David S. Bradford, MD's portrait
David S. Bradford, MD
Orthopaedic Surgeon, Professor
UC San Francisco, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
San Francisco, CA

About David S. Bradford, MD

Dr. David Bradford is Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), and is Attending Staff at the university's Mt. Zion Medical Center. He is certified by The American Board of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Since 1994, Dr. Bradford has received the honor of annually being listed by The Best Doctors in America. He is a recipient of numerous awards in science and spinal research including the Scoliosis Research Society Russell Hibbs Award and the Volvo Award in Basic Science.

Dr. Bradford's career reflects extensive research and publishing endeavors. His prolific research has been published as 162 articles in peer-reviewed journals and as 120 scientific abstracts. Dr. Bradford contributed 42 chapters to academic books, and he has been the editor of several academic books. Since 1975, Dr. Bradford has presented scientific research at over 250 national and international meetings and societies.

Dr. Bradford serves on the editorial boards of Spine, Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Spine Journal, Spine Letter, and AOA News.

As an active member of many professional organizations, Dr. Bradford has served in the various committee positions of President, Chairman, and Board of Directors member. Professional organizations which count Dr. Bradford as a member include: the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, America Medical Association, Scoliosis Research Society, Orthopaedic Research Society, North American Spine Society, International Society for the Study of Lumbar Spine, Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons, European Spine Deformity Society, British Scoliosis Society, International Society of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, and the American Orthopaedic Association.

Publications

Books and Chapters:

1. Bradford DS: Disorders Of The Clavicle, Scapula And Spine. In: Current Pediatric Therapy, Gellis and Kagen (eds.), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1972.

2. Bradford DS, Moe JH, Winter RB: Scoliosis and Kyphosis. In: The Spine, RH Rothman and FA Simeon (eds.), W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1975.

3. Bradford DS: Fracture Management. In JS Najarian and JP Delaney (eds.): Critical Surgical Care, Symposia Specialists, Miami, 1977.

4. Bradford DS: Kyphosis. In: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Vol. 128, DS Bradford (ed.), 1977.

5. Moe JH, Winter RB, Bradford DS, Lonstein JE (eds.): Scoliosis and Related Spine Deformities, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1978.

6. Bradford DS: Role Of Internal Fixation And Spine Fusion In Thoracic And Lumbar Spine Fractures. In: Spinal Deformity and Neurologic Dysfunction, SN Chou and EL Seljeskog (eds.), Raven Press, New York, 1978.

7. Bradford DS: Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis. In: Spinal Deformity and Neurologic Dysfunction, SN Chou and EL Seljeskog (eds.), Raven Press, New York, 1978.

8. Bradford DS: Mechanisms And Management Of Injuries To The Thoracic And Lumbar Spine. In: Orthopaedic Update, Biomedica, Inc., 1979.

9. Bradford DS: Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis. In: Current Practice in Orthopaedic Surgery, Vol. 8, JP Ahlstrom (ed.), C.V. Mosby Co., 1979.

10. Bradford DS: Anterior Spinal Surgery in the Management of Scoliosis: Indications, Techniques, Results. In: Orthopaedic Clinics of North America. Scoliosis and Related Spinal Disorders, Vol. 10, No. 4, DS Bradford (ed.), W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1979.

11. Bradford DS: Kyphosis. In: Current Orthopaedic Management, WLJ Kane (ed.), Churchill Livingstone, Inc., New York, 1981.

12. Bradford DS: Scoliosis and Kyphosis: Where Do We Go From Here? In: Clinical Trends in Orthopaedics, Thieme-Stratton, Inc., New York, 1982.

13. Bradford DS: Management of Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis. In: Instructional Course Lectures, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Vol. XXXII, No. 151, C McCollister Evarts (ed.), C.V. Mosby Co., 1983.

14. Bradford DS: The Role of the Anterior Approach in the Management of Spinal Deformities. In: Orthopaedics 2, R Dickson and DS Bradford (eds.), Butterworth International Medical Reviewers, London, 1984.

15. Bradford DS: Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis in Children and Adolescents: Current Concepts in Management. In: The Pediatric Spine, DS Bradford and R Hensinger (eds.), Thieme, Inc., New York, 1985.

16. Bradford DS: Vascularized Rib Grafts for Stabilization of Kyphosis. In: Microsurgery for Major Limb Reconstruction, JR Urbaniak (ed.), C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, Washington, Toronto, 1987.

17. Bradford DS: Techniques of Surgery; Neuromuscular Spinal Deformity; Juvenile Kyphosis; Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis; Deformity of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Secondary to Spinal Injury; Benign and Malignant Tumors of the Spine; Ankylosing Spondylitis; Kyphosis in the Elderly. In: Moe's Textbook of Scoliosis and Other Spinal Deformities, 2nd Ed., DS Bradford, JE Lonstein, JH Moe, JW Ogilvie, and RB Winter (eds.), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1987.

18. Bradford DS, Lonstein JE, Ogilvie JW, Winter RB (eds.): Moe's Textbook of Scoliosis and Other Spinal Deformities, 2nd Ed., W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1987.

19. Bradford DS: Special Problems of Adults. In: Textbook of Scoliosis: Making Clinical Decisions, Bunch and Patwardhan (eds.), C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, MO, 1989.

20. Bradford DS, Lauerman WC: Fusion Techniques for Adult Spinal Deformity. In: Spinal Fusion. Science and Technique, JM Cotler and HB Cotler (eds.), Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990.

21. Bradford DS: Lumbar and Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis. Operative Treatment: Adults. In: The Lumbar Spine, JN Weinstein and SW Wiesel (eds.), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1990.

22. Bradford DS, Lettice J: Treatment of Kyphosis. In: Operative Surgery, DC Carter and RCG Russell (eds.), Butterworth Scientific, Ltd., Guildford, Surrey, 1990.

23. Bradford DS: Orthopaedic Considerations on the Mechanisms and Management of Injuries to the Thoracolumbar Spine. In: Surgery of the Musculoskeletal System, C. McCollister Evarts and TE Whitesides (eds.), Churchill Livingstone, Inc., New York, 1990.

24. Bradford DS, Ogilvie JW: Fractures And Dislocations Of The Spine. In: Fractures and Dislocations, R Gustilo (ed.), Mosby Year Book, Inc., St. Louis, MO, 1991.

25. Bradford DS, Pashman RS, Hu SS, Day L, Trafton P, Cohen H, Johnston J: Orthopaedics. In: Current Surgical Diagnosis and Treatment, 10th Ed., L.W. Way (ed.), Appleton and Lange, Norwalk, CT, 1993.

26. Bradford DS, Stevens W: General Technical Considerations - How to Avoid Disbalance. In: Lumbosacral and Spondylopelvic Arthrodesis, JY Margulies, Y Floman, J-PC Farcy, MG Neuwirth (eds.), J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1993.

27. Bradford DS: Orthopedics. In: Current Surgical Diagnosis and Treatment, LW Way (ed), Appleton and Lange, Norwalk, CT 1993.

28. Bradford DS, Tribus C: Treatment of Scoliosis in the Adult. In: Surgical Technology International, MH Braverman and RL Tawes (eds.), San Francisco, CA, 1993.

29. Bradford DS, Hu SS: Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis. In: The Pediatric Spine: Principles and Practice, SL Weinstein (ed.), Raven Press, New York, 1994.

30. Lonstein JE, Winter RB, Bradford DS, Ogilvie JW (eds.): Moe's Textbook of Scoliosis and Other Spinal Deformities, 3rd Ed., W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1995.

31. Lonstein JE, Winter RB, Bradford DS, Ogilvie JW: Neuromuscular Spinal Deformity; Juvenile Kyphosis; Adult Scoliosis; Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis; Benign and Malignant Tumors of the Spine; Osteogenesis Imperfecta; Ankylosing Spondylitis; Kyphosis in the Elderly. In: Moe's Textbook of Scoliosis and Other Spinal Deformities, 3rd E., W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1995.

32. Bradford DS: Lumbar Pseudarthrosis: Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment. In The Spine, 4th Edition, Harry N. Herkowitz (ed.), Rothman and Simeone, 1995.

33. Bradford DS, Bueff HU, Hu SS: Reconstructive Spine Surgery. In Current Surgical Orthopaedic Diagnosis and Treatment, HB Skinner (ed.), Appleton and Lange, Norwalk, CT, 1995.

34. Bradford DS, Rubery PT: Surgical Treatment Of Isthmic And Dysplastic Spondylolisthesis In The Adult. In: The Lumbar Spine, 2nd Ed, Wiesel SW (ed.), International Society For The Study Of The Lumbar Spine, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1996.

35. Stevens W, Bradford DS: Lumbosacral Decompensation. In: Lumbosacral and Spinopelvic Fixation, Margulies JY et al. (eds.), Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott-Raven, 1996.

36. Bradford DS (ed.): The Spine. Section in: Master Techniques in Orthopaedic Surgery, RC Thompson (series ed.), Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA, 1997.

37. Bradford DS, Hu SS: Excision of Hemivertebrae. In: The Spine, DS Bradford (ed.). Section in: Master Techniques in Orthopaedic Surgery, RC Thompson (series ed.), Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA, 1997.

38. Hu SS, Bradford DS: Juvenile Kyphosis (Scheuermann's Disease). In: Principles and Techniques of Spine Surgery, Howard S. An (ed.), Williams & Wilkins 1997.

39. Bradford DS et al.: (1) Disc Regeneration: What is the Future? (2) The Use of (and Techniques for) Vascularized Rib Pedicle Grafts (3) Vertebral Column Resection for Severe Deformities In: The Textbook of Spinal Surgery, 2nd Edition, KH Bridwell and RL DeWald (eds.), J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1997.

40. Rhee JM, Deckey JE, Bradford DS: Surgical Management of Adult Scoliosis. In: Seminars in Spine Surgery, Wiesel SM, Boden, SD (eds.), W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1998.

41. Bradford DS: Vertebral Column Resection for the Management of Rigid Decompensated Spinal Deformity. In: Seminars in Spine Surgery, Wiesel SM, Boden, SD (eds.), W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1998.

42. Tay BKB, Colman WW, Berven S, Fontes R, Gunther S, Holmes W, Kim H, Lattanza L, Diao E, Hu SS, Bradford DS: Orthopaedics. In Current Surgical Diagnosis and Treatment. Way LW, Doherty GM eds. 11th edition. McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2003.

Journal Articles:

1. Bradford DS, Dick HM: Fat embolism. Report of a case and discussion of current concepts of pathogenesis and treatment. Clin Orthop 65:218-228, 1969.

2. Bradford DS, Garcia A: Neurological complications in Scheuermann's disease. A case report and review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg 51 A:567-572, 1969.

3. Bradford DS, Garcia A.: Herniations of the lumbar intervertebral disk in children and adolescents: A review of 30 surgically treated cases. JAMA 210:2045-2051, 1969.

4. Bradford DS, Foster RR, Nossel HL: Coagulation alterations, hypoxemia and fat embolism in fracture patients. J Trauma 10:307-321, 1970.

5. Bradford DS, Garcia A: Lumbar intervertebral disk herniations in children and adolescents. Orthop Clin North Am 2:583-592, 1971.

6. Bradford DS, Hacker B, Clark I.: Transfer ribonucleic acid methylases of bone: Studies on vitamin A and D deficiency. Biochem J 126:1057-1066, 1972.

7. Bradford DS: The arthritic hip. Minn Med 55:309-312, 1972.

8. Ersek RA, Bradford DS: Fiber-optic lighting system for orthopaedic operations. J Bone Joint Surg 54 A:1327-1329, 1972.

9. Bradford DS, Moe JH, Winter RB: Kyphosis and postural roundback deformity in children and adolescents. Minn Med 56:114-120, 1973.

10. Bradford DS: Bilateral hip arthroplasty after renal transplantation. Minn Med 56:44-45, 1973.

11. Fisk JR, House JH, Bradford DS: Congenital ulnar deviation of the fingers with clubfoot deformities. Clin Orthop 104:200-205, 1974.

12. Bradford DS, Moe JH, Montalvo FJ, Winter RB: Scheuermann's kyphosis and roundback deformity: Results of Milwaukee brace treatment. J Bone Joint Surg 56 A:740-758, 1974.

13. Anderson S, Bradford DS: Lo-profile halo. Clin Orthop 103:72-74, 1974.

14. Bradford DS, Mitchell NS, Kane WJ, Fisher RL, Urbaniak JR, McGraw RW: Report on the visit of the 1973 North American Exchange Fellows to Great Britain. J Bone Joint Surg 56 A:1290-1298, 1974.

15. Finch ME, Bradford DS: Orthopaedic exhibits: A new approach. Biomech Communications 2:14-17, 1974.

16. Finch ME, Bradford DS: Orthopaedic exhibits: A new approach. Minn Med 57:331-334, 1974.

17. Brown DM, Jowsey J, Bradford DS: Osteoporosis in ovarian dysgenesis. J Peds 84:816-820, 1974.

18. Bradford DS, Moe JH, Montalvo FJ, Winter RB: Scheuermann's kyphosis: Results of surgical treatment by posterior spine arthrodesis in twenty-two patients. J Bone Joint Surg 57 A:439-448, 1975.

19. Bradford DS, Moe JH: Scheuermann's juvenile kyphosis: A histologic study. Clin Orthop 110:45-53, 1975.

20. Wyard GE, Bradford DS: Spinal injuries in a multiple trauma patient. Minn Med 58:536-539, 1975.

21. Rattazzi LC, Simmons RL, Spanos PK, Bradford DS, Najarian JS.: Successful management of miliary tuberculosis after renal transplantation. Am J Surg 130:359, 1975.

22. Brown DM, Bradford DS, Gorlin RJ, Desnick RJ, Langer LO, Jowsey J, Sauk JJ: The acro-osteolysis syndrome: Morphologic and biochemical studies. J Peds 88:573-580, 1976.

23. Bradford DS, Brown DM, Moe JH, Winter RB, Josey J.: Scheuermann's kyphosis: A form of osteoporosis? Clin Orthop 118:10-15, 1976.

24. Heiman ML, Cooley CJ, Bradford DS: Osteoid osteoma of a vertebral body: Report of a case with extension across the intervertebral disk. Clin Orthop 118:159-163, 1976.

25. Bradford DS, Thompson RC: Fractures and dislocation of the spine: Indications for surgical intervention. Minn Med 59:711-720, 1976.

26. Flesch JR, Leider LL, Erickson DL, Chou SN, Bradford DS: Harrington instrumentation and spine fusion for unstable fractures and fracture-dislocations of the thoracic and lumbar spine. J Bone Joint Surg 59 A:143-153, 1977.

27. Bradford DS, Noreen H, Hallgren HM, Yunis EJ: Histocompatibility determinants in idiopathic scoliosis. Clin Orthop 123:261-265, 1977.

28. Anderson JT, Thompson RC, McMahon JE, Bradford DS: Total hip replacement in disseminated neoplastic disease. Surg Gyn & Ob 144:560-562, 1977.

29. Bradford DS, Oegema TR, Brown DM: Studies on skin fibroblasts of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Clin Orthop 126:111-118, 1977.

30. Bradford DS (ed.), Dehner LP, Anderson JT, Brown DM: Grand rounds: Orthopaedic and pathologic aspects of Paget's disease. Minn Med 60:422-428, 1977.

31. Bradford DS, Akbarnia BA, Winter RB, Seljeskog EL: Surgical stabilization of fracture and fracture dislocations of the thoracic spine. Spine 2:185-196, 1977.

32. Bradford DS, Winter RB, Lonstein JE, Moe, JH: Techniques of anterior spine surgery for the management of kyphosis. Clin Orthop 128:129-139, 1977.

33. Bradford DS (guest ed.): Kyphosis symposia. Clin Orthop 128:2-4, 1977.

34. Bradford DS: Juvenile kyphosis. Clin Orthop 128:45-55, 1977.

35. Erkkila JC, Warwick WJ, Bradford DS: Spine deformities and cystic fibrosis. Clin Orthop 131:146-150, 1978.

36. Fischer DA, Bradford DS: Grand Rounds: Osteosarcoma. Minn Med 61:373-379, 1978.

37. Winter RB, Moe JH, Bradford DS: Congenital thoracic lordosis. J Bone Joint Surg 60 A, 806-810, 1978.

38. Boxall D, Bradford DS, Winter RB, Moe JH: Management of severe spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents. J Bone Joint Surg 61 A:479-495, 1979.

39. Winter RB, Moe JH, Bradford DS, Lonstein JE, Pedras CV, Weber AH: Spine deformity in neurofibromatosis. A review of one hundred and two patients. J Bone Joint Surg 61 A:677-694, 1979.

40. Bradford DS: Treatment of severe spondylolisthesis: A combined approach for reduction and stabilization. Spine 4:423-429, 1979.

41. Oegema TR, Bradford DS, Cooper KM: Aggregated proteoglycan synthesis in organ cultures of human nucleus pulposus. J Biol Chem 254:10579-10581, 1979.

42. Bradford DS: Mechanisms and management of injuries to the thoracic and lumbar spine. Orthopaedic Update Biomedica, Inc., 1979.

43. Cummine JL, Lonstein JE, Moe JH, Winter RB, Bradford DS: Reconstructive surgery in the adult for failed scoliosis fusion. J Bone Joint Surg 61 A:1151-1160, 1979.

44. Bradford DS: Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Orthopaedic Update Biomedica, Inc., 1980.

45. Bradford DS, Ahmed KB, Moe JH, Winter RB, Lonstein JE: The surgical management of patients with Scheuermann's disease. A review of twenty-four cases managed by combined anterior and posterior spine fusion. J Bone Joint Surg 62 A:705-712, July, 1980.

46. Bradford DS: Anterior vascular pedicle bone grafting for the treatment of kyphosis. Spine 5:318-323, 1980.

47. Lonstein JE, Winter RB, Moe JH, Bradford DS, Chou SN, Pinto WC: Neurologic deficits secondary to spinal deformity: A review of the literature and report of 43 cases. Spine 5:331-355, 1980.

48. King HA, Bradford DS: Fracture-dislocation of the spine after spine fusion and Harrington instrumentation for idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg 62 A:1374-1376, 1980.

49. Bradford DS: Spinal instability: Orthopaedic perspective and prevention. Clin Neurosurg 27:591-610, 1980.

50. Mayfield JK, Winter RB, Bradford DS, Moe JH: Congenital kyphosis due to defects of anterior segmentation. J Bone Joint Surg 62 A:1291-1301, 1980.

51. Swank S, Lonstein JE, Moe JH, Winter RB, Bradford DS: Surgical treatment of adult scoliosis. A review of two hundred and twenty-two cases. J Bone Joint Surg 63 A:268-287, 1981.

52. Malcolm BW, Bradford DS, Winter RB, Chou SN: Post-traumatic kyphosis. A review of forty-eight surgically treated patients. J Bone Joint Surg 63 A:891-899, 1981.

53. Bradford DS: Vertebral osteochondrosis (Scheuermann's kyphosis). Clin Orthop 158:83-90, 1981.

54. Ferguson AB, Bethem D, Bradford DS: Severe spondylolisthesis in a young woman. Orthopaedic Consultation 2:1-8, 1981.

55. Bethem D, Winter RB, Lutter L, Moe JH, Bradford DS, Lonstein JE, Langer LO: Spinal disorders of dwarfism ? Review of the literature and report of eighty cases. J Bone Joint Surg 63 A:1412-1425, 1981.

56. Bradford DS: Partial epiphyseal arrest and supplemental fixation for progressive correction of congenital spinal deformity. J Bone Joint Surg 64 A:610-614, 1982.

57. Bradford DS, Ganjavian SAD, Antonious D, Winter RB, Lonstein JE, Moe JH: Anterior strut-grafting for the treatment of kyphosis: Review of experience with forty-eight patients. J Bone Joint Surg 64 A:680-690, 1982.

58. Bradford DS: Place de l'abord antérieur dans le traitement des déformations vertébrales. Conferences D Enseignement de la SOFCOT pp. 60-76, 1982.

59. Wakano K, Kasman MS, Chao EY, Bradford DS, Oegema T.R.: Biomechanical analysis of canine intervertebral discs after chymopapain injection ? A preliminary report. Spine 8:59-68, 1983.

60. Bradford DS, Morrow CE, Sutherland DER, Simmons RL, Najarian JS, Janes P: Osteonecrosis and total hip arthroplasty in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 15:1105-1106, 1983.

61. Oegema TR Jr, Bradford DS, Cooper KM, Hunter RE: Comparison of the biochemistry of proteoglycans isolated from normal idiopathic scoliotic and cerebral palsy spines. Spine 8:378-384, 1983.

62. McBride GG Bradford DS: Vertebral body replacement with femoral neck allograft and vascularized rib strut graft: A technique for treating post-traumatic kyphosis with neurologic deficit. Spine 8:406-415, 1983.

63. Bradford DS, Blatt JM, Rasp FL.: Surgical management of severe thoracic lordosis: A new technique to restore normal kyphosis. Spine 8:420-428, 1983.

64. Allen BL, Jr, Bradford DS, Dickson JH, Renshaw TS: Symposium: Idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. Contemp Orthop 7:75-112, 1983.

65. Bradford DS, Tanguy A, Vanselow J: Surface electrical stimulation in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis: Preliminary results in 30 patients. Spine 8:757-764, October, 1983.

66. Bradford DS, Janes PC, Simmons RS, Najarian JS: Total hip arthroplasty in renal transplant recipients. Clin Orthop 181:107-114, 1983.

67. Bradford DS: Décompression médullaire antérieure. Revue de Chirurgie Orthopedique (Suppl. 11):43-44, 1983.

68. Bradford DS, Cooper KM, Oegema TR: Chymopapain, chemonucleolysis and nucleus pulposis regeneration. J Bone Joint Surg 65 A:1220-1231, 1983.

69. King HA, Moe JH, Bradford DS, Winter RB: The selection of fusion levels in thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg 65 A:1302-1313, 1983.

70. Moe JH, Purcell GA, Bradford DS: Zielke instrumentation (VDS) for the correction of spinal curvature: Analysis of results in 66 patients. Clin Orthop 180:133-153, 1983.

71. Bradford DS, Szalapski, EW, Jr, Sutherland, DER, Simmons, RL, Najarian, JS: Osteonecrosis in the transplant recipient. Surg Gyn & Ob 159:328-334, 1984.

72. Bradford DS, Oegema TR Jr, Cooper KM, Wakano K, Chao EY: Chymopapain, chemonucleolysis, and nucleus pulposus regeneration ? A Biochemical and Biomechanical Study, (1983 Volvo Award in Basic Science), Spine 9:135-147, 1984.

73. Daher YH, Lonstein JE, Winter RB, Bradford DS: Spinal deformities in patients with fredereich ataxia: A review of 19 patients. J Ped Orthop 5:543-557, 1985.

74. Daher YH, Lonstein JE, Winter RB, Bradford DS: Spinal deformities in patients with muscular dystrophy other than Duchenne ? A Review of 11 Patients Having Surgical Treatment. Spine 10:614-617, 1985.

75. McEvoy RD Bradford DS: The management of burst fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine ? Experience in 53 Patients. Spine 10:631-637, 1985.

76. Bradford DS, Iza J: Repair of the defect in spondylolysis or minimal degrees of spondylolisthesis by segmental wire fixation and bone grafting. Spine 10:673-679, 1985.

77. Balderston RA, Bradford DS: Technique for achievement and maintenance of reduction for severe spondylolisthesis using spinous process traction wiring and external fixation of the pelvis. Spine 10:376-382, 1985.

78. Suguro T, Oegema TR Jr, Bradford DS: Ultrastructural study of the short-term effects of chymopapain on the intervertebral disc. J Orthop Res 4:281-287, 1986.

79. Herring JA, Bradford DS: Severe spondylolisthesis. J Ped Orthop 5:737-739, 1985.

80. Suguro T, Oegema TR Jr, Bradford DS: The effects of chymopapain on prolapsed human intervertebral disc. A clinical and correlative histochemical study. Clin Orthop 213:223-231, 1986.

81. Bradford DS: Instrumentation of the lumbar spine ? An overview. Clin Orthop 203:209-218, 1986.

82. Bradford DS, Daher YH: Vascularized rib grafts for the stabilization of kyphosis. J Bone Joint Surg 68 B:357-361, 1986.

83. Balderston RA, Winter RB, Moe JH, Bradford DS, Lonstein JE: Fusion to the sacrum for nonparalytic scoliosis in the adult. Spine 11:824-829, 1986.

84. Bradford DS, Gotfried Y: Lumbar spine osteolysis: An entity caused by spinal instability. Spine 11:1013-1019, 1986.

85. Gotfried Y, Bradford DS, Oegema TR Jr: Facet joint changes after chemonucleolysis-induced disc space narrowing. Spine 11:944-950, 1986.

86. Wolf A, Bradford DS, Lonstein J, Ogilvie J, Erickson D: The adult diplomyelia syndrome. Spine 12:233-238, 1987.

87. Bradford DS, Schumacher, WL, Lonstein, JE, Winter RB: Ankylosing spondylitis: Experience in the surgical management of 21 patients. Spine 12:238-243, 1987.

88. Bradford DS, McBride, GG: Surgical management of thoracolumbar spine fracture with incomplete neurologic deficits. Clin Orthop 218:201-216, 1987.

89. Sachs B, Bradford DS, Winter RB, Lonstein JE, Moe JH, Wilson S: Scheuermann's kyphosis: Follow-up of Milwaukee brace treatment. J Bone Joint Surg 69-A:50-57, 1987.

90. Bradford DS, Gotfried Y: Staged salvage reconstruction of Grade-IV and V spondylolisthesis. J Bone Joint Surg 69-A:191-202, 1987.

91. Oegema TR Jr, Swedenburg SM, Bradford DS, Thonar EJ: Levels of keratan sulfate-bearing fragments rise predictably following chemonucleolysis of dog intervertebral discs with chymopapain. Spine 13:707-711, 1988.

92. LaGrone MO, Bradford DS, Moe JH, Lonstein JE, Winter RB, Ogilvie JW: Treatment of symptomatic flatback after spinal fusion. J Bone Joint Surg 70A:569-580, 1988.

93. Bradford DS: Closed reduction of spondylolisthesis: An experience in 22 patients. Spine 13:580-587, 1988.

94. West JL, Bradford DS: The problems: Grade IV spondylolisthesis. Orthop Consultation 9:10, Nov/Dec, 1988.

95. Bradford DS: Adult scoliosis: Current concepts of treatment. Clin Orthop 229:70-87, 1988.

96. Bradford DS: Die angeborene skoliose. Orthopäde 18:87-100, 1989.

97. Transfeldt EE, Dendrinos GK Bradford DS: Paresis of proximal lumbar roots after reduction of L5-S1 spondylolisthesis. Spine 14:884-887, 1989.

98. Schoenecker PL, Cole HO, Herring JA, Capelli AM, Bradford DS: Cauda equina syndrome after in situ arthrodesis for severe spondylolisthesis at the lumbosacral junction. J Bone Joint Surg 72A:369-377, 1990.

99. Bradford DS, Boachie-Adjei O: One-stage anterior and posterior hemivertebral resection and arthrodesis for congenital scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg 72A:536-540, 1990.

100. Lauerman WC, Boachie-Adjei O, Bradford DS: Pseudarthrosis after posterior spinal fusion. Orthop Consultation June-July, 1990.

101. Bradford DS, Boachie-Adjei O: Treatment of severe spondylolisthesis by anterior and posterior reduction and stabilization: A long-term follow-up study. J Bone Joint Surg 72A:1060-1066, 1990.

102. Thompson JP, Transfeldt EE, Bradford DS, Ogilvie JW, Boachie-Adjei O: Decompensation after Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation of idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 15:927-931, 1990.

103. Transfeldt EE, White D, Bradford DS Roche B: Delayed anterior decompression in patients with spinal cord and cauda equina injuries of the thoracolumbar spine. Spine 15:953-957, 1990.

104. Kahmann RD, Buttermann GR, Lewis JL, Bradford DS: Facet loads in the canine lumbar spine before and after disc alteration. Spine 15:971-978, 1990.

105. Bradford DS, Heithoff KB, Cohen M.: Intraspinal abnormalities and congenital spine deformities: A radiographic and MRI study. J Ped Orthop 11:36-41, 1991.

106. Oegema TR Jr, Bradford DS: The inter-relationship of facet joint osteoarthritis and degenerative disc disease. Br J Rheumatoid 30 (Suppl. 1):16-20, 1991.

107. Thompson JP, Oegema TR Jr, Bradford DS: Stimulation of mature canine intervertebral disc by growth factors. Spine 16:253-260, 1991.

108. Lauerman WC, Bradford DS, Transfeldt EE, Ogilvie JW: Management of pseudoarthrosis after arthrodesis of the spine for idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg 73A:222-236, 1991.

109. Ogilvie JW, Bradford DS: Sublaminar fixation in lumbosacral fusions. Clin Orthop 269:157-161, 1991.

110. Wood KB, Transfeldt EE, Ogilvie JW, Schendel MJ, Bradford DS: Rotational changes of the vertebral-pelvic axis following Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation. Spine 16(Suppl. 8):404-408, 1991.

111. West JL, III, Ogilvie JW, Bradford DS: Complications of the variable screw plate pedicle screw fixation. Spine 16:576-579, 1991.

112. Devlin VJ, Boachie-Adjei O, Bradford DS, Ogilvie JW, Transfeldt EE: Treatment of adult spinal deformity with fusion to the sacrum using CD instrumentation. J Spinal Disord 4:1-14, 1991.

113. Bradford DS, Kahman RD: Lumbosacral kyphosis, tethered cord, and diplomyelia: A unique spinal dysraphic condition. Spine 16:764-768, 1991.

114. Boachie-Adjei O, Dendrinos GK, Ogilvie JW, Bradford DS: Management of adult spinal deformity with combined anterior-posterior arthrodesis and Luque-Galveston instrumentation. J Spinal Disord 4:131-141, 1991.

115. Puno RM, Bechtold JE, Byrd JA III, Winter RB, Ogilvie JW, Bradford DS: Biomechanical Analysis Of Transpedicular Rod Systems: A Preliminary Report. Spine 16:973-980, 1991.

116. Boachie-Adjei O, Bradford DS: Vertebral Column Resection And Arthrodesis For Complex Spinal Deformities. J Spinal Disord 4:193-202, 1991.

117. Devlin VJ, Ogilvie JW, Transfeldt EE, Boachie-Adjei O, Bradford DS: Surgical Treatment Of Neuropathic Spinal Arthropathy. J Spinal Disord 4:319-328, 1991.

118. Boachie-Adjei O, Bradford DS: The Cotrel-Dubousset System ? Results In Spinal Reconstruction. Early Experience In 47 Patients. Spine 16:1155-1160, 1991.

119. Buttermann GR, Kahmann RD, Lewis JL, Bradford DS: An Experimental Method For Measuring Force On The Spinal Facet Joint: Description And Application Of The Method. J Biomech Eng 113:375-386, 1991.

120. West JL, III, Bradford DS, Ogilvie JW: Results Of Spinal Arthrodesis With Pedicle Screw-Plate Fixation. J Bone Joint Surg 73A:1179-1184, 1991.

121. Kahmann RD, Donohue JM, Bradford DS, White JG, Rao GHR: Platelet Function In Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Spine 17:145-148, 1992.

122. Lauerman WC, Bradford DS, Ogilvie JW, Transfeldt EE: Results Of Lumbar Pseudoarthrosis Repair. J Spinal Disord 5:149-157, 1992.

123. Buttermann GR, Schendel, MJ, Kahmann RD, Lewis JL, Bradford DS: In Vivo Facet Joint Loading Of The Canine Lumbar Spine. Spine 17:81-92, 1992.

124. Hanscom DA, Winter RB, Lutter L, Lonstein JE, Bloom BA, Bradford DS: Osteogenesis Imperfecta Radiographic Classification, Natural History, And Treatment Of Spinal Deformities. J Bone Joint Surg 74A:598-616, 1992.

125. Marchesi DG, Transfeldt EE, Bradford DS, Heithoff KB: Changes In Vertebral Rotation After Harrington And Luque Instrumentation For Idiopathic Scoliosis. Spine 17:775-780, 1992.

126. Oegema TR Jr, Swedenberg S, Johnson SL, Madison M, Bradford DS: Residual Chymopapain Activity After Chemonucleolysis In Normal Intervertebral Discs In Dogs. J Bone Joint Surg 74A:831-838, 1992.

127. Wood KB, Schendel MJ, Pashman RS, Buttermann GR, Lewis JL, Ogilvie JW, Bradford DS: In Vivo Analysis Of Canine Intervertebral And Facet Motion. Spine 17:1180-1186, 1992.

128. Transfeldt EE, Robertson D, Bradford DS: Ligaments Of The Lumbosacral Spine And Their Role In Possible Extraforaminal Spinal Nerve Entrapment And Tethering. J Spinal Disord 6(6):507-512, 1993.

129. Tribus CB, Bradford DS: Bilateral Pedicular Stress Fractures After Successful Posterior Spinal Fusion For Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis. Spine 18(9):1222-1225, 1993.

130. Pashman RS, Hu SS, Schendel MJ, Bradford DS: Sacral Screw Loads In Lumbosacral Fixation For Spinal Deformity. Spine 18(16):2465-2470, 1993.

131. Bozic KJ, Keyak JH, Skinner HB, Bueff HU, Bradford DS: Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling Of A Cervical Vertebra: An Investigation Of Burst Fracture Mechanism. J Spinal Disord 7(2):102-110, 1994.

132. Bradford DS: Surgical Treatment Of Low Back Pain In Spine Instability. Chirurgia Degli Organi di Movimento 79(1)63-8, 1994.

133. Bradford DS: Failed Back Syndrome Secondary To Previous Spondylolisthesis Surgery. Chirurgia Degli Organi di Movimento 79(1):109-10, 1994.

134. Bradford DS, Tribus DB: Current Concepts And Management Of Patients With Fixed Decompensated Spinal Deformity. Clin Orthop 306:64-72, 1994.

135. Edwards CC, Bradford DS: Instrumented Reduction Of Spondylolisthesis. Spine 19:1535-7, 1994.

136. Geissele AE, Ogilvie JW, Cohen M, Bradford DS: Thoracoplasty For The Treatment Of Rib Prominence In Thoracic Scoliosis. Spine 19:1636-42, 1994.

137. Bueff HU, Lotz JC, Colliou OK, Khapchick V, Ashford BS, Hu SS, Bozic K, Bradford DS: Instrumentation Of The Cervicothoracic Junction After Destabilization. Spine 20:1789-92, 1995.

138. Bradford DS, Glazer PA: Treatment Of Spondylolysis And Spondylolisthesis. Dysplastic And Lytic Lesions In Children And Adults. The Scoliosis Association, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, BackTalk 18, Nov/Dec 1995.

139. Hu SS, Bradford DS, Transfeldt EE, Cohen M: Reduction Of High-Grade Spondylolisthesis Using Edwards Instrumentation. Spine 21:367-371, 1996.

140. Cheng EY, Klibanoff JE, Robinson HJ, Bradford DS: Total Hip Arthroplasty With Cement After Renal Transplantation: Long-Term Results. J Bone Joint Surg 77(A):1535-42, 1995.

141. Buttermann GR, Glazer PA, Bradford DS: The Use Of Bone Allografts In The Spine. Clin Orthop 324:75-85, 1996.

142. Glazer PA, Colliou O, Lotz JC, Bradford DS: Biomechanical Analysis Of Lumbosacral Fixation. Spine 21:1211-22, 1996.

143. Hu SS, Holly EA, Lele C, Averbach S, Kristiansen J, Schiff M, Bueff HU, Bradford DS: Patient Outcomes After Spinal Reconstructive Surgery In Patients Over 40 Years Of Age. J Spinal Dis 9 (6):460-469, 1996.

144. Glazer PA, Bradford DS: The Role Of Anterior And Posterior Combined Surgery In The Treatment Of Painful Degenerative Disk Disease. Op Tech in Ortho 7 (1) 23-26, 1997

145. Glazer PA, Colliou O, Klisch S, Bradford DS, Bueff HU, Lotz JC: Biomechanical Analysis Of Multi-Level Fixation Methods In The Lumbar Spine. Spine 22:171-182, 1997

146. Glazer PA, Heilmann MR, Lotz JC, Bradford DS: Use of Electromagnetic Fields in a Spinal Fusion. Spine 22 (20): 2351-2356, 1997

147. Butterman GR, Glazer PA, Hu SS, Bradford DS: Revision Of Failed Lumbar Fusions: A Comparison Of Anterior Autograft And Allograft. Spine 22 (23): 2748-2755, 1997

148. Bradford DS, Tribus C: Vertebral Column Resection For The Treatment Of Rigid Coronal Decompensation. Spine 22 (14): 1590-1599, 1997

149. Butterman GR, Garvey TA, Hunt AF, Transfeldt EE, Bradford DS, Boachie-Adjei O, Ogilvie JW: Lumbar Fusion Results Related To Diagnosis. Spine 23 (1): 116-127, 1998

150. Bradford DS: Point of View. Spine 23 (5): 536, 1998

151. Glazer PA, Heilmann MR, Lotz JC, Bradford DS: Use Of Ultrasound In Spinal Arthrodesis. Spine 23 (10): 1142-1148, 1998

152. Nork SE, Hu SS, Workman KL, Glazer PA, Bradford DS: Patient Outcomes After Decompression And Instrumented Posterior Spinal Fusion For Degenerative Spondylolisthesis. Spine 24 (6): 561-568, 1999

153. Stevens WR, Glazer PA, Kelley SD, Lietman TM, Bradford DS: Ophthalmic Complications After Spinal Surgery. Spine 22 (12) 1319-1324, 1997

154. Tay BKB, Le AX, Heilmann M, Lotz JC, Bradford DS: Use Of Collagen-Hydroxyapatite Matrix In Spinal Fusion: A Rabbit Model. Spine 23 (21) 2276-2281, 1998

155. Tay BKB, Patel VV, Bradford DS: Calcium Sulfate-and Calcium Phosphate-Based Bone Substitutes: Mimicry of the Mineral Phase of Bone. Orthopaedic Clinics of North America 30 (4): 615-623, October 1999

156. Dearborn JT, Hu SS, Tribus CB, Bradford DS: Thromboembolic Complications After Major Thoracolumbar Spine Surgery. Spine 24 (14):1471-6, Jul 15, 1999

157. Bradford DS, Tay BKB, Hu SS: Adult Scoliosis: Surgical Indications, Operative Management, Complications, and Outcomes. Spine 24 (24) 2617-2628, 1999

158. Deckey JE, Court C, Bradford DS: Loss of Sagittal Plane Correction Following Removal of Spinal Implants. Spine 25 (19) 2453-2460, October 2000

159. Gould SE, Rhee JM, Tay BKB, Otsuka NY, Bradford DS: Cellular Contribution of Bone Graft to Fusion. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 18:920-927, November 2000

160. Deviren V, Berven S, Smith JA, Emami A, Hu SS, Bradford DS: Excision of hemivertebrae in the management of congenital scoliosis involving the thoracic and thoracolumbar spine. JBJS(Br) 83-B:496-500, December 2000.

161. Court C, Colliou OK, Chin JR, Liebenberg E, Bradford DS, Lotz JC: The effect of static in vivo bending on the murine intervertebral disc. The Spine Journal 1 239-245, 2001.

162. Buttermann GR, Glazer PA, Hu SS, Bradford DS: Anterior and Posterior Allografts in Symptomatic Thoracolumbar Deformity. Journal of Spinal Disorders 14(1): 54-66, Feb. 2001

163. Berven SH, Deviren V, Smith JA, Emami A, Hu S, Bradford DS: Management of Fixed Sagittal Plane Deformity/Results of the Transpedicular Wedge Resection Osteotomy. Spine 26 (18) 2016-2043, September 2001.

164. Smith JA, Deviren V, Berven S, Kleinstueck F, Bradford DS: Clinical outcome of trans-sacral interbody fusion after partial reduction for high-grade L5-S1 spondylolisthesis. Spine 26(20): 2227-34, October 2001.

165. Berven S, Tay BK, Kleinstueck FS, Bradford DS: Clinical Applications of bone graft substitutes in Spine Surgery: Consideration of mineralized and demineralized preparations and growth factor supplementation. Eur Spine J. Suppl 2:S169-77, October 2001.

166. Clinical Outcome of Trans-Sacral Interbody Fusion Following Partial Reduction for High Grade L5-S1 Spondylolisthesis. Spine 26(20) 2227-2234, October 2001.

167. Kleinstueck FS, Diederich CJ, Nau WH, Puttlitz CM, Smith JA, Bradford DS, Lotz JC: Acute Biomechanical and Histological Effects of Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy on Human Lumbar Discs. Spine 26 (20) 2198-2207, 2001.

168. Rubery PT, Bradford DS: Athletic Activity After Spine Surgery in Children and Adolescents. Results of a Survey. Spine 27 (4) 423-427, February 2002.

169. Smith JA, Deviren V, Berven S, Bradford DS: Does instrumented anterior scoliosis surgery lead to kyphosis, pseudarthrosis, or inadequate correction in adults? Spine 27(5): 529-34, March 2002.

170. Emami A, Deviren V, Berven S, Smith J, Hu S, Bradford D: Outcome and Complications of Long Fusions to the Sacrum in Adult Spine Deformity. Spine 27 (7) 776-786, 2002

171. Smith J, Deviren V, Berven S, Bradford D: Does Instrumented Anterior Scoliosis Surgery Lead to Kyphosis, Pseudarthrosis, or Inadequate Correction in Adults? Spine 27 (5) 529-534, 2002.

172. Kleinstueck F S., Diederich C J., Nau W H., Puttlitz C M., Smith J A., Bradford D S., Lotz J: Therapy in Cadaveric Lumbar Spine.

173. Berven S, Bradford DS: Neuromuscular Scoliosis: Causes of deformity and principles for evaluation and management. Semin Neurol 22(2): 167-78. June, 2002.

174. Melcher RP, Puttlitz CM, Kleinstueck FS, Lotz JC, Harms J, Bradford DS: Biomechanical testing of posterior atlantoaxial fixation techniques. Spine 27 (22) 2435-40, November 2002.

175. Berven SH, Hu SS, Deviren V, Smith J, Bradford DS: Lumbar End Plate Osteotomy in adult patients with scoliosis. Clin Orthop (411): 70-6, June 2003.

176. Berven S; Kao H; Deviren V; Hu SS; Bradford DS. Treatment of Thoracic Pseudarthrosis in the Adult: Is Combined Surgery Necessary? Clin Orthop & Rel Res 411, 25-31, June 2003.

177. Berven SH, Deviren V, Smith JA, Hu SS, Bradford DS: Management of fixed sagittal plane deformity: Outcome of combined anterior and posterior surgery. Spine 28(15): 1710-5, August, 2003.

178. Kleinstueck FS, Diederich CJ, NAU WJ, Puttlitz CM, Smith JA, Bradford DS, Lotz JC: Temperature and thermal dose distributions during intradiscal electrothermal therapy in the cadaveric lumbar spine. Spine 28(14): 1700-8, August, 2003.

179. Berven S, Deviren V, Demir-Deviren S, Hu SS, Bradford DS: Studies in the modified scoliosis research society outcomes instrument in adults: validation, reliability, and discriminatory capacity. Spine 15:28(18): 2164-9, September 2003.

180. Puttlitz CM, Melcher RP, Kleinstueck FS, Harms J, Bradford DS, Lotz, JC: Stability Analysis of Craniovertebral Junction Fixation Techniques. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 86-A (3) 561-568, March 2004.

181. Walsh AJ, Bradford DS, Lotz, JC: In vivo growth factor treatment of degenerated intervertebral discs. Spine 2004 Jan 14: 29(2): 156-63.

In Press and Submitted:

1. Berven S, Kao H, Deviren V, Hu S, Bradford D: Management of Thoracic Pseudarthrosis in the Adult: Is Combined Surgery Necessary? Submitted - Clin Ortho Rel Res

Articles Written by David S. Bradford, MD

Spinal Tumors: Diagnosis and Non-Surgical Treatment

The patient's medical status is evaluated with particular attention given to back pain and neurologic deficit. Although back pain is often the primary symptom, some patients present with paraparesis (slight paralysis), spinal deformity, and malaise.

Spinal Tumors: Surgery and Recovery

Spine surgery may be necessary to remove a tumor to reduce pain and alleviate neurologic dysfunction.

Intervertebral Disc Replacement

Prosthetic devices to replace the intervertebral disc may be broadly divided into devices that replace the nucleus only, leaving the annulus and cartilaginous portions of the endplate intact, and devices that replace the entire disc.

Spinal Tumors: Descriptive Overview

Spinal tumors are rare. However, when they develop the foremost symptom usually is back pain. It is a good idea to seek medical attention if back pain does not resolve or if other symptoms such as extremity weakness accompany pain.

Articles Reviewed by David S. Bradford, MD

Isthmic Spondylolisthesis and Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

Isthmic spondylolisthesis should be differentiated from degenerative spondylolisthesis, which occurs due to the aging process along with the development of marked facet joint arthritis with rotatory vertebral slip.

Lumbar Back Sprains: Diagnostic Steps

A lumbar sprain or strain causes local tissues to swell causing pain, tenderness and stiffness. The pain and other symtpoms may mimic other disorders affecting the back.

Lumbar Back Sprains and Strains

Most people will experience back pain during their lifetime. Some patients fear the worst, especially when pain is severe. Although back pain can be caused by fracture, disc disorder, or tumor, the most common cause is sprain or strain.

Lumbar Back Sprains: Treatment and Prevention

The most common cause of back pain is a spinal sprain or strain. Because the pain can be sudden and severe, some patients fear the worst.

Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: Symptoms and Diagnosis

Serial x-rays (radiographs) of the lumbar spine may be helpful to establish a diagnosis of isthmic spondylolisthesis. These x-rays are taken over a period of several years.

I Still Have Back Pain! Now What?

For your back pain that won't go away, you can try a multidisciplinary approach. A combination of different treatments, such as massage, acupuncture, and core strengthening exercises, may bring relief from pain.

Management of Isthmic Spondylolisthesis in Adults

The use of modern spinal instrumentation eliminates the need for post-operative bracing. Soon after surgery, the patient can get on his feet and walk, as tolerated.

Surgical Management of Thoracolumbar Deformity in Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing Spondylitis is a form of chronic arthritis. In severe cases, a surgical procedure called an osteotomy, which involves the removal and/or resection of bone is utilized to correct the deformity.

Isthmic Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis in Adults

Isthmic spondylolisthesis involves the breakage of a bone in the low back that allows the vertebra to slip forward. Read this article to understand the causes of isthmic spondylolisthesis. Several illustrations show you how it develops.

Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: Adult Slip Progression

In the last decade, adult onset slip progression, spondylolisthesis, was recognized and described in the medical literature as a distinct clinical entity causing severe incapacitating back and leg pain.

Taking Charge of Your Pain: What You Can Do to Stop the Hurt

If you suffer from chronic pain, you probably have discovered that searching for effective relief can be frustrating. You need appropriate knowledge in order to make the right decisions for your emotional and physical needs.

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