Randal R. Betz, MD's portrait
Randal R. Betz, MD
Orthopaedic Surgeon
Shriners Hospital
Philadelphia, PA

About Randal R. Betz, MD

Dr. Randal Betz holds hospital positions as Chief of Staff at Shriners Hospitals for Children and Medical Director of Shriners' Spinal Cord Injury Unit. Additionally, Dr. Betz is on staff at Temple University Children's Medical Center and is a Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at Temple University School of Medicine.

Dr. Betz earned a Medical Degree from Temple University School of Medicine and was awarded the Alpha Omega Alpha honor. His Internship in general surgery and Residency in Orthopaedic Surgery were at Temple University Hospital. Dr. Betz's Fellowship in Pediatric Orthopaedics was at the Alfred I duPont Institute. Since his graduate work, Dr. Betz has had postdoctoral fellowship experiences with ABC Traveling Fellowship, North American Traveling Fellowship, and the Berg-Sloat Traveling Fellowship.

Many national and international professional societies count Dr. Betz as a member including: the Academic Orthopaedic Society, American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Orthopaedic Association, American Paraplegia Society, American Spinal Injury Association, British Scoliosis Society, International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society, North American Spine Society, Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America, Scoliosis Research Society, and Spinal Deformity Education Group. For many of these organizations, Dr. Betz has fulfilled the roles of Board of Director Member and Committee Member.

In addition to active hospital practice in pediatric spinal surgery, research is an important area of Dr. Betz's career. He is a recipient of many research grants and he has six patents, including one involving research in spinal deformities: Methods and apparatus for fusionless treatment of spinal deformities. Dr. Betz is author of several medical texts and book editor. He has contributed 31 chapters to medical books and written 153 peer-reviewed or invited articles. Worldwide, Dr. Betz has delivered hundreds of paper presentations and invited lectures. Dr. Betz is on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, he is an Associate Editor of Spinal Frontiers, and a Reviewer for the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, and Spine.

Publications

Peer-Reviewed or Invited Articles
Vaccaro AR, Betz RR, Zeidman SM, Batzdorf U: Principles and practice of spine surgery. World J Surg, in press.

Betz RR: Point of view: Does computer-assisted spine surgery reduce intraoperative radiation doses? Spine, in press.

Betz RR: Education: A responsibility, a challenge, a source of satisfaction. Scoliosis Research Society Annual Meeting 2005 Presidential Address. Spine, in press.

1. Betz RR, Petrizzo AM, Kerner PJ, Falatyn SP, Clements DH, Huss GK: Allograft versus no graft with a posterior multisegmented hook system for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 31(2):121-127, 2006.

2. Lowe TG, Lenke L, Betz R, Newton P, Clements D, Haher T, Crawford A, Letko L, Wilson LA: Distal junctional kyphosis of adolescent idiopathic thoracic curves following anterior or posterior instrumented fusion: incidence, risk factors, and prevention. Spine 31(3):299-302, 2006.

3. Johnston TE, Betz RR, Smith BT, Benda BJ, Mulcahey MJ, Davis R, Houdayer TP, Pontari MA, Barriskill A, Creasey GH. Implantable FES system for upright mobility and bladder and bowel function for individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 43:713-723, 2005.

4. Mac-Thiong J-M, Labelle H, Berthonnaud E, Betz RR, Roussouly P: Sagittal spinopelvic balance in children and adolescents. Eur Spine J, ePub Nov. 2005.

5. Lauer RT, Smith BT, Betz RR: Application of a neuro-fuzzy network for gait event detection using electromyography in the child with cerebral palsy. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 52(9):1532-1540, 2005.

6. Johnston TE, Greco MN, Gaughan JP, Smith BT, Betz RR: Patterns of lower extremity innervation in pediatric spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 43:476-482, 2005.

7. Newton PO, Faro FD, Gollogly S, Betz RR, Lenke LG, Lowe TG: Results of preoperative pulmonary function testing in 631 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 87:1937-1946, 2005.

8. Betz RR, D'Andrea LP, Mulcahey MJ, Chafetz RS: Vertebral body stapling procedure for the treatment of scoliosis in the growing child. Clin Orthop Relat Res 434:55-60, 2005.

9. Johnston TE, Smith BT, Betz RR: Strengthening of partially denervated knee extensors using percutaneous electric stimulation in a young man with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 86:1037-1042, 2005.

10. Grewal H, Betz RR, D'Andrea LP, Clements DH, Porter ST: A prospective comparison of thoracoscopic vs open anterior instrumentation and spinal fusion for idiopathic thoracic scoliosis in children. J Pediatric Surg 40:153-157, 2005.

11. Anderson CJ, Vogel LC, Betz RR, Willis KM: Overview of adult outcomes in pediatric-onset spinal cord injuries: implications for transition to adulthood. J Spinal Cord Med 27(Suppl 1):S98-S106, 2004.

12. Mehta S, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, McDonald C, Vogel LC, Anderson C: Effect of bracing on paralytic scoliosis secondary to spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 27(Suppl 1):S88-92, 2004.

13. Chafetz R, McDonald C, Mulcahey MJ, Betz R, Anderson C, Vogel L, Gaughan JP, Martin S, O'Dell MA, Flanagan A: Timed motor test for wheelchair users: initial development and application in children with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 27(Suppl 1):S38-S43, 2004.

14. Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, D'Andrea LP, Clements DH: Acute evaluation and management of pediatric spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 27(Supp 1):S11-S15, 2004.

15. Betz RR, McDonald CM, Vogel LC: Managing pediatric spinal cord injury through adulthood. J Spinal Cord Med 27(Supp 1):S2, 2004.

16. Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Kozin SH, Smith BT, Hutchinson D, Lutz C: Implantation of the Freehand System during initial rehabilitation using minimally invasive techniques. Spinal Cord 42(3):146-155, 2004.

17. Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT, Betz RR: Psychometric rigor of the Grasp and Release Test for measuring functional limitations of persons with tetraplegia: a preliminary analysis. J Spinal Cord Med 27(1):41-46, 2004.

18. Mac-Thiong JM, Berthonnaud E, Dimar JR 2nd, Betz RR, Labelle H: Sagittal alignment of the spine and pelvis during growth. Spine 29(15):1642-1647, 2004.

19. McCarthy J, Chafetz R, Betz R, Gaughan J: The incidence and degree of hip subluxation/dislocation in children with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 27(Suppl 1): S80-83, 2004.

20. Lauer R, Smith BT, Coiro D, Betz RR, McCarthy J. Feasibility of gait event detection using intramuscular electromyography to trigger electrical stimulation in the child with cerebral palsy. Neuromodulation 7(3):205-213, 2004.

21. Johnston TE, Finson RL, McCarthy JJ, Smith BT, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ. Use of functional electrical stimulation to augment traditional orthopaedic surgery in children with cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop 24(3):283-291, 2004.

22. Johnston TE, Finson RL, Smith BT, Bonaroti DM, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: Functional electrical stimulation for augmented walking in adolescents with incomplete spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 26(4):390-400, 2003.

23. Mulcahey MJ, Lutz C, Kozin SH, Betz RR: Prospective evaluation of biceps to triceps and deltoid to triceps for elbow extension in tetraplegia. J Hand Surg Am 28(6):964-971, 2003.

24. D'Andrea LP, Betz RR: Neuromuscular spinal deformities. Sem Spine Surg 15(3):270-282, 2003.

25. Betz RR, Cunningham B, Selgrath C, Drewry T, Sherman MC: Preclinical testing of a wedge-rod system for fusionless correction of scoliosis. Spine 28(20S):S275-S278, 2003.

26. Guille JT, Betz RR, Balsara RK, Mulcahey MJ, D'Andrea LP, Clements DH: The feasibility, safety, and utility of vertebral wedge osteotomies for the fusionless treatment of paralytic scoliosis. Spine 28(20S):S266-S274, 2003.

27. Betz RR, Kim J, D'Andrea LP, Mulcahey MJ, Balsara RK, Clements DH: An innovative technique of vertebral body stapling for the treatment of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a feasibility, safety, and utility study. Spine 28(20S):S255-S265, 2003.

28. Newton PO, Marks M, Faro F, Betz R, Clements D, Haher T, Lenke L, Lowe T, Merola A, Wenger D: Use of video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) to reduce perioperative morbidity in scoliosis surgery. Spine 28(20S):S249-S254, 2003.

29. Newton PO, Faro FD, Lenke LG, Betz RR, Clements DH, Lowe TG, Haher TR, Merola AA, D'Andrea LP, Marks M, Wenger DR: Factors involved in the decision to perform a selective vs. nonselective fusion of Lenke 1B and 1C (King-Moe II) curves in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 28(20S):S217-S223, 2003.

30. Lowe TG, Betz R, Lenke L, Clements D, Harms J, Newton P, Haher T, Merola A, Wenger D: Anterior single-rod instrumentation of the thoracic and lumbar spine: saving levels. Spine 28(20S):S208-S216, 2003.

31. Betz RR, Johnston TE, Smith BT, Mulcahey MJ, McCarthy JJ: Case report: Three-year follow-up of an implantable functional electrical stimulation system for upright mobility in a child with thoracic level spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 25(4):345-350, 2002.

32. Merola AA, Haher TR, Brkaric M, Panagopoulos G, Mathur S, Kohani O, Lowe TG, Lenke LG, Wenger DR, Newton PO, Clements DH, Betz RR: A multicenter study of the outcomes of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcome instrument. Spine 27(18):2046-2051, 2002.

33. Wilson PL, Newton PO, Wenger DR, Haher T, Merola A, Lenke L, Lowe T, Clements D, Betz R: A multicenter study analyzing the relationship of the standard radiographic scoring system of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcomes instrument. Spine 27(18):2036-2040, 2002.

34. Smith BT, Coiro DJ, Finson R, Betz RR, McCarthy J: Evaluation of force-sensing resistors for gait event detection to trigger electrical stimulation to improve walking in the child with cerebral palsy. IEEE Trans Neur Sys Rehab Eng 10(1):22-29, 2002.

35. Betz RR: Limitations of autograft and allograft: new synthetic solutions. Orthopedics 25(5)S:S561-S570, 2002

36. McCarthy JJ, Finson R, Smith BT, Liggins AB, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: Cerebral palsy: results of surgical releases augmented with electrical stimulation: a case study. Neuromodulation 5(2):1-7, 2002

37. Lenke LG, Betz RR, Clements DH, Merola A, Haher T, Lowe T, Newton P, Bridwell KH, Blanke K: Curve prevalence of a new classification of operative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): does classification correlate with treatment? Spine 27(6):604-611, 2002.

38. Creasey GH, Grill JH, Korsten M, U HS, Betz R, Anderson R, Walter J: An implantable neuroprosthesis for restoring bladder and bowel control to patients with spinal cord injuries: a multicenter trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 82(11):1512-1519, 2001.

39. Lenke LG, Betz RR, Haher TR, Lapp MA, Merola AA, Harms J, Shufflebarger HL: Multi-surgeon assessment of surgical decision making in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: curve classification, operative approach, and fusion levels. Spine 26(21):2347-2353, 2001.

40. Kuklo TR, Lenke LG, Won DS, Graham EJ, Sweet FA, Betz RR, Bridwell KH, Blanke KM: Spontaneous proximal thoracic curve correction following isolated fusion of the main thoracic curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 26(18):1966-1975, 2001

41. Lenke LG, Betz RR, Harms J, Bridwell K, Clements D, Lowe T, Blanke K: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a new classification to determine extent of spinal arthrodesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 83(8):1169-1181, 2001.

42. McCarthy JJ, Betz RR, Kim A, Davids JR, Davidson RS: Early radiographic differentiation of infantile tibia vara from physiologic bowing using the femoral-tibial ratio (FTR). J Pediatr Orthop 21(4):545-548, 2001.

43. Betz RR, Shufflebarger HL: Controversies in Spine: Anterior versus posterior instrumentation for the correction of thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 26 (9):1095-1100, 2001.

44. Smith BT, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: An implantable upper extremity neuroprosthesis in a growing child with a C5 spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 39:118-123, 2001.

45. Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT, Triolo RJ, McCarthy JJ: Implications of hip subluxation for FES-assisted mobility in patients with spinal cord injury. Orthopedics 24(2):181-184, 2001.

46. Merenda LA, Spoltore TA, Betz RR: Progressive treatment options for children with spinal cord injury. SCI Nursing 17(3):102-109, 2000.

47. Graham EJ, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Betz RR, Bridwell KH, Kong Y, Blanke K: Prospective pulmonary function evaluation following open thoracotomy for anterior spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 25(18):2319-2325, 2000.

48. Bridwell KH, Shufflebarger HL, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Betz RR, Bassett GS: Parents' and patients' preferences and concerns in idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. A cross-sectional preoperative analysis. Spine 25(18):2392-2399, 2000.

49. Pontari MA, Weibel B, Morales V, Dean G, Gaughan J, Betz RR: Improved quality of life after continent urinary diversion in pediatric patients with tetraplegia after spinal cord injury. Top SCI Rehab 6S:25-29. Summer 2000.

50. McCarthy JJ, Betz RR: The treatment of hip fractures in children with existing spinal cord injuries. Top SCI Rehab 6S:42-47, Summer 2000.

51. McCarthy JJ, Weibel B, Betz RR: Results of pelvic osteotomies for hip subluxation or dislocation in children with spinal cord injury. Top SCI Rehab 6S:48-53, Summer 2000.

52. Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: Restoration of function in children with spinal cord injuries and cerebral palsy: progress, current state, and future vision of functional electrical stimulation research at the Shriners Hospitals for Children. Top SCI Rehab 6S:110-124, Summer 2000.

53. Kozin SH, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: An intraoperative method to evaluate elbow flexion and supination strength during biceps-to-triceps transfer for tetraplegia. Top SCI Rehab 6S:68-71, Summer 2000.

54. D'Andrea LP, Betz RR, Lenke LG, Clements DH, Lowe TG, Merola A, Haher T, Harms J, Huss GK, Blanke K, McGlothlen S: Do radiographic parameters correlate with clinical outcomes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? Spine 25:1795-1802, 2000.

55. D'Andrea LP, Betz RR, Lenke LG, Harms J, Clements DH, Lowe TG: The effect of continued spinal growth on sagittal contour in patients treated by anterior instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 25:813-818, 2000.

56. McCarthy JJ, Betz RR: The relationship between tight hamstrings and lumbar hypolordosis in children with cerebral palsy. Spine 25:211-213, 2000.

57. Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT, Betz RR: Evaluation of the lower motor neuron integrity of upper extremity muscles in high level spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 37(8):585-591, 1999.

58. Davis SE, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: Making Freehand their hand: the role of occupational therapy in implementing FES in tetraplegia. Technology and Disability 11:29-34, 1999.

59. Bonaroti D, Akers JM, Smith BT, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: A comparison of FES to KAFO for providing upright mobility and ambulation in a child with a complete thoracic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 22(3):159-166, 1999.

60. Bonaroti D, Akers J, Smith BT, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: Comparison of functional electrical stimulation to long leg braces for upright mobility in children with complete thoracic level spinal injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 80:1047-1053, 1999.

61. Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Smith BT, Weiss AA: A prospective evaluation of upper extremity tendon transfers in children with cervical spinal cord injury. J Pediatric Orthop 19(3):319-328, 1999.

62. Lenke LG, Betz RR, Bridwell KH, Harms J, Clements DH, Lowe TG: Spontaneous lumbar curve coronal correction after selective anterior or posterior thoracic fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 24(16):1663-1671, 1999.

63. Davis SE, Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT, Betz RR: Outcome of functional electrical stimulation in the rehabilitation of a child with C5 tetraplegia. J Spinal Cord Med 22(2):107-113, 1999.

64. Lee GA, Betz RR, Clements DH, Huss GK: Proximal kyphosis above posterior spinal fusion in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 24:795-799, 1999.

65. Sarver JJ, Smith BT, Seliktar R, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: A study of shoulder motions as a control source for adolescents with C4 level SCI. IEEE Trans Rehab Engineering 7(1):27-34, 1999.

66. Akers JM, Smith BT, Betz RR: Implantable electrode lead in a growing limb. IEEE Trans Rehab Engineering 7(1):35-45, 1999.

67. Betz RR, Harms J, Clements DH III, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Shufflebarger HL, Jeszenszky D, Beele B: Comparison of anterior and posterior instrumentation for correction of adolescent thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 24(3):225-239, 1999.

68. Davis SE, Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT, Betz RR: Self-reported use of an implanted FES hand system by adolescents with tetraplegia. J Spinal Cord Med 21:220-226, 1998.

69. Lenke LG, Betz RR, Bridwell KH, Clements DH, Harms J, Lowe TG, Shufflebarger HL: Intraobserver and interobserver reliability of the classification of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg 80A:1097-1106, 1998.

70. Huntington CF, Murrell WD, Betz RR, Cole BA, Clements DH III, Balsara RK: Comparison of thoracoscopic and open thoracic discectomy in a live ovine model for anterior spinal fusion. Spine 23:1699-1701, 1998.

71. Rizzo M, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT: Magnetic resonance imaging data in the evaluation of effects of functional electrical stimulation on knee joints of adolescents with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 21(2):124-130, 1998.

72. Betz RR, Lenke LG, Harms J, Lowe TG, Clements DH: Anterior spinal fusion and instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Sem Spine Surg 10:88-94, 1998.

73. Kresch EN, Levitan ML, Baran EM, Mandel S, Whitenack SH, Betz RR, Brown A: Correlation analysis of somatosensory evoked potential waveforms: clinical applications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 79:184-190, 1998.

74. Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: Upper and lower extremity applications of functional electrical stimulation: a decade of research with children and adolescents with spinal injuries. Pediatr Phys Ther 9:113-122, 1997.

75. Davis SE, Weiss AA, Smith BT, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: Outcomes of upper extremity tendon transfers and functional electrical stimulation in an adolescent with C5 tetraplegia. Am J Occup Ther 51(4):307-312, 1997.

76. Bertoti DB, Stanger M, Betz RR, Akers J, Moynahan M, Mulcahey MJ: Percutaneous intramuscular functional electrical stimulation as an intervention choice for children with cerebral palsy. Pediatr Phys Ther 9:123-127, 1997.

77. Betz RR: Orthopaedic problems in the child with spinal cord injury. IN Symposium: Unique management needs of pediatric spinal cord injured patients. J Spinal Cord Med 20(1):14-16, 1997.

78. Weis JC, Betz RR, Clements DH III, Balsara RK: The prevalence of perioperative complications following anterior spinal fusion for patients with idiopathic scoliosis. J Spinal Disorders 10(5):371-375, 1997.

79. Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: Considerations in the rehabilitation of children with spinal cord injuries. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 3(2):31-36, 1997.

80. Betz RR, Harms J, Clements DH III, Biedermann L, Lowe TG, Lenke LG, Huss GK: Anterior instrumentation for thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. Sem Spine Surg 9:141-149, 1997.

81. Betz RR: Orthopaedic problems in the child with spinal cord injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 3(2):9-19, 1997.

82. Cordover AM, Betz RR, Clements DH, Bosacco SJ: The natural history of adolescent thoracolumbar and lumbar idiopathic scoliosis into adulthood. J Spinal Disorders 10(3):193-196, 1997.

83. Mulcahey MJ, Davis SE, Weiss AA, Smith BT, Betz RR: Implanted functional electrical stimulation hand system in adolescents with spinal injuries: An evaluation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 78:597-607, 1997.

84. Vogel L, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: The child with a spinal cord injury. Dev Med Child Neurol 39(3):202-207, 1997.

85. Duch MR, Betz RR, Clements DH: Does TLSO bracing adversely affect the upper thoracic compensatory curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? Il Trattamento Precoce della Scoliosis idiopatica e congenita, vol. XX (D. Fabris, ed.). Bologna, Italy: Aulo Gaggi Editore, 1996, pp. 47-52.

86. Betz RR, Clements, DH III: Thoracoscopic anterior release and fusion for idiopathic scoliosis: focus on technique, morbidity, and future applications. Il Trattamento Precoce della Scoliosis idiopatica e congenita, vol. XX (D. Fabris, ed.). Bologna, Italy: Aulo Gaggi Editore, 1996, pp. 99-103.

87. Ward M, Betz RR, Clements DH, Cole BA: Prevalence of segmental wire breakage utilizing Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 22(4):406-407, 1996.

88. Triolo RJ, Nathan R, Handa Y, Keith M, Betz R, Carroll S, Kantor C: Challenges to clinical deployment of upper extremity neuroprostheses. J Rehab Res Devel 33(12):111-122, 1996.

89. Smith BT, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: Development of an upper extremity FES system for individuals ith C4 tetraplegia. IEEE Trans Rehab Eng 4(4):264-270, 1996.

90. Akers JM, Triolo RJ, Betz RR: Motor responses to FES electrodes in a growing limb. IEEE Trans Rehab Eng 4(4):243-250, 1996.

91. Moynahan M, Betz RR, Triolo RJ, Maurer A: Characterization of the bone mineral density of children with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med19(4):249-254, 1996.

92. Moynahan MA, Mullin C, Cohn J, Burns C, Halden E, Triolo RJ, Betz RR: Home use of a FES system for standing and mobility in adolescents with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 77:1005-1013, 1996.

93. Gertzbein SD, Betz R, Clements D, Errico T, Hammerberg K, Robbins S, Shepherd E, Weber A, Kerina M, Albin J, Wolk, D, Ensor K: Semirigid instrumentation in the management of lumbar spinal conditions combined with circumferential fusion. A multicenter study. Spine 21(16):1918-1926, 1996.

94. Kolessar DJ, Stollsteimer GT, Betz RR: The value of the measurement from T5 to T12 as a screening tool in detecting abnormal kyphosis. J Spinal Disorders 9(3):220-222, 1996.

95. Betz R, Boden B, Triolo R, Mesgarzadeh M, Gardner E, Fife R: Effects of functional electrical stimulation on the joints of adolescents with spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 34:127-136, 1996.

96. Clements DH, Morledge DE, Martin WH, Betz RR: Evoked and spontaneous electromyography to evaluate lumbosacral pedicle screw placement. Spine 21(5):600-604, 1996.

97. Smith BT, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: Quantitative comparison of grasp and release abilities with and without functional neuromuscular stimulation in adolescents with tetraplegia. Paraplegia 34:16-23, 1996.

98. Hurley JM, Betz RR, Loder RT, Davidson RS, Alburger PD, Steel HH: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis. The prevalence of late contralateral slip. J Bone and Joint Surg 78A:226-230, 1996.

99. Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT, Betz RR, Weiss AA: Outcomes of tendon transfer surgery and occupational therapy in a child with tetraplegia secondary to spinal cord injury. Am J Occup Ther 49(7):607-617, 1995.

100. Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Smith BT, Weiss AA: Outcomes of functional electrical stimulation using a totally implanted stimulator and electrodes in adolescents with tetraplegia [abstract]. J Spinal Cord Med 18(4):265-266, 1995.

101. Triolo RJ, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, Gardner ER: Application of functional neuromuscular stimulation to children with spinal cord injuries: candidate selection for upper and lower extremity research. Paraplegia 32:824-843, 1994.

102. Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT, Betz RR, Triolo RJ, Peckham PH: Functional neuromuscular stimulation: outcomes in young people with tetraplegia. J Amer Paraplegia Soc 17(1):20-35, 1994.

103. Smith BT, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, Triolo RJ: Reliability of percutaneous intramuscular electrodes for upper extremity functional neuromuscular stimulation in adolescents with C5 tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 75:939-945, 1994.

104. Uppal GS, Haider TT, Betz RR: Genu valgum in Schnyder's central corneal dystrophy. Contemp Orthop 27:547-549, 1993.

105. Harvey CJ Jr, Betz RR, Clements DH, Huss GK, Clancy M: Are there indications for partial rib resection in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated with Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation? Spine 18(12):1593-1598, 1993.

106. Triolo RJ, Reilley B, Freedman W, Betz RR: Development and standardization of a clinical evaluation of standing function: the functional standing test. IEEE Transactions on Rehab Engineering. 1(1):18-25, 1993.

107. Betz RR. Steel HH, Millar EA, Clancy M: Relationship between acquired spastic talipes equinovarus and dystonia musculorum deformans. J Pediatr Orthop 13:15-19, 1993.

108. Steel HH, Piston RW, Clancy M, Betz RR: A syndrome of dislocated hips and radial heads, carpal coalition, and short stature in Puerto Rican children. J Bone and Joint Surg 75A:259-264, 1993.

109. Triolo RJ, Reilley B, Freedman W, Betz RR: The functional standing test. IEEE Eng in Med and Biol 11(4):32-34, 1992.

110. Lenke LG, Bridwell KH, Bullis D, Betz RR, Baldus C, Schoenecker PL: Results of in situ fusion for isthmic spondylolisthesis. J Spinal Disorders 5:433-442, 1992.

111. Smith BT, Mulcahey MJ, Triolo RJ, Betz RR: The application of a modified neuroprosthetic hand system in a child with a C7 spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 30:598-606, 1992.

112. Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT, Triolo RJ, Weiss AA, Moynahan M, Keith MW, Peckham PH: Bipolar latissimus dorsi transposition and functional neuromuscular stimulation to restore elbow flexion in an individual with C4 tetraplegia and C5 denervation. J Am Paraplegia Soc 15:220-228, 1992.

113. Kresch EN, Baran EM, Mandel S, Whitenack SH, Betz RR, Bess HL: Correlation analysis of somatosensory evoked potential waveforms. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 73:829-834, 1992.

114. Kozin SH, Weiss AA, Webber JB, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH: Index finger pollicization for congenital aplasia or hypoplasia of the thumb. J Hand Surg 17A:880-884, 1992.

115. Carey PJ, Alburger PD, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH: Both-bone forearm fractures in children. Orthopedics 15(9):1015-1019, 1992.

116. Alburger PD, Weidner PL, Betz RR: Supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. J Pediatr Orthop 12(1):16-19, 1992.

117. Backe HA, Betz RR, Mesgarzadeh M, Beck T, Clancy M: Post-traumatic spinal cord cysts evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Paraplegia 29:607-612, 1991.

118. Bridwell KH, McAllister JW, Betz RR, Huss G, Clancy M, Schoenecker PL: Coronal decompensation produced by Cotrel-Dubousset "derotation" maneuver for idiopathic right thoracic scoliosis. Spine 16(7):769-777, 1991.

119. Lin PS, Betz RR, Patel RP: Avulsion fracture involving the body of L5: a case report. Spine 16(3):371-372, 1991.

120. Brennan EJ, Betz RR: Success in obtaining an orthopedics residency. Academic Med 65(12):780, 1990.

121. Betz RR, Steel HH, Emper WD, Huss GK, Clancy M: Treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Spica cast immobilization. J Bone and Joint Surg 72A:587-600, 1990.

122. Boden BP, Moyer RA, Betz RR, Sapega AA: Arthroscopically-assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons: 1.5 to 3 year follow-up. Contemp Orthop 20(2):187-194, 1990.

123. Betz RR, Cooperman DR, Wopperer JM, Sutherland RD, White JJ Jr, Schaaf HW, Aschliman MR, Choi IH, Bowen JR, Gillespie R: Late sequelae of septic arthritis of the hip in infancy and childhood. J Pediatr Orthop 10(3):365-372, 1990.

124. Bridwell KH, Betz RR, Capelli AM, Huss GK, Harvey C: Sagittal plane analysis in idiopathic scoliosis patients treated with Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation. Spine 15(7):644-649, 1990.

125. Dearolf WW Jr, Betz RR, Vogel LC, Levin J, Clancy M, Steel HH: Scoliosis in pediatric spinal cord injured patients. J Pediatr Orthop 10(2):214-218, 1990.

126. Betz RR, Iorio R, Lombardi AV, Clancy M, Steel HH: Scoliosis surgery in neurofibromatosis. Clin Orthop 245:53-56, 1989.

127. Crossett LS, Beaty JH, Betz RR, Warner W, Clancy M, Steel HH: Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. Long-term follow-up study. Clin Orthop 245:16-18, 1989.

128. Lyons CJ, Betz RR, Mesgarzadeh M, Revesz G, Bonakdarpour A, Clancy M: The effect of magnetic resonance imaging on metal spine implants. Spine 14(7):670-672, 1989.

129. Mason RJ, Betz RR, Orlowski JP, Bell GR: The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and its effect on blood indices following spinal fusion. Spine 14(7):722-726, 1989.

130. Iorio R, Clancy M, Betz RR: Treatment options for unicameral bone cysts. Orthopedics 12:876-878, 1989.

131. Mannherz RE, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH; Juvenile idiopathic scoliosis followed to skeletal maturity. Spine 13(10):1087-1090, 1988.

132. Ecker ML, Betz RR, Trent PS, Mahboubi S, Mesgarzadeh M, Bonakdarpour A, Drummond DS, Clancy M: Computer tomography evaluation in Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation in idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 13(10):1141-1144, 1988.

133. Huss GK, Betz RR, Clancy M: A draping technique for spinal surgery using the Stagnara wake-up test. AORN Journal 48(3):530-535, 1988.

134. O'Donnell CS, Bunnell WP, Betz RR, Bowen JR, Tipping CR: Electrical stimulation in the treatment of scoliosis. Clin Orthop 229:107-113, 1988.

135. Betz RR, Jay Kumar S, Palmer CT, MacEwen GD: Chiari pelvic osteotomy in children and young adults. J Bone and Joint Surg 70A:182-191, 1988.

136. Hillman JS, Mesgarzadeh M, Revesz G, Bonakdarpour A, Clancy M, Betz RR: Proximal femoral focal deficiency: a radiologic analysis of 49 cases. Radiology 165:769-773, 1987.

137. Steel HH, Lin PS, Betz RR, Kalamchi A, Clancy M: Iliofemoral fusion for proximal femoral focal deficiency. J Bone and Joint Surg 69A:837-843, 1987.

138. Moyer RA, Betz RR, Bonakdarpour A: Eosinophilic granuloma of acromion: a case report. Skeletal Radiol 16(4):333-335, 1987.

139. Ostrum RF, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH: Case report. Bifurcated femur with a normal tibia and fibula. J Pediatr Orthop 7:224-226, 1987.

140. Betz RR, Magill JT, Lonergan RP: The percutaneous lateral retinacular release. Am J Sports Med 15(5):477-482, 1987.

141. Campo RD, Betz RR: Loss of proteoglycans during decalcification of fresh metaphyses with disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA). Calcif Tissue Int 41:52-55, 1987.

142. Smergel EM, Harcke HT, Pizzutillo PD, Betz RR: Use of bone scintigraphy in the management of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). Clin Nuclear Med 12(5), 1987.

143. Betz RR, Gelman AJ, DeFilipp GJ, Mesgarzadeh M, Clancy M, Steel HH: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of spinal cord injured children and adolescents. Paraplegia 25:92-99, 1987.

144. Betz RR, Bunnell WP, Lambrecht Mulier E, MacEwen GD: Scoliosis and pregnancy. J Bone Joint Surg 69A(1):90 96, 1987.

145. Moyer RA, Betz RR, Iaquinto J, Marchetto P, Alburger PD, Clancy M: Arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction using the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons: Preliminary report. Contemporary Orthopaedics 12(1):17 23, 1986.

146. Mesgarzadeh M, Revesz G, Bonakdarpour A, Betz RR: The effect on medical metal implants by magnetic fields of magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal Radiol 14:205 206, 1985.

147. Levy DW, Bonakdarpour A, Putong PB, Mesgarzadeh M, Betz RR: Subungual keratoacanthoma. Skeletal Radiol 13:287 290, 1985.

148. Betz RR, Lonergan R, Patterson R, Litton J, Yucha T, Boal R: The percutaneous lateral retinacular release. Orthopaedics 5(1):57 62, 1982.

149. Betz RR, Browne E, Perry G, Resnick EJ: The complex volar metacarpophalangeal joint dislocation: Case history and review of literature. J Bone Joint Surg 64A:1374 1375, 1982

Other Articles
1. Falatyn SP, Betz RR: Case discussion: Isolated L2-L3 lumbar degenerative disc disease. Spinal Frontiers 4:9-10, 1997.

2. Raisis LW, Betz RR, Clancy M, Ostrum RF, Steel HH: Percutaneous epiphysiodesis: safer, kinder, more cosmetic than open bone block procedure. Orthopedics Today 8(9):14, 1988.

3. Betz RR: Cotrel-Dubousset spine system: safe and effective, but expensive. Orthopedics Today 8(4), 1988.

Books, Monographs, Chapters
1. Betz RR: Anterior approach to scoliosis, ch. 156. IN Operative Orthopaedics, 3rd ed. (Schafer MF, Butler JP, eds.). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, in press.

2. Davis R, Johnston T, Smith B, Betz R: Development of a multi-functional 22-channel functional electrical stimulator for paraplegia. In: Engineering for Neural Enhancement and Replacement (Walker CF and DiLorenzo DJ, eds). CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2005.

3. Betz RR, Clements DH, Balsara RK, Newton PO, Lenke LG, Crawford AH: Minimally invasive surgery: segmental fixation rod and screw technology. IN Emerging Spine Surgery Technologies: Evidence and Framework for Evaluating New Technology (Corbin TP, Connolly PJ, Yuan HA, Bao Q-B, Boden SD, eds.). St. Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing, Inc., 2004.

4. Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, Clements DH: Pediatric spinal cord injury and SCIWORA. IN The Cervical Spine, 4th ed. (CR Clark, et al., eds.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, November 2004.

5. Betz RR: Radiographic and functional outcomes of surgical treatment. IN Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Monograph (PO Newton, ed.). Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, October 2004.

6. Betz RR: Surgical treatment by thoracoscopic methods. IN Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Monograph (PO Newton, ed.). Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, October 2004.

7. Betz RR, Newton PO, Clements DH, Balsara RK: Thoracoscopic anterior release and fusion using MOSS-Miami instrumentation, ch. 23. IN Atlas of Minimal Access Spine Surgery (Regan JJ & Lieberman IH, eds.). St. Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing, Inc., 2004.

8. Betz RR: Kyphosis of the thoracic and thoracolumbar spine in the pediatric patient: normal sagittal parameters and scope of the problem, ch. 42. IN AAOS Instructional Course Lectures, Volume 53, 2004, pp. 479-484.

9. Modern Anterior Scoliosis Surgery (Lenke LG, Betz RR, Harms J, eds.). St. Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing, Inc, 2004.
a) Lenke LG, Betz RR, Harms J: The Lenke treatment-directed classification system for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, ch. 4
b) Betz RR, Lenke LG: Radiographic scoring system for scoliosis, ch. 5.
c) Balsara R, Clements DH III, Betz RR: Complications in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, ch. 12.
d) Balsara R, Betz RR: Double anterior thoracotomy, ch. 16.
e) Betz RR, Chan DPK, Lenke LG: Overview and indications for anterior instrumentation, ch. 23.
f) Betz RR: MOSS-Miami single solid rod, ch. 27.
g) Clements DH III, Betz RR, Balsara R: Thoracoscopic insertion of MOSS instrumentation, ch. 35.

10. Betz RR, Newton PO, Clements DH, Lenke LG: Deformities in childhood. B. Anterior instrumentation for thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. IN The Adult and Pediatric Spine, 3rd ed. (Frymoyer JW, Wiesel SW, eds.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2004, pp. 559-566.

11. Vaccaro AR, An HS, Betz RR, Cotler JM, Balderston RA: The management of acute spinal trauma: prehospital and in-hospital emergency care, ch. 22. Instructional Course Lectures: Spine (An HS, ed.). Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2003, pp. 207-219.

12. Betz RR, Steel HH: Convex thoracoplasty of the spine, chapter 28. IN Surgical Techniques for the Spine (Haher T, Merola A, eds.). New York: Thieme, 2003, pp. 131-134.

13. Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: Pediatric spinal cord injury, ch. 31. IN Principles and Practice of Spine Surgery (Vacarro AR, Betz RR, Zeidman SM, eds.) Philadelphia: Mosby, Inc., 2002, pp. 401-406.

14. Betz RR, Lenke LG: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, ch. 45. IN Principles and Practice of Spine Surgery (Vacarro AR, Betz RR, Zeidman SM, eds.) Philadelphia: Mosby, Inc., 2002, pp. 593-608

15. Lenke LG, Betz RR: Neuromuscular scoliosis: surgical treatment. IN Principles and Practice of Spine Surgery (Vacarro AR, Betz RR, Zeidman SM, eds.) Philadelphia: Mosby, Inc., 2002, pp. 609-628.

16. Vogel LC, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: Pediatric spinal cord disorders in children and adolescents. IN Spinal Cord Medicine Textbook (Lin V, ed.). New York, NY: Demos, 2002.

17. Vogel LC, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: Pediatric spinal cord disorders, ch. 29. IN Spinal Cord Injury Medicine (Kirshblum S, Campagnolo DI, DeLisa JA, eds.) Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, pp. 438-470.

18. Betz RR, Mulcahey, MJ: Spinal cord injury rehabilitation, ch. 33. IN The Pediatric Spine: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed, vol. 1 (Weinstein SL, ed.) New York: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 2001, pp. 601-616.

19. Betz RR: Anterior instrumentation: techniques. In The Pediatric Spine: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed, vol. 2 (Weinstein SL, ed.) New York: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 2001, pp. 535-546.

20. McCarthy JJ, Finson RL, Betz RR: The use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy. IN Pediatric Gait: A New Millennium in Clinical Care and Motion Analysis Technology (Harris GF, Smith PA, eds.). Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 2000, pp. 39-45.

21. Betz RR: Anterior instrumentation. IN State of the Art Reviews: Problems in the Pediatric Spine (Drummond DS, ed). Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus, Inc., 2000.

22. Vaccaro AR, An HS, Betz RR, Cotler JM, Balderston RS: The management of acute spinal trauma: prehospital and in-hospital emergency care. Instructional Course Lectures, Vol. 46 (Springfield DS, ed.). Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1997, pp. 113-125

23. Betz RR and Steel HH: Thoracoplasty for rib deformity, ch. 13. IN Master Techniques in Orthopaedic Surgery: The Spine (Thompson Jr RC, ed). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1996, pp. 451-461.

24. Triolo RJ, Kobetic R, Betz RR: Standing and walking with functional neuromuscular stimulation: technical and clinical challenges, ch. 17. IN Human Motion Analysis: Current Applications and Future Directions (Harris GF& Smith PA, eds.). New York: IEEE Press, 1996.

25. Betz, RR: Thoracoplasty: posterior technique, ch. 34. IN Textbook of Spinal Surgery, 2nd ed. (Bridwell KH, ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1996.

26. Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, eds.: The Child with a Spinal Cord Injury. Rosemont, IL: The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1996.
a) Salzman SK, Betz RR: Experimental treatment of spinal cord injuries, ch. 63.
b) Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Weiss AA: Overview of upper extremity management, ch. 33.
c) Lubicky JP, Betz RR: Spinal deformity in children and adolescents after spinal cord injury, ch. 32.
d) Miller F, Betz RR: Hip joint instability, ch. 31.
e) Betz RR: Heterotopic ossification, ch. 30.

27. Freeman BL III, Betz RR: The Pediatric Spine, Ch. 12. IN Operative Pediatric Orthopaedics, 2nd Ed (Canale ST & Beaty JH, eds.). St. Louis: Mosby -Year Book, Inc., 1995, pp. 471-664.

28. Betz RR, Mulcahey, MJ: Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, Ch. 36. IN The Pediatric Spine: Principles and Practice (Weinstein SL, ed.) New York: Raven Press, 1994, pp. 781-810.

29. Betz RR: Thoracolumbar spine, pediatric, Ch. 36. IN Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 4: Home Study Syllabus. Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1993, pp. 447-459.

ePublications
1. Jordan MA, Carr C, Betz RR: Scoliosis: nursing care management. SpineUniverse.com, February 2001.

2. Clements DH, Betz RR, Balsara RK: Advances in surgical management of idiopathic scoliosis. Thoracoscopic anterior instrumentation. SpineUniverse.com, August 2001.

3. Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: New surgical treatments for scoliosis: vertebral body stapling and wedge osteotomies. SpineUniverse.com, February 2002; Viewpoint, Shriners Hospitals for Children, www.shrinershq.org, September 2001.

Presentations by Dr. Betz or Co-Authors
Lonner BS, Newton PO, Betz RR, Scharf C, O'Brien M, Sponseller P, Lenke LG, Crawford AH, Lowe TG, Letko L, Harms J, Shufflebarger HL: Operative management of Scheuermann's kyphosis in 78 patients. Radiographic outcomes, complications, and technique. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, Chicago, March 22-26, 2006; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Miami, FL, Oct. 27-30, 2005; 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

Crawford A, Babekir N, Lowe TG, Betz R, Lenke L, Haher T, Merola A, Newton P, Clements D, Sucato DJ, Letko L: Correction of left thoracic curves: a comparison of anterior versus posterior instrumentation. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, Chicago, IL, March 22-26, 2006; 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

Crawford A, Babekir N, Lowe GT, Betz R, Lenke L, Haher T, Merola A, Newton P, Clements D, Sucato DJ, Letko L: Comparison between left and right thoracic curves in idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Miami, Florida, October 28-30, 2005; 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

Kishan S, Newton PO, Betz RR, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Clements DH, D'Andrea LP, Sucato DJ: Thoracoscopic anterior instrumentation affects pulmonary function less than open thoracotomy at two years post-op. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Miami, Florida, October 28-30, 2005; 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

Lowe TG, Chien JT, Betz RR, Lenke LG, Newton PO, Clements DH, Crawford AH, Letko L: The surgical treatment of double thoracic curves in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: factors involved in the decision to perform a selective fusion of the main thoracic curve versus a posterior fusion. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Miami, FL, Oct. 27-30, 2005; 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

McCarthy KP, Betz RR, D'Andrea LP, Frisch RF, Chafetz RS, Mulcahey MJ: Vertebral wedge osteotomies for the fusionless treatment of paralytic scoliosis: two-year follow-up. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Miami, Florida, October 28-30, 2005; 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

Merola AA, Newton PO, O'Brien MF, Haher TR, Lowe TG, Lenke LG, Clements, D, Betz R, Crawford A, Sponseller PD, Sucato DJ, Lonner B, Caruso SA, Kubeck JP, Shanti N, Marks M: Lumbar sagittal plane alignment with respect to instrumentation type and surgical technique. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Miami, FL, October 27-30, 2005; 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

Newton P, Gaynor T, Marks M, Gollogly S, Harms Study Group: Short fusion with residual deformity vs. long fusion with better correction-which is better? Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Miami, Florida, October 28-30, 2005; 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

Newton P, Marks M, Betz R, Lenke L, Lowe T, Clements D, Haher T, Merola A, D'Andrea L, Crawford A, Harms J: Ten-year trends in the surgical treatment of primary right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Miami, FL, October 27-30, 2005; 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

Anderson CJ, Vogel, LC, Betz RR, McDonald C: Impact of environmental factors on outcomes of adults with pediatric-onset SCI. American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine annual meeting, Orlando, FL, Sept. 14-17, 2005.

Johnston TE, Smith BT, Lauer R, Betz RR: Physiologic responses to arm ergometry and leg FES ergometry in pediatric spinal cord injury. American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine annual meeting, Orlando, FL, September 14-17, 2005; American Paraplegia Society annual meeting, Las Vegas, NV, September 5-8, 2005; 10th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society annual meeting, Montreal, Quebec, July 5-9, 2005.

Calhoun CL, Chafetz R, Johnston T, Lauer R, Mulcahey MJ, Hutchinson D, Smith B, Betz R. Clinical and research activity based rehabilitation for children with spinal cord injury. American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine, Orlando, FL, September 14-17, 2005.

Mehta S, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, McDonald C, Vogel LC, Anderson CA, D'Andrea LP, Antonacci MD: The effect of bracing on paralytic scoliosis secondary to spinal cord injury. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (Ernest Bors Award for Scientific Development), Las Vegas, NV, September 5-8, 2005; Eastern Orthopaedic Association annual meeting, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, October 13-16, 2004; 39th Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 6-9, 2004; 11th International Meeting for Advanced Spine Techniques, Southampton, Bermuda, July 1-3, 2004; the Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

Mulcahey MJ (presented by R. Betz): Preliminary reliability of ASIA motor and sensory exam in children. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting, Las Vegas, NV, September 5-8, 2005.

Betz RR, O'Brien M, Porter S, Newton P, Clements D, Lenke L, Lowe T, Harms J, D'Andrea L, Harms Study Group: Open anterior spinal fusion for thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): a prospective five-year follow-up. 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

Clements DH, Marks M, Porter ST, Betz RR, D'Andrea LP, Newton PO, Harms Study Group: Trunk shape correction and patient satisfaction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

Marks M, Newton P, Betz R, Clements D, Lowe T, D'Andrea L: Postoperative trunk motion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: does the region of fusion affect motion? 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

O'Brien M, Newton P, Lonner B, Betz R, Lowe T, Lenke L, Crawford A, Sponseller P, Marks M, Harms Study Group: Evaluation of pulmonary function in patients with Scheuermann's kyphosis. 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

Sucato DJ, Newton PO, Betz RR, Lenke LG, Crawford A, Clements D, Lowe T, D'Andrea L, Letko L, Marks M: Anterior release prior to a posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation: is the thoracoscopic approach as effective as an open thoracotomy? 12th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 7-9, 2005.

Johnston TE, Smith BT, Stackhouse C, Betz RR: Reciprocal versus swing-through gait using implanted functional electrical stimulation in motor complete SCI. A case report. 10th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society annual meeting, Montreal, Quebec, July 5-9, 2005.

Mulcahey MJ, Gaughan JR, Betz RR: Reliability of the international standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury in children and youth. American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting, Dallas, TX, May 12-14, 2005.

Smith BT, Johnston T, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: Implanted FES for upright mobility in pediatric spinal cord injury: a follow-up report. 2nd International IEEE EMBS Special Topic Conference on Neural Engineering, Washington, DC, March 16-19, 2005.

Cheung E, Guille J, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, D'Andrea LP, Cerrone J, Campbell R, Johnston CE, Lubicky JP, Segal L: The natural history and results of surgical treatment of patients with fused ribs and congenital scoliosis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, Washington, DC, February 24, 2005; 39th Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 6-9, 2004; 11th International Meeting for Advanced Spine Techniques, Southampton, Bermuda, July 1-3, 2004.

Newton PO, Faro F, Gollogly S, Betz R, Clements D, Lenke L, Lowe T, Crawford A, Haher T, Merola A: Pulmonary function in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, Washington, DC, February 25, 2005; 39th Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 6-9, 2004.

Duff SV, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: Temporal and force coordination during grasping in children with spinal cord injury [poster]. The Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, October 24, 2004.

Ruggieri MR, Barbe M, Braverman AS, D'Andrea L, Betz RR: Orthotopic and heterotopic reinnervation of the canine urinary bladder demonstrated by functional electrical stimulation and nerve tracing histochemistry (poster). Contemporary Topics in Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury, Shriners Hospitals, Philadelphia, October 11-12, 2004; II International Congress on Neuroregeneration, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, September 20-24, 2004.

Clements DH, Betz RR, D'Andrea LP, Newton PO, Mulcahey MJ, Marks M, Porter S: Rib resection and rib deformity correction: evaluation by scoliometer. 39th Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 6-9, 2004.

Jacob P, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, Porth S, Vogel LC: Diagnostic dilemma: case report of fibrocartilaginous emboli in an adolescent female (poster). 39th Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 6-9, 2004; The Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

Clements DH, Betz RR, D'Andrea LP, Newton PO, Mulcahey MJ, Marks M, Porter S: Rib resection and rib deformity correction: evaluation by scoliometer (eposter). 11th International Meeting for Advanced Spine Techniques, Southampton, Bermuda, July 1-3, 2004.

Clements DH, Betz RR, Newton PO, D'Andrea LP, Mulcahey MJ, Porter S: Sagittal contour in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (eposter). 11th International Meeting for Advanced Spine Techniques, Southampton, Bermuda, July 1-3, 2004.

Skvirski I, Betz R, Koch S, Maddox G, Chandler D, Drum E, D'Andrea L, Szeremeta W: Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring performed during prosthetic surgical procedures for congenital spinal and chest wall malformations. IX Spinal Cord Monitoring Meeting, Rome, Italy, May 3-6, 2004.

Newton PO, Faro F, Betz RR, D'Andrea LP, Clements DH, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Merola AA, Haher TR: Selective vs. nonselective fusion of Lenke I curves in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, San Francisco, March 2004.

Vogel L, Betz R, DeVivo M, McDonald C: Medical complications in the young child with SCI. The Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

Chafetz R, McDonald C, Mulcahey MJ, Betz R, Anderson C, Vogel L, Martin S, Flannagan A: The impact of prophylactic TLSO bracing on functional activities and ADLs in the pediatric SCI population. The Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

McCarthy J, Chafetz R, Betz R: The incidence and degree of hip subluxation/dislocation in children with spinal cord injury. The Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

Kozin S, Betz R, Mulcahey MJ, Lutz C: Comparison between biceps to triceps and deltoid to triceps for elbow extension in tetraplegia. The Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

Mulcahey MJ, Betz R, Kozin S, Smith B, Lutz C, Hutchinson D: Minimal invasive implantation of Freehand during initial rehabilitation. The Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

Johnston T, Benda B, Smith B, Betz R, Mulcahey MJ, Barriskill A, Davis R: Initial experiences with the Praxis multi-functional functional electrical stimulation system. The Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

Anderson C, Betz R, Vogel L, Willis KM: Overview of adult outcomes in pediatric-onset spinal cord injuries: implications for transition to adulthood. The Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

Vogel LC, Betz R, Anderson C: Medical complications in adults with pediatric-onset spinal cord injuries and their impact on long-term outcomes. The Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

Hutchinson D, Mulcahey MJ, Betz R, Kozin SH, Smith B: Heterotrophic nerve transfer for adolescents with tetraplegia resulting in LMN impairment (poster). The Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

Barbe MF, Ruggieri MR, Braverman AS, D'Andrea L, Kozin S, Pontari MA, Betz R: Reinnervation of the canine urinary bladder demonstrated by functional electrical stimulation and nerve tracing histochemistry (poster). The Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

Chafetz RS, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: The relationship between upper extremity reconstruction and ambulation in a child with tetraplegia (poster). The Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

Chafetz R, Mulcahey MJ, McDonald C, Betz R, Anderson C, Vogel L, Gaughan J, O'Dell MA, Flanagan A: A pilot study evaluating the difference between level of independence and typical performance at home of ADLs in the pediatric spinal cord injury population (poster). The Howard H. Steel Conference on Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, FL, December 2003.

Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, D'Andrea LP, Clements DH: Acute evaluation and management of spinal cord injury. The Howard H. Steel Conference: Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, December 2003.

Guille JT, Betz RR, Balsara RK, Mulcahey MJ, D'Andrea LP, Clements DH: The feasibility, safety, and utility of vertebral wedge osteotomies for the fusionless treatment of paralytic scoliosis. The Howard H. Steel Conference: Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, December 2003; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Quebec City, September 2003; International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Rome, Italy, July 2003.

Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, Lebby E, D'Andrea LP, Antonacci D: Sagittal profile of patients with spinal cord injury: a radiographic analysis and implications on treatment. The Howard H. Steel Conference: Injuries and Dysfunction of the Spinal Cord in Children, Orlando, December 2003; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Quebec City, September 2003; International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Rome, Italy, July 2003; American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, NV, September 2002.

McCarthy JJ, Johnston TE, Finson FL, Smith BT, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) as an alternative or adjunct to traditional orthopaedic strategies in children with CP. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Sacramento, CA, November 2003.

Betz RR, Kim J, D'Andrea LP, Mulcahey MJ, Balsara RK, Clements DH: An innovative technique of vertebral body stapling for the treatment of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Sacramento, CA, November 2003; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Quebec City, September 2003; International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Rome, Italy, July 2003.

Ruggieri M, Barbe, Braverman, D'Andrea L, Kozin S, Pontari M, Betz RR: Functional urinary bladder reinnervation in a canine model. International Continence Society, Florence, Italy, October 2003.

Newton PO, Betz RR, Clements DH, Lenke LG, Crawford AA, Lowe TG, Haher TR, Merola AA, Wenger DR: Anterior thoracoscopic instrumentation: a matched comparison to open anterior instrumentation and posterior open instrumentation. North American Spine Society annual meeting, San Diego, October 2003.

O'Brien MF, Kuklo TR, Richards BS, Lenke LG, Polly DW, Schreiber D, Pinteric R, Schroeder T, Blanke KM, The Spinal Deformity Study Group: AIS Section: A multicenter clinical and radiographic analysis of anterior and posterior surgical techniques for treatment of thoracolumbar/lumbar AIS: the current state of the art. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Quebec City, September 2003.

D'Andrea LP, Betz RR, Newton PO, Lenke LG, Clements DH, Harms J, Haher TR, Lowe TG, Merola AA, Crawford AH, Sucato DJ: Effects of continued posterior spinal growth on sagittal contour after anterior spinal fusion with instrumentation of different sizes for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Quebec City, September 2003.

Lauer R, Smith B, Betz RR, McCarthy JJ: Comparison of electromyographic (EMG) mean frequency during gait between children with and without cerebral palsy. American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine annual meeting, Montreal, Quebec, September 2003.

McCarthy JM, Johnston TE, Finson FL, Smith BT, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) as an alternative or adjunct to traditional orthopaedic strategies in children with cerebral palsy. American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine annual meeting, Montreal, Quebec, September 2003.

Faro F, Newton P, Marks M, Wenger D, Betz R, Clements D, D'Andrea L, Lenke L, Lowe T, Merola A, Haher T: Factors involved in the decision to perform a selective vs. non-selective fusion of Lenke IB and IC (King II) curves in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Rome, Italy, July 2003.

Tis J, Oswald T, Newton P, Wenger D, Lenke L, Betz R, Marks M: Pelvic influence on lumbar lordosis in thoracolumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Rome, Italy, July 2003.

Betz RR, Petrizzo AM, Kerner PJ, Falatyn SP, Clements DH III, Huss GK: Allograft versus no graft with a posterior multisegmented hook system for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. 10th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Rome, Italy, July 2003; North American Spine Society annual meeting, New York City, October 1997; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, St. Louis, Missouri, September 1997.

Johnston TE, Smith BT, Betz RR, Benda BJ, Mulcahey MJ, Davis R, Barriskill A: Initial experiences with bladder/bowel management using the Praxis multi-functional implanted FES system. International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society annual conference, Queensland, Australia, July 2003.

Lauer R, Smith B, Betz R, McCarthy JJ: An adaptive neuro-fuzzy control algorithm for electrically stimulated gait in the child with cerebral palsy. International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society annual conference, Queensland, Australia, July 2003.

Betz RR, Clements DH, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Newton PO, Merola AA, Haher TR, Wenger DR, Harms J: Correction of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with anterior instrumentation: how does preoperative sagittal profile affect the indications? American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), New Orleans, February 2003.

Betz RR, Lenke LG, Clements DH, Newton PO, Harms J, Wenger DR, Lowe TG, Haher T, Merola AA: Limitations of anterior instrumentation for correction of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the immature (Risser 0) patient. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), New Orleans, February 2003; Pediatric Orthopaedic Society annual meeting (poster), Salt Lake City, May 2002.

Smith BT, Betz RR, Johnston T, Benda B, Mulcahey MJ, Davis R, Barriskill A: Initial experiences with the Praxis multi-functional implantable FES system for individuals with spinal cord injury. 1st FESnet Conference, Glasgow, UK, September 2002.

Hutchinson D, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Kozin SH, Smith B: Heterotrophic nerve transfer for adolescents with tetraplegia resulting in LMN impairment. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting, Las Vegas, September 2002.

Johnston TE, Smith BT, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: Stability of an implanted FES system for upright mobility. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting, Las Vegas, September 2002.

Clements DH, Betz RR, Newton PO, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Merola AA, Haher TR, Marks M: Incidence of vascular complications associated with anterior thoracic instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Seattle, WA, September 2002.

Betz RR, MacDonald JH, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Newton PO, Clements DH, Wenger DR, Haher T, Merola A, Harms J, Shufflebarger HL: Perioperative complications of spinal fusion for thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Seattle, WA, September 2002; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, Dallas, TX, February 2002.

Eule JM, Lowe TG, Lenke LG, Betz RR, Harms J, Clements DH, Newton PO, Barmada A, Haher TR, Merola AA: Selective anterior or posterior thoracic fusions in Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis lumbar curves greater than 40 degrees. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Seattle, WA, September 2002.

Betz RR, Smith BT, Benda BJ, Johnston TE, Mulcahey MJ, Middleton J, Davis G, Davis R, Cousins R, Barriskill A: Clinical trial of the Praxis multi-functional implantable FES system for paraplegia. International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS) 7th annual conference, Ljubljana, Slovenia, June 2002.

Clements DH, Betz RR, Balsara RK, Porter S: Video-assisted mini-open approach for insertion of anterior thoracic instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. 9th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques (e-poster), Montreux, Switzerland, May 2002.

Clements DH, Betz RR: Comparison of efficacy of the INS-1™ pedicle screw test compared to conventional pedicle screw stimulation in lumbar spinal instrumentation. A preliminary report. 9th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques (e-poster), Montreux, Switzerland, May 2002.

Betz RR, Lenke LG, Clements DH, Newton PO: Thoracoscopic versus open thoracotomy correction by anterior instrumentation for the treatment of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pediatric Orthopaedic Society annual meeting (poster), Salt Lake City, May 2002; 7th Stryker Spine Invitational Symposium, Sardinia, September 2001; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Cairns, Australia, October 2000.

Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, Hutchinson D, Smith BT: Scapular stabilization for patients with tetraplegia secondary to spinal cord injury: preliminary experience. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Houston, TX, November 2001; American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas, NV, September 2001; 7th International Conference on Tetraplegia, Bologna, Italy, June 2001.

McCarthy JJ, Palma D, Betz RR: Pemberton osteotomy: use of allograft vs. autograft. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Houston, TX, November 2001.

Wilson PL, Newton PO, Wenger DR, Haher TR, Merola AA, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Clements DH, Betz RR: A multi-center study analyzing the relationship of standardized radiographic scoring system of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcomes instrument. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Cleveland, Ohio, September 2001.

Merola AA, Brkaric M, Haher TR, Kohani O, Betz RR, Clements DH, Huss GK, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Newton PO, Wenger DR, Marks MC: Do outcome parameters correlate with surgical complications utilizing the SRS questionnaire in the treatment of AIS? Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Cleveland Ohio, September 2001; 8th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques [ePoster], Paradise Island, Bahamas, July 2001.

Smith BT, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: An implantable upper extremity neuroprosthesis in a growing child with a C5 spinal cord injury. 7th International Conference on Tetraplegia, Bologna, Italy, June 2001.

Merenda L, Betz RR: Case report: The effect of urinary tract infection on continence in patients with the Vocare system (poster). International FES Society, Cleveland, Ohio, June 2001.

Betz RR, Johnston TE, Smith BT, Mulcahey MJ, McCarthy JJ: Percutaneous implantable functional electrical stimulation for upright mobility in children with spinal cord injury: description of surgical technique (poster). International FES Society, Cleveland, Ohio, June 2001.

Johnston TE, Betz RR, Smith BT, Mulcahey MJ: An implantable functional electrical stimulation system for upright mobility in children and adolescents with spinal cord injury (poster). International FES Society, Cleveland, Ohio, June 2001.

Smith BT, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: Implantable FES system for upper or lower limb function in the growing child with a spinal cord injury. International FES Society, Cleveland, Ohio, June 2001. Coiro D, Smith BT, Betz RR: Gait event detection using intramuscular electromyography to trigger functional electrical stimulation in the child with cerebral palsy. International FES Society, Cleveland, Ohio, June 2001.

Harding SP, Weiss AA, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: Split flexor pollicis longus tendon transfer: a comparison with arthrodesis for stabilization of the thumb IP joint in adolescents with tetraplegia. American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting, Long Beach, CA, May 2001; American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 1998; Sixth International Conference on Surgical Rehabilitation of the Upper Limb in Tetraplegia (Quadriplegia) (poster), Cleveland, May 1998.

Finson R, McCarthy J, Smith B, Betz R, Mulcahey MJ: Effects of intramuscular electrical stimulation on joint excursions during gait in children with cerebral palsy requiring surgical lengthenings (poster). Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America annual meeting, Cancun, May 2001; American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine annual meeting, Toronto, September 2000.

Betz RR, Johnston T, Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT: Implantable functional electrical stimulation for upright mobility in children: preliminary experience. Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America annual meeting, Cancun, May 2001; Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Montreal, September 2000.

Betz RR, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Harms J, Clements DH, Newton PO, Haher T, Merola A, Wenger D: Proximal screw pull-out during anterior instrumentation for thoracic scoliosis: preventive techniques. Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America annual meeting, Cancun, May 2001; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Cairns, Australia, October 2000.

Betz RR, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Clements DH, Merola A, Haher T, Newton PO, Wenger DR, Huss GK, Blanke K: Comparison of anterior versus posterior instrumentation for correction of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: analysis by an objective radiographic scoring system. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, San Francisco, March 2001. Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America annual meeting, Vancouver, May 2000; Scoliosis Research Society, San Diego, September 1999.

LaRocca S, Betz RR: A quantitative measure of latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior strength after a standard posterolateral thoracotomy. Spine + Science + Management, New Orleans, LA, November 2000.

Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: The satisfaction with totally implanted functional electrical stimulation on patient-directed outcomes. 5th Scientific Congress of the Paralympic Games, Sydney, Australia, October 2000.

Merola A, Brkaric M, Haher T, Kohani O, Lowe T, Lenke L, Betz R, Huss G, Wenger D, Newton P, Clements D: A multi-center prospective study of 737 questionnaires utilizing the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) instrument for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nominated for the Russell Hibbs Award, Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Cairns, Australia, October 2000.

Kuklo T, Lenke LG, Won DS, Graham EJ, Sweet FA, Betz RR, Blanke KM: Spontaneous proximal thoracic curve correction following selective fusion of the main thoracic curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Cairns, Australia, October 2000.

Clements DH, Betz RR, Lowe TG, Lenke LG, Newton PO: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with excessive thoracic kyphosis: comparison of anterior vs. posterior instrumentation for maintaining correction. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Cairns, Australia, October 2000.

Wood J, Lowe T, Betz R, Clements D, Lenke L, Newton P, Merola A, Haher T, Wenger D, Harms J: Large magnitude adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: anterior vs. posterior surgical stabilization. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Cairns, Australia, October 2000.

Lenke L, Betz R, Clements D, Newton P, Merola A, Lowe T, Wenger D, Crawford A: Interobserver and intraobserver reliability of choosing the stable vertebra: comparing the traditional versus a new method. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Cairns, Australia, October 2000.

Betz RR: Scoliosis classification…recent developments. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Montreal, September 2000

McCarthy JJ, Weibel B, Betz RR: Results of pelvic osteotomies for hip subluxation in children with spinal cord injury. American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine annual meeting, Toronto, September 2000.

Vogel LC, Anderson CJ, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: What's new in the basic care of the child with a spinal cord injury? American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine annual meeting, Toronto, September 2000.

Anderson CJ, Lubicky JP, Betz RR, Vogel LC: Adult employment of individuals who sustained pediatric-onset spinal cord injuries. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting, Las Vegas, September 2000; American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting, Chicago, April 2000.

Betz RR: Acute evaluation and management, including SCIWORA. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting, Las Vegas, September 2000.

Betz RR: What constitutes good orthopaedic care for the child with spinal cord injury? American Paraplegia Society annual meeting, Las Vegas, September 2000.

Vogel LC, Lubicky JP, Betz RR, Anderson CJ: Medical complications in adults with pediatric-onset SCI: implications on quality of life. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 2000.

Morales V, Merenda L, Betz R, Mulcahey MJ: Application of the Vocare system in a youngster with traumatic spinal cord injury. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 2000.

Graham EJ, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Betz RR, Bridwell KH, Kong Y: Prospective pulmonary function evaluation following open thoracotomy for anterior thoracic spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. American Orthopaedic Association annual meeting [poster], Hot Springs, VA, June 2000; Scoliosis Research Society, San Diego, September 1999.

Smith BT, Coiro D, Finson R, McGee B, Betz RR: Intramuscular electromyography for gait event detection to trigger functional electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Chicago, IL (CD-ROM), July 2000.

Coiro D, Smith BT, Finson R, McGee B, Betz RR: Gait event detection for the application of functional electrical stimulation to improve ambulation for children with cerebral palsy or incomplete spinal cord injury. World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Chicago, IL (CD-ROM), July 2000.

McCarthy J, Betz R, Mark A, Davidson R: The treatment of angular deformities of the tibia with gradual correction using a T-type fixator versus acute correction with a monolateral fixator. Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America annual meeting, Vancouver, May 2000.

Betz RR, Lenke LG, Clements DH, Lowe TG, Newton PO: Anterior instrumentation for thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: open and minimally invasive techniques (poster exhibit). American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, Orlando, March 2000.

Festa CJ, Sodl J, Feng AK, Lee C, Gaughan J, Clements DH, Bigos D, Betz RR: Preoperative pulmonary function: its correlation with the duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation in spinal fusion patients. Society of Critical Care Medicine, Orlando, February 2000.

Festa CJ, Abramowitz MC, Sodl J, Feng AK, Bigos D, Gaughan JP, Alburger PD, Clements DH, Betz RR: Spinal cord compromise during spinal fusion surgery: a case control analysis of variables. Society of Critical Care Medicine, Orlando, February 2000.

McCarthy JJ, Betz RR: The treatment of hip fractures in children with existing spinal cord injuries. H.H. Steel Conference on Spinal Cord Injury: Contemporary Principles and New Directions, Rancho Mirage, California, December 1999.

McCarthy JJ, Weibel B, Betz RR: Results of pelvic osteotomies for hip subluxation in children with spinal cord injury. H.H. Steel Conference on Spinal Cord Injury: Contemporary Principles and New Directions, Rancho Mirage, California, December 1999.

Pontari MA, Weibel B, Morales V, Dean MD, Gaughan J, Betz R: Improved quality of life after continent urinary diversion in pediatric patients with quadriplegia after spinal cord injury. H.H. Steel Conference on Spinal Cord Injury: Contemporary Principles and New Directions, Rancho Mirage, California, December 1999.

Kozin SH, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: An intraoperative method to evaluate elbow flexion and supination strength during biceps-to-triceps transfer for tetraplegia (poster). H.H. Steel Conference on Spinal Cord Injury: Contemporary Principles and New Directions, Rancho Mirage, California, December 1999.

Betz RR: FES: Status of human trials in pediatrics. H.H. Steel Conference on Spinal Cord Injury: Contemporary Principles and New Directions, Rancho Mirage, California, December 1999.

Smith BT, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: Implantation of an upper extremity neuroprosthesis in growing children with a C5 level spinal injury. H.H. Steel Conference on Spinal Cord Injury: Contemporary Principles and New Directions, Rancho Mirage, California, December 1999.

Betz RR, Lenke LG, Clements DH, Lowe TG: Thoracoscopic approach versus open thoracotomy for insertion of anterior instrumentation for the treatment of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Tampa, FL, November 1999.

Lewin JD, Betz RR, Clements DH, Huss GK: Comparison of segmental hook-sublaminar wire hybrid constructs with traditional segmental hook-rod constructs for correction of scoliosis. North American Spine Society, Chicago, October 1999.

Lenke LG, Betz R, Lowe T, Merola A, Haher T, Clements D, Blanke K, Huss G: Curve prevalence of a new surgical classification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. North American Spine Society, Chicago, October 1999.

Betz RR: The future for the patient with a spinal cord injury. SCI Advances, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Philadelphia, October 1999.

Bridwell KH, Shufflebarger HL, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Betz RR, Bassett GS, Iffrig TM, Baldus C, Blanke K, Whorton J: Parent/patient preference in idiopathic adolescent scoliosis: a prospective preoperative analysis. North American Spine Society, Chicago, October 1999; Scoliosis Research Society, San Diego, September 1999.

Lee CH, Feng A, Festa C, Betz R, Bigos D. Correlation between duration of postoperative IV analgesia and PICU stay after spinal fusion surgery. Pediatric Critical Care, Portland, OR, September 1999.

Lenke LG, Betz RR, Haher T, Merola A, Lapp M, Harms J, Shufflebarger HL, Blanke K: Multi-surgeon assessment of a new classification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): can agreement on classification exist? Scoliosis Research Society, San Diego, September 1999.

Johnston TE, Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT, Betz RR: Percutaneous electrical stimulation strengthening in an adolescent with incomplete paraplegia. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 1999; Physical Therapy '99, Washington, DC, June 1999.

Betz RR, Johnston TE, Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT: Implantable functional electrical stimulation for upright mobility in children: preliminary experience. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 1999; American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting, Atlanta, April 1999.

Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Smith BT, Davis SE, Johnston TE: The satisfaction with totally implanted functional electrical stimulation on client-directed outcomes. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 1999; American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting, Atlanta, April 1999.

Johnston TE, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Smith BT: Totally implanted FES for upright mobility in an adolescent with paraplegia. RESNA '99 annual conference, Long Beach, CA, June 1999; American Physical Therapy Association combined sections meeting, February 1999.

Zourelias HC, Betz RR, Rebuck CA: Custom TLSOs for infantile scoliosis. Association of Children's Prosthetics and Orthotics Clinics, St. Petersburg, Florida, May 1999.

Akers JM, Smith BT, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ: Implantable functional electrical stimulation technology in growing animals. American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting (poster), Atlanta, April 1999; Sixth International Conference on Surgical Rehabilitation of the Upper Limb in Tetraplegia (Quadriplegia), Cleveland, May 1998.

Lenke LG, Betz RR, Harms J, Clements DH, Lowe TG, Bridwell K: A new and comprehensive classification system of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting [scientific exhibit], Anaheim, CA, February 1999.

Lenke LG, Betz RR, Harms J, Bridwell KH, Clements DH, Lowe TG: Spontaneous lumbar curve correction following selective anterior or posterior thoracic fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, Anaheim, CA, February 1999.

D'Andrea LP, Betz RR, Lenke LG, Clements DH, Lowe TG, Merola A, Haher T, Harms J, Huss GK, Blanke K, McGlothlen S: Do radiographic parameters correlate with clinical outcomes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), Anaheim, CA, February 1999; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, New York City, September 1998.

D'Andrea LP, Betz RR, Lenke LG, Harms J, Clements DH, Lowe TG: The effect of continued spinal growth on sagittal contour in patients treated by anterior instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), Anaheim, CA, February 1999; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, New York City, September 1998.

Huntington CF, Betz RR, Maxy P, Clements DH, Drewry TD, Sherman MC, Pafford J: Biomechanical finite element analysis of spinopelvic fixation in long segment spinal fixation constructs. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), Anaheim, CA, February 1999.

Johnston TE, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Weiss AA: Upper extremity tendon transfers in children with cervical spinal cord injury. American Physical Therapy Association combined sections meeting, February 1999.

Betz RR, Cunningham BW, Selgrath C, Drewry T, Sherman MC: Biomechanical testing of a wedge-rod system for fusionless correction of scoliosis. American College of Osteopathic Surgeons annual meeting, Chicago, IL, 1998.

Clements DH III, Betz RR, Balsara RK: Thoracoscopic anterior thoracic instrumentation and fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting (poster), New York City, September 1998.

Huntington CF, Betz RR, Clements DH III: Long segment spinopelvic fusion in adult idiopathic scoliosis using a hybrid pelvic fixation construct. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, New York City, September 1998; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting (poster), St. Louis, Missouri, September 1997.

Betz RR, Harms J, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Clements DH III, Jeszenszky D: Anterior rigid rod instrumentation for thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, New York City, September 1998 (poster); Combined Meeting, Orthopaedic Associations of the English Speaking World (poster), Auckland, New Zealand, February 1998; North American Spine Society annual meeting (poster), New York City, October 1997; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting (poster), St. Louis, Missouri, September 1997.

Betz RR: Implantation of sacral nerve stimulators in pediatric SCI subjects. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting, Las Vegas, September 1998.

McCarthy JJ, Betz RR: The relationship between tight hamstrings and lumbar hypolordosis in children with CP. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Shreveport, Louisiana, September 1998; Spine + Science + Management (poster), New Orleans, November 1997.

Hermantin FU, Betz RR, Clements DH, Bosacco SJ: Postoperative infection in patients with myelodysplasia or spinal cord injury undergoing fusion for scoliosis. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Shreveport, Louisiana, September 1998; American Academy of Orthopaedic surgeons annual meeting (poster), New Orleans, March 1998; Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society annual meeting, Wilmington, Delaware, November 1997; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, St. Louis, Missouri, September 1997; Spine + Science + Management meeting, New Orleans, November 1996.

Lyons R, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Spoltore T, Weiss AA: Assessment of functional outcomes of the deltoid-to-triceps transfer in the patient with SCI tetraplegia. Sixth International Conference on Surgical Rehabilitation of the Upper Limb in Tetraplegia (Quadriplegia) (poster), Cleveland, May 1998; American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 1996; American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting, Seattle, April 1996; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), Atlanta, February 1996.

Mulcahey MJ, Betz R, Weiss A, Smith B: The outcomes of tendon transfers in children. Sixth International Conference on Surgical Rehabilitation of the Upper Limb in Tetraplegia (Quadriplegia), Cleveland, May 1998.

Mulcahey MJ, Smith B, Betz R: Lower motor neuron integrity of arm muscles in high tetraplegia. Sixth International Conference on Surgical Rehabilitation of the Upper Limb in Tetraplegia (Quadriplegia) (poster), Cleveland, May 1998.

Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Weiss A, Vogel L, Bednar M, James M: A multi-center study of the Freehand system in adolescents. Sixth International Conference on Surgical Rehabilitation of the Upper Limb in Tetraplegia (Quadriplegia) (poster), Cleveland, May 1998.

Smith B, Mulcahey MJ, Davis S, Betz R: Tendon transfers to provide brace-free wrist stability in adolescents with the Freehand system. Sixth International Conference on Surgical Rehabilitation of the Upper Limb in Tetraplegia (Quadriplegia) (poster), Cleveland, May 1998; American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting (poster), Cleveland, April 1998.

Davis S, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: Use of the Freehand system in adolescents. Sixth International Conference on Surgical Rehabilitation of the Upper Limb in Tetraplegia (Quadriplegia) (poster), Cleveland, May 1998.

Lieberman GS, Betz RR: Bracing for delaying the progression of scoliosis in the immature patient with spinal cord injury. American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting (poster), Cleveland, Ohio, April 1998; Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society annual meeting, Wilmington, Delaware, November 1997; American Paraplegia Society (poster), Las Vegas, September 1997.

Ruggiero RA, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: The functional outcome of spinal fusion for paralytic scoliosis following spinal cord injury in the pediatric patient. American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting (poster); Cleveland, Ohio, April 1998; American Academy of Orthopaedic surgeons annual meeting (poster), New Orleans, March 1998; American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 1997.

Betz RR, Harms J, Clements DH III, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Shufflebarger HL, Jeszenszky DJ, Beele B: Comparison of anterior versus posterior instrumentation for correction of thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. Combined Meeting, Orthopaedic Associations of the English Speaking World, Auckland, New Zealand, February 1998; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, San Francisco, February 1997; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting (considered for Russell Hibbs Award), Ottawa, September 1996; American Orthopaedic Association annual meeting (poster), Colorado Springs, June 1996; Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Honolulu, August 1995; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting [scientific exhibit], Orlando, February 1995.

Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, Weiss AA, Smith BT: The outcomes of tendon transfers for hand function. Combined Meeting, Orthopaedic Associations of the English Speaking World, Auckland, New Zealand, February 1998.

Peters TW, Betz RR, Clements DH, Bosacco SJ: Prevalence of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who could benefit from anterior instrumentation. Combined Meeting, Orthopaedic Associations of the English Speaking World (poster), Auckland, New Zealand, February 1998; Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society annual meeting, Wilmington, Delaware, November 1997; North American Spine Society annual meeting (poster), New York City, October 1997.

Clements DH, Betz RR, Harms J, Lenke LG, Lowe TG, Huss GK: Critical analysis of proximal sagittal contour after correction of thoracic idiopathic scoliosis: anterior versus posterior instrumentation. Combined Meeting, Orthopaedic Associations of the English Speaking World (poster), Auckland, New Zealand, February 1998; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, St. Louis, Missouri, September 1997.

Lee GA, Betz RR, Clements DH, Huss GK: Proximal kyphosis above posterior spinal fusions in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Sacramento, CA, February 1998; Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society annual meeting, Wilmington, Delaware, November 1997; North American Spine Society annual meeting, New York City, October 1997; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, St. Louis, Missouri, September 1997; Spine + Science + Management meeting (poster), New Orleans, November 1996.

D'Andrea LP, Betz RR: Analysis for sagittal crankshaft after correction of idiopathic scoliosis with anterior instrumentation and fusion. Spine + Science + Management, New Orleans, November 1997.

Clements DH III, Betz RR, Balsara RK: Technique of video assisted thoracoscopic anterior thoracic instrumentation and fusion for idiopathic scoliosis. International Symposium on Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery, Philadelphia, November 1997; 4th International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Munich, Germany, July 1997.

Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Finson R, Akers JM, Stanger M, Bertoti DB: Percutaneous functional electrical stimulation in the child with spastic diplegia: therapeutic and functional effects. American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine annual meeting (poster), Portland, Oregon, September 1997.

Martin WH, Clements DH, Betz RR, Young WF: Intraoperative EMG monitoring during spinal surgery. Seminar on Clinical Neurophysiology, Jerusalem, February 1997.

Lenke LG, Betz RR, Bridwell KH, Clements DH III, Harms J, King HA, Lowe TG, Shufflebarger HL: Classifying adolescent idiopathic scoliosis by the King method: is it reliable? American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, San Francisco, January 1997; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Ottawa, September 1996.

Huntington C, Murrell W, Betz RR, Cole BA, Clements DH, Balsara RK: Comparison of thoracoscopic and open thoracic discectomy in a live sheep model for anterior spinal fusion. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), San Francisco, February 1997; 3rd International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Munich, June 1996.

Weiss AA, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, Keith M: Reconstruction of high tetraplegia hand activity with functional electrical stimulation: introduction to emerging neuro-prosthetic technology. American Association for Hand Surgery, Boca Raton, January 1997.

Clements DH, Betz RR, Harms J, Lenke LG, Balsara: Analysis of sagittal contour after correction of thoracic idiopathic scoliosis: anterior vs. posterior instrumentation. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Ottawa, September 1996.

Lenke LG, Betz RR, Bridwell KH, Lowe T, Clements D, Harms J, Shufflebarger H: Classification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): a new system addressing both coronal and sagittal planes. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Ottawa, September 1996.

Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Mullin C: The comparison of FES to orthoses in children with spinal cord injuries. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 1996.

Akers JM, Triolo RJ, Betz RR: Motor responses to implantable electrodes in a growing limb. American Paraplegia Society (poster), Las Vegas, September 1996.

Clements DH III, Martin WH, Hafner H, Betz RR: Efficacy of intraoperative SSEP monitoring of the upper extremities in detecting neuropraxia during positioning for spinal surgery. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Ottawa, September 1996.

Cordover AM, Betz RR, Clements DH, Bosacco SJ: The natural history of adolescent thoracolumbar and lumbar idiopathic scoliosis into adulthood. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Ottawa, September 1996; 3rd International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques (poster), Munich, June 1996; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, Atlanta, February 1996; North American Spine Society annual meeting, Washington, DC, October 1995.

Davidson RS, Weitzel P, Stanton RP, Betz RR, Alburger PD, Dormans JP, Drummond DS: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: a multicenter review of the complications by treatment group in 432 hips. Eastern Orthopaedic Association annual meeting, Hilton Head Island, SC, October 1996; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, Atlanta, February 1996; Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America annual meeting, Bal Harbor, FL, 1995.

Betz RR: Spine deformity in the child with SCI. IN Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury: Specialty Topics. American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine annual meeting, Philadelphia, September 1995.

Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ, Weiss AA, Keith MW, Peckham PH: Surgical aspects of a functional electrical stimulation hand grasp system to augment function in patients with tetraplegia. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 1995.

deMoura AB, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: The effect of triceps surface stimulation on pinch strength in tetraplegia. American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting (poster), Orlando, April 1995; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), Orlando, February 1995; American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 1994.

Talsania J, Thoder J, Betz R, Clancy M: When is the best time for simple syndactyly release? American Orthopaedic Association Residents' conference, Pittsburgh, March 1995.

Stollsteimer GT, Kolessar DJ, Betz RR: The value of the measurement from T5 to T12 as a screening tool in detecting abnormal kyphosis. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Pittsburgh, March 1995; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), Orlando, February 1995.

Pierre-Jacques H, Betz RR, Berman AT, Clancy M: Hip instability in children with spinal cord injuries. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Pittsburgh, March 1995; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), Orlando, February 1995.

O'Brien JT, Betz RR, Berman AT: A comparison of children with spinal cord injury with and without radiographic abnormality. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Pittsburgh, March 1995; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting [paper, poster], Orlando, February 1995; Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society Fall meeting, Pittsburgh, September 1994; American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 1994.

Betz RR: Choosing levels of anterior instrumentation in the thoracic spine. Federation of Spine Associations annual meeting, Orlando, February 1995.

Weiss AA, Betz RR, Matityahu A, Keith MW, Zigler S: Interphalangeal joint stabilization without arthrodesis for restoration of lateral pinch in tetraplegia: the split FPL transfer. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Philadelphia, September 1994.

Barbieri CA, Moynahan M, Halden EE, Betz RR: The effects of functional neuromuscular stimulation on the gait characteristics of a child with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Philadelphia, September 1994.

Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Smith BT, Weiss AA: The application of functional neuromuscular stimulation using a totally implanted stimulator and implanted electrodes in adolescents with tetraplegia. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Philadelphia, September 1994.

Smith BT, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: Functional neuromuscular stimulation for upper extremity function in C4 tetraplegia. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Philadelphia, September 1994.

Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR: The activities of adolescents with spinal cord injuries: results of the adolescent role assessment. American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting, Philadelphia, April 1994.

Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT, Betz RR: Spinal cord injury in children: the impact on parents' routines of work, leisure, and rest. American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting, Philadelphia, April 1994.

Betz RR, Boden B, Triolo RJ, Gardner ER, Fife RS: The effects of functional neuromuscular stimulation on the joints of the lower extremity in children with spinal cord injury. American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting (poster), Philadelphia, April 1994; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), New Orleans, February 1994; Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Association annual meeting, New Orleans, February 1994.

Betz RR, Beck T, Huss GK, Henzes J, Clancy M: Hip instability in children with spinal cord injury. American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting (poster), Philadelphia, April 1994; American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 1993.

Cole BA, Betz RR, Davidson RS: The natural history of scoliosis secondary to modest leg length inequality. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Atlanta, March 1994; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons [paper and poster], New Orleans, February 1994.

Weis JC, Betz RR, Clements DH, Balsara RK: The prevalence of perioperative complications following anterior spinal fusion for patients with idiopathic scoliosis. North American Spine Society annual meeting, Minneapolis, September 1994; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), New Orleans, February 1994; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting (poster), Dublin, Ireland, September 1993.

Böhm H, Betz RR, Harms J, Clements DH, Balsara RK: Correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with flexible anterior instrumentation. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, New Orleans, February 1994; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting (poster), Dublin, Ireland, September 1993.

Hurley JM, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH: The prevalence of late development of contralateral SCFE in patients treated by in situ pinning vs. cast immobilization. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, San Francisco, February 1993; Shrine Surgeons' annual meeting, Spokane, Washington, September 1991.

Harvey CJ Jr, Betz RR, Clements DH, Huss GK, Clancy M: Are there indications for partial rib resection in patients undergoing CD instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), San Francisco, February 1993; Federation of Spine Associations annual meeting, San Francisco, February 1993; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting (considered for Russell Hibbs Award), Kansas City, MO, September 1992; Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Greenville, SC, September 1992.

Clements DH, Betz RR, Harms J, Balsara RK: Technique of Harms/MOSS anterior thoracic instrumentation and fusion for treatment of thoracic curves in idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting [video], Kansas City, MO, September 1992.

Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Smith BT, Triolo RJ, Weiss AA, Keith MW, Peckham PH, Mitra A: Bipolar latissimus dorsi transposition and functional neuromuscular stimulation to restore flexion in a C4 quadriplegic with C5 denervation. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), San Francisco, February 1993; American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 1992; American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting, Toronto, May 1992.

Houdayer T, Freedman W, Triolo RJ, Andrews B, Betz RR: Prolonged standing for children with paraplegia by means of hybrid orthosis: a case study. IEEE-EMBS Conference, Paris, October 1992.

Betz RR, Cole CL, Triolo RJ, Gardner ER, Cohn JC, Fife RS: The effects of functional neuromuscular stimulation on the joints of the lower extremity in spinal cord injured children. American Paraplegia Society annual meeting (poster), Las Vegas, September 1992; American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting, Toronto, May 1992.

Cohn JC, Moynahan M, Triolo RJ, Betz RR: A survey of the pediatric spinal cord injured population on attitude towards standing (poster). American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting, Toronto, May 1992.

Uppal GS, Wood KB, Betz RR, Ogilvie JW, Watkins RG, Sherk HH: Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of congenital scoliosis [poster exhibit]. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, Washington DC, February 1992; American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Kansas City, Kansas, April 1991.

Weiss AA, Betz RR: Transfer of paralyzed but not denervated muscles for functional nerve stimulation restoration of prehensile activity in spinal cord injury patients. American Academy of Pediatrics Orthopaedic Section, New Orleans, October 1991.

Siegel MJ, Betz RR, Bridwell KH, Shufflebarger HL, Cummings RJ, Moynahan M, Baldus C, Clements DH: A critical analysis comparing Zielke instrumentation alone, Cotrel Dubousset instrumentation alone, and a combination of the two for the treatment of adolescent thoracolumbar and lumbar idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Minneapolis, September 1991.

Lenke LG, Bridwell KH, Bullis D, Betz RR, Baldus C, Schoenecker PL: Results of in-situ fusion for isthmic spondylolisthesis. Recipient of Russell S. Hibbs Award for best clinical presentation. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Minneapolis, September 1991.

Betz RR, Triolo RJ, Hermida VM, Moynahan M, Gardner ER, Maurer A, Cook SD, Bennett JT: The effects of functional neuromuscular stimulation on the bone mineral content in the lower limbs of spinal cord injured children. American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting, Seattle, April 1991.

Triolo RJ, Reilley B, Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Cohn J: Development and standardization of an evaluation for standing function in children with spinal cord injuries. American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting (poster), Seattle, April 1991.

Mulcahey MJ, Smith B, Triolo RJ, Betz RR: Restoration of grasp and release in a C7 child (poster). American Spinal Injury Association, Seattle, April 1991 (first-place orthopaedic poster); Applied Neural Control Research Conference, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, May 1990.

Decker JE, Weiss AA, Webber JB, Ciocco R, Betz RR, Clancy M, Giattini JF: Treatment options for radioulnar length discrepancy including epiphysiodesis of the distal ulna. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Kansas City, Kansas, April 1991.

Iorio R, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH, Berman AT: The prevalence of malignant degeneration in multiple hereditary exostosis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Anaheim, California, March 1991; Shrine Surgeons, Erie, Pennsylvania, September 1989.

Liss FE, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH: Lateral femoral condylar overgrowth and varus knee deformity following distal femoral epiphysiodesis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Anaheim, California, March 1991; American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Monterey Beach, March 1990.

Kollmer CE, Betz RR, Clancy M: Association of hip dysplasia with pediatric foot abnormalities: A national Shriners Hospital survey. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Anaheim, California, March 1991; Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America, San Francisco, May 1990; Shrine Surgeons, Erie, Pennsylvania, September 1989; American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Monterey Beach, March 1990.

Israelite CL, Bashner BC, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH, Berman AT: Reliable early radiographic differentiation of infantile Blount's disease and physiologic bowing: Utilizing the ratio of the femoral and tibial metaphyseal diaphyseal angles. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Anaheim, California, March 1991; Shrine Surgeons, Lexington, Kentucky, October 1990; American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Monterey Beach, March 1990.

Cole CL, Betz RR, Harrison M, Clancy M, Steel HH: Orthopaedic manifestations of Proteus syndrome. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), Anaheim, March 1991.

Michalski JA, Steel HH, Betz RR, Mesgarzadeh M, Davidson RC, Clancy M: The Blanch sign revisited. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), Anaheim, March 1991.

Milea AC, Steel HH, Betz RR, Clancy M: Epiphysiodesis of the triradiate cartilage for protrusio acetabuli in Marfan's syndrome: a long term follow up. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting (poster), Anaheim, March 1991.

Piccioni L, Davidson RC, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH: Radiographic assessment of intraoperative club foot correction. Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society, Pittsburgh, November 1990.

Backe HA, Betz RR, Mesgarzadeh M, Clancy M, Steel HH: Post traumatic spinal cord syrinx: An evaluation by MRI. American Spinal Injury Association, Orlando, May 1990.

Mulcahey MJ, Triolo RJ, Betz RR: Restoration of hand function: A demonstration of functional neuromuscular stimulation. American Occupational Therapy Association annual meeting (poster), New Orleans, April 1990.

McIvor OR, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH: Low back pain following PSF for idiopathic scoliosis. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Monterey Beach, March 1990.

Kozin SH, Weiss AA, Webber JB, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH: Index finger pollicization for congenital aplasia or hypoplasia of the thumb. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Monterey Beach, March 1990; American Society for Surgery of the Hand (poster), Seattle, Washington, September 1989.

Smith RC, Betz RR, Love M, Bonakdarpour A, Mesgarzadeh M, Clancy M, Steel HH, Sherk HH: Cervical spine abnormalities in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Monterey Beach, March 1990.

Cavanaugh MF, Betz RR, Alburger PD, Clancy M, Steel HH: Treatment of congenital hip dislocation in black infants. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Monterey Beach, March 1990; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, New Orleans, February 1990.

Mesgarzadeh M, Wiggill S, Schneck CD, Bonakdarpour A, Clancy M, Betz RR: The MRI structural correlates of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (poster), New Orleans, February 1990.

Bridwell KH, Betz RR, Harvey C, Capelli A, Franken C, Huss GK: Sagittal plane analysis in idiopathic scoliosis patients treated with Cotrel Dubousset instrumentation. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, New Orleans, February 1990; Federation of Spine Associations Annual Meeting, New Orleans, February 1990; 6th Annual C D International Symposium, Monte Carlo, September 1989; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Amsterdam, September 1989; North American Spine Society, Quebec City, June 1989.

Mesgarzadeh M, Wiggill S, Schneck CD, Bonakdarpour A, Clancy M, Betz RR: The MRI structural correlates of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) (poster). American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, New Orleans, February 1990.

Betz RR, Johnson VL, Aiona MD, Davidson RS, Kollmer C: Association of hip dysplasia with pediatric foot abnormalities: a national Shriners Hospital survey. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Erie, PA, September 1989.

Gardner ER, Triolo RJ, Betz RR: Repeatability of strength and endurance of the electrically stimulated quadriceps in SCI children. American Physical Therapy Association annual conference in Nashville, Tennessee, June 1989.

Betz RR, Huss GK, Clancy M: Indications for rib resection with Cotrel Dubousset instrumentation for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. ABC Traveling Fellowship, United Kingdom and South Africa, April 1989; Shrine Surgeons, Springfield, October 1988.

Emper WD, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH: Spica cast treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis. ABC Traveling Fellowship, United Kingdom and South Africa, April 1989; Shrine Surgeons, St. Louis, October 1986; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, New Orleans, February 1986; American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, New Orleans, May 1985.

Betz RR, Donner EJ, Mesgarzadeh M, Campo RD, Clancy M: Magnetic resonance imaging in slipped capital femoral epiphysis. ABC Traveling Fellowship, United Kingdom and South Africa, April 1989; Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America, Colorado Springs, May 1988; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Las Vegas, February 1989.

Carey PJ, Alburger PD, Betz RR: Closed treatment of both bone forearm fractures. Orthopaedic Trauma Association, Philadelphia, October 1989; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Las Vegas, February 1989.

Wolf SB, Betz RR, Steel HH, Clancy M: Conservatively treated idiopathic clubfoot: Long term results. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Las Vegas, February 1989; American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Boston, March 1988.

Robinson DE, Triolo RJ, Betz RR: Graded exercise testing in spinal cord injured children (poster). APTA annual meeting, Honolulu, February 1989.

McAllister JW, Bridwell KH, Betz RR, Huss GK, Clancy M, Schoenecker PL: Coronal decompensation produced by Cotrel Dubousset derotation maneuver for idiopathic right thoracic scoliosis. Mid-America Orthopaedic Association, Hamilton, Bermuda, April 1989; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Baltimore, September 1988.

Mason RJ, Betz RR, Orlowski JP, Bell GR: The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and its effect on blood indices following spinal fusion. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting (considered for Russell Hibbs Award), Baltimore, September 1988.

Lyons CJ, Betz RR, Mesgarzadeh M, Revesz G, Clancy M: The effect of magnetic resonance imaging on metal spine implants. Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting, Baltimore, September 1988.

Betz RR: Congenital epiphyseal plate disorders. Philadelphia Orthopaedic Review Course [faculty], Philadelphia, May 1988.

Betz RR, Triolo RJ, Gardner EG, Robinson DE, Alm AC: Functional neuromuscular stimulation in children with spinal cord injury: Changes in strength and endurance of the quadriceps (poster). Case Western Reserve University Annual Neural Control Research Day, May 1988.

Betz RR, Rosenfeld ER, Maurer A, Triolo RJ, Robinson DE, Gardner EG: Bone mineral content in children with spinal cord injury (poster). American Spinal Injury Association, San Diego, March 1988.

Elia EA, Clancy M, Betz RR, Steel HH: Long term follow up of osteogenesis imperfecta. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Boston, March 1988.

MacMahon EB, Irani RN, Betz RR, Hollis S, Schwentker EP: Significance of lateral tibial torsion translation in Blount's disease. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Atlanta, February 1988.

Ecker ML, Betz RR, Trent PS, Mahboubi S, Mesgarzadeh M, Bonakdarpour A, Drummond DS, Clancy M: Computed tomographic evaluation of Cotrel Dubousset instrumentation in idiopathic scoliosis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Atlanta, February 1988; Federation of Spine Associations, Atlanta, February 1988.

Raisis LW, Betz RR, Clancy M, Ostrum RF, Steel HH: Comparison of percutaneous versus open epiphyseodesis for leg length discrepancy. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Atlanta, February 1988; Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society meeting, Orlando, April 1987.

O'Donnell CS, Bunnell WP, Betz RR, Bowen JR, Tipping CR: Electrical stimulation in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, Atlanta, February 1988; Scoliosis Research Society annual meeting (winner of Russell Hibbs Award), Vancouver, British Columbia, September 1987.

Griffith M, Mardjetko S, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH, Millar EA: Review of treatment of unicameral bone cysts. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons annual meeting, Atlanta, February 1988; at the American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Salt Lake City, March 1987; and at the Spring Residents' Conference, Shriners Hospital, Philadelphia, May 1986.

Maurer R, Betz RR, Bonakdarpour A, Mesgarzadeh M, Clancy M, Steel HH: Radiographic review of amyoplasia (arthrogryposis). American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Atlanta, February 1988 (poster); American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Salt Lake City, March 1987.

Clements DH, Betz RR, Truex RE: Diastematomyelia: Natural history and surgical indications. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Atlanta, February 1988 (poster); American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Salt Lake City, March 1987.

Betz RR, Clancy M, Huss GK, Alburger PD: Correction of spine deformities with Cotrel Dubousset instrumentation: Results and problems in a consecutive series. Eastern Orthopaedic Association, Hot Springs, Virginia, October 1987.

Mannherz RE, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH: Juvenile idiopathic scoliosis followed to skeletal maturity. Federation of Spine Associations, Atlanta, February 1988; Scoliosis Research Society, Vancouver, British Columbia, September 1987.

Betz RR, Campo RD: Epiphyseal plate fractures. Philadelphia Review Course [faculty], Philadelphia, June 1987.

Weidner PL, Alburger PD, Betz RR: Treatment of supracondylar fractures of the humerus by delayed manipulative reduction. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, San Francisco, January 1987; American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Los Angeles, May 1986; Fall Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society meeting, Philadelphia, November 1985.

Mesgarzadeh M, Sneck CD, Betz RR, Moyer R, Bonakdarpour A: Optimization of MR imaging of the knee joint (poster). American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, San Francisco, January 1987.

Gelman AJ, Betz RR, DeFilipp GJ, Mesgarzadeh M, Clancy M, Steel HH: Magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation of spinal cord injured children. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, San Francisco, January 1987; Scoliosis Research Society, Hamilton, Bermuda, September 1986; American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Los Angeles, May 1986; Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society, Hershey, Pennsylvania, April 1986; American Spinal Injury Association, San Francisco, March 1986.

Dearolf WW III, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH: Spinal deformity in pediatric spinal cord injured patients. Scoliosis Research Society, Hamilton, Bermuda, September 1986; American Spinal Injury Association, Boston, March 1987; American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Los Angeles, May 1986.

Lombardi AV, Betz RR, Bonakdarpour A, Clancy M, Steel HH: Neurofibromatous scoliosis: The necessity of an aggressive approach. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Los Angeles, May 1986.

Thoder JJ, Betz RR, Clancy M, Steel HH: Gluteus medius and minimus advancement for correction of internal rotation gait in spastic cerebral palsy. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Los Angeles, May 1986.

Lin PS, Betz RR, Kalamchi A, Steel HH: The long term follow up of iliofemoral fusion in proximal femoral focal deficiency. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Los Angeles, May 1986; Fall Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society meeting, Philadelphia, November 1985.

Scanlon JD, Betz RR, Weaver SA, Rosenfeld ER, Scheuren MA, Bork CE: Stress test values of paraplegics and quadriplegics versus able bodied children (poster). American Spinal Injury Association, San Francisco, March 1986.

Betz RR, Baran EM, Rosenfeld EM, Steel HH: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in chronic spinal cord injury. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, New Orleans, February 1986 (poster); American Spinal Injury Association, Atlanta, April 1985.

Crossett LS, Betz RR, Steel HH: Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia: long term follow up. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, New Orleans, February 1986; American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, New Orleans, May 1985.

Sutherland RD, Betz RR, Steel HH: The sequelae of septic arthritis of the hip. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, New Orleans, February 1986; American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, New Orleans, May 1985; Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society, Pittsburgh, November 1984.

Betz RR, Bunnell WP, MacEwen GD: Scoliosis and pregnancy. Federation of Spine Associations, New Orleans, February 1986; Scoliosis Research Society (considered for Russell Hibbs Award), San Diego, September 1985; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Atlanta, February 1984.

Betz R, Sachs I, Steel H: Acquired spastic talipes equinovarus and its relationship to dystonia musculorum deformans. Shrine Surgeons annual meeting, Tampa, FL, October 1985.

Betz RR, Moyer RA, Clements DH, Marchetto P, Lachman JW: Traumatic diastasis of the first and second tarsometatarsal joints. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, Nashville, June 1985; American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Las Vegas, February 1985; American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society, Las Vegas, January 1985.

Maddalon R, Betz RR, Steel HH: Effect of preoperative Cotrel traction on posterior spinal fusion in idiopathic scoliosis. American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, New Orleans, May 1985.

Betz RR, Moyer RA, Alburger PD, Clancy M, Murphy J, Iaquinto J: Arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction using autogenous semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Las Vegas, January 1985.

Ostrum RF, Betz RR, Manzione M, Steel HH: Pitfalls, problems, and long term results of epiphysiodesis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Las Vegas, January 1985; American Orthopaedic Association Residents' Conference, Ann Arbor, Michigan, May 1984; Spring Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society meeting, Hershey, April 1984.

Betz RR, Magill JT, Lonergan R: The percutaneous lateral retinacular release: Long term review. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, Las Vegas, January 1985; Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society, Hershey, April 1984; Eastern Orthopaedic Association, Boca Raton, Florida, October 1981.

Betz RR, Steel HH, Millar EA: Acquired spastic talipes equinovarus and its relationship to dystonia musculorum deformans. Pediatric Orthopaedic Society, Vancouver, British Columbia, May 1984.

Hix S, Betz RR, Steel HH: Effects of endurance training on the rehabilitation of spinal cord injured and spina bifida children (poster). American Spinal Injury Association, Houston, March 1984.

Betz RR, Palmer C, Kumar S, MacEwen GD: Long term follow up of Chiari osteotomies. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Atlanta, February 1984.

Tipping C, Betz RR, Bunnell WP, Bowen JR, Kumar S, Pizzutillo PD: Electro spinal orthosis (ESO) in the treatment of scoliosis. Fall Seminar, Alfred I. DuPont Institute, Wilmington, Delaware, October 1983.

Betz RR, Steel HH, Alburger P, Clements D: Ligamentum teres reconstruction. Orthopaedic Research Society annual meeting, Anaheim, CA, March 1983.

Articles Written by Randal R. Betz, MD

New Surgical Treatments for Scoliosis: Vertebral Body Stapling and Wedge Osteotomies

Vertebral stapling avoids the need to fuse the spine to correct the curvature. Therefore, movement and flexibility can be maintained, allowing for preserved motion and less chance for back pain in adulthood.

Articles Reviewed by Randal R. Betz, MD

Spina Bifida Occulta and Open Spina Bifida - A Patient's Guide

The term spina bifida covers malformations that always include deformities of certain parts of the vertebrae, the spinous process and vertebral arch. It has been described as a failure of these bones to fuse during early fetal development.

Financial Disclosures

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I, or an immediate family member, have a financial interest(s) or affiliation(s) with the following commercial companies whose products and / or services may be mentioned in the materials I have authored, edited or reviewed for presentation on Vertical Health, LLC’s websites.

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Medtronic, DePuy, Synthes Spine
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