections." 13th World Congress on Pain Montreal, Quebec, Canada. August 29 - September 2, 2010.

72. Eidelson SG, Geisse Hildegarde, Eidelson David, Eidelson Sarah. "Treating 25 Elderly Patients with Multiple Comorbidities Using Interspinous Process Implants (IPI) for Severe Lumbar Spondylosis with No Postoperative Surgical Wound Infections." Eastern Orthopaedic Association 41st Annual Meeting, Naples, FL. October 13-16, 2010.

73. Eidelson SG, Fleming John, Eidelson Sarah, Eidelson David. "A New Technique for Providing Minimally Invasive 360 Degree Spinal Fusions Using A Combination of Min- Peek* Inserted Through A Unique Tube With Posterior Instrumentations For Patients With Foraminal Stenosis." 2010 Annual Meeting - Society For Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery. Miami, FL. November 5-7, 2010.

74. Eidelson SG, Fleming John, Eidelson Sarah. "A New Technique for Treating Elderly Patients with Moderate to Severe Spinal Stenosis with Interspinous Process Implants (IPI) and Bone Dowel after Foraminal Decompression." 7th. Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back & Pelvic Pain, Los Angeles, CA. November 9-12, 2010.

Articles Written by Stewart G. Eidelson, MD

Adult Scoliosis

Adult scoliosis occurs when the spine curves abnormally to the left or right. Although scoliosis is usually considered a disorder affecting adolescents, it is also found in adults.

Back Pain Treatment Options

If you are a back pain sufferer, talk to your doctor about what treatment options are best for you. This article discusses the most commonly used treatments for back pain available today, including drugs and medications to bring pain relief.

Patients Describe Attitudes of Their Spine Doctors, Office and Medical Staffs

SpineUniverse published its second survey, Chronic Back Pain in America. This article reveals how patients evaluated particular attitudes their doctors/surgeons and staff in 4 areas: compassionate, serious, rushed, and/or dismissive.

Patient Satisfaction with Spine Surgery Reported

The SpineUniverse patient survey, Chronic Back Pain in America 2015 asked participants who underwent spine surgery, questions related to their surgical experience and postoperative care.

Doctors Who Prescribe Medication to Treat Chronic Back Pain

"Who prescribes medication to treat chronic back pain?" was one of the questions in the Chronic Back Pain in America 2015 survey.

Chronic Mid Back Pain: Muscle Spasms Second Common Symptom after Thoracic Pain

Mid back pain, that is pain felt in and around the thoracic spine, was self-reported by 86% (n=166 of 194) people who completed the Chronic Back Pain in America 2015 survey sponsored by SpineUniverse.com.

Chronic Neck Pain Causes, Treatments and Second Opinions

Roughly half of the 606 people who participated in the Chronic Back Pain in America 2015 survey indicated they have chronic neck pain.

Who Patients Trust to Diagnose and Treat Chronic Back Pain

In the Chronic Back Pain in America 2015 survey, SpineUniverse asked people who reported having chronic spine-related pain for at least 3 months specific questions about this topic.

Coccydynia is Tailbone Pain

There is no definitive cause for coccydynia. However, trauma from falling or being bumped, repetitive action (extensive bike riding or rowing), or childbirth can cause tailbone pain. Aside from an injury, coccydynia can appear to be spontaneous.

Tame Stress to Reduce Neck and Back Pain

Stress can make your back pain or neck pain worse (or it can even cause back pain!). Article has 5 tips for managing stress to help you manage back pain.

Epidural Steroid Injections May Delay Surgery, But Only Minimally

Epidural injections of steroids may have only a small effect in preventing or delaying the need for spinal surgery for low back pain when compared to other treatments.

Preventing Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoporosis in Men

Researchers examined bisphosphonates—specifically 2 osteoporosis medications and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in men. Discover what they found in this osteoporosis study.

Are Patients with Fibromyalgia at Risk for Osteoporosis of the Spine?

Recently, researchers evaluated serum vitamin D levels and bone mineral density in women with primary fibromyalgia, and they compared them to healthy women. Are women with fibromyalgia at risk of developing osteoporosis—including osteoporosis of the lumbar spine?

Surgeon Surveys Provide Framework for Enhancing Perioperative Spine Care

Michael L. Reed, DPT, OCS, from the Hospital for Special Surgery in Jupiter, Florida, who is a member of the North American Spine Society (NASS) Section on Allied Health, reviewed the results of 3 surveys assessing surgeons’ views on issues related to perioperative care.

Osteoporosis in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

What are the factors that influence the association between bone loss and Parkinson’s disease? A study in the Journal of Neurology explored this question.

Articles Reviewed by Stewart G. Eidelson, MD

Neck Pain Center

Obtaining a proper diagnosis is paramount to determine the best course of treatment for neck pain. You have to know what spinal condition is causing your neck pain before you can know how to treat it.

Plane Speaking: Your flight plan to avoid back pain

Anyone who’s ever flown in coach or economy class already knows that the design of airplane seats is neither anatomically-friendly nor comfortable and that most seats “offer no lumbar support."

Neck Pain Treatments

Neck pain treatments overview written by a spine specialist: Learn how doctors help patients with cervical spine pain.

Triclosan-Coated Sutures May Reduce the Risk of Surgical Site Infection After Spinal Surgery

Use of triclosan-coated sutures instead of non-coated sutures was associated with a significantly lower incidence of surgical site infections in patients undergoing spinal surgery, according to a retrospective, nonrandomized study published in The Spine Journal.

Transforaminal Selective Endoscopic Discectomy: Recovery, Complications, Procedure and Contraindications

An explanation of why selective endoscopic discectomy works as well as possible complications and contraindications.

Transforaminal Selective Endoscopic Discectomy: Extremely Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment for Low Back and Leg Pain

Selective Endoscopic Discectomy (SED) is an alternate treatment procedure for some chronic pain patients.

Chronic Back Pain in United States Compared to United Kingdom

Many people were asked about their experiences with back pain.This survey will focus on the neck area, the mid-back, and the lower back/lumbar region.

Financial Disclosures

SpineUniverse, a Vertical Health, LLC website, is committed to ensuring that the medical information it presents is accurate, balanced, objective, and trustworthy. 

To help achieve this goal, SpineUniverse requires all authors, editors, and reviewers to disclose any financial relationships or affiliations they have with companies whose products or services may be mentioned in the content they author, edit, or review.

The intent of this policy is to identify any perceived, potential, or real conflicts of interest so that readers can make their own judgments about the value of information being presented.

Author's Statement

I, the undersigned, declare that neither I nor members of my immediate family have a financial interests or affiliation with commercial companies whose products and / or services may be mentioned in the materials I have authored, edited or reviewed for presentation on Vertical Health, LLC’s websites.
SHOW MAIN MENU
SHOW SUB MENU
Cancel
Delete