Howard S. An, MD's portrait
Howard S. An, MD
The Morton International Endowed Chair, Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery
Rush University Medical Center
Chicago, IL
Dr. An is a member of the SpineUniverse Editorial Board.

About Howard S. An, MD

Dr. Howard An has been a tenured professor and The Morton International Endowed Chair for Spine Research in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Rush Medical College since 1997. He is Director of the Rush Spine Center and Director of Spine Fellowships, where he has trained clinical spine fellows and numerous international research spine fellows. He holds hospital appointments at Rush University Medical Center and Oak Park Hospital.

Dr. An earned a Medical Degree at the Medical College of Ohio followed by an internship and orthopaedic residency at the same college. His spine fellowship was at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital and Pennsylvania Hospital's Rothman Institute from 1988 to 1989. Dr. An is certified by the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery.  He served on the faculty of the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee from 1989 to 1997.

Dr. An is a recipient of various awards and honors such as the North American Traveling Fellowship from the American Orthopaedic Association, Teacher of the Year from the Medical College of Wisconsin and from Rush University Medical Center, the North American Spine Society Research Award, and a Traveling Fellowship from the Scoliosis Research Society.

Many professional societies count Dr. An among their members including: the American Orthopaedic Association, Orthopaedic Research Society, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Academic Orthopaedic Society, Cervical Spine Research Society, American Spinal Injury Association, North American Spine Society, Scoliosis Research Society,  and International Society for the Study of Lumbar Spine. Dr. An served on several research, editorial, and educational committees of these societies, and he is President of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine for 2010 to 2011.

On issues of spine and orthopaedics, Dr. An has authored or edited 20 medical books and has contributed 100 chapters to additional books. Dr. An has published 250 original papers in professional journals and 300 abstracts of scientific research. He has given over 300 scientific presentations at national and international meetings. In addition to publishing and presenting original research, Dr. An is an Associate Editor for the journals Spine and the American Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, as well as an Editorial Board member of Contemporary Spine Surgery.

Dr. An has extensive interest in basic science research on the spine, and he has been funded by the National Institutes of Health, other federal institutions, foundations, and industry for the past 2 decades.

Publications

Publications (Original Papers):

1.Namey, Thomas C., and An, Howard S.: Sorting out The Causes of Sciatica, Mod Med p. 132-143, October, 1984

2. An, Howard S., Howard, John M. and Kim, Kitai: Fracture of Abdominal Heterotopic Ossification Ohio State Med. J. 81(8), 591-593, 1985

3. Namey, Thomas C., and An, Howard S.: Emergency Diagnosis and Management of Sciatica: Differentiating the Nondiscogenic causes. Emerg. Med. Rep. 6(22), 169-178, 1985

4. An, Howard S., Ebraheim, Nabil A., Kim, Kitai, Jackson, William T., and Kane, John T.: Heterotopic Ossification and Pseudoarthrosis in the Shoulder Following Encephalitis: A Case Report and Review of Literature. Clin. Orthop. 219, 291298, 1987.

5. An, Howard S., Namey, T. C., and Kim, K.: Essential Cryoglobulinemia Associated with Persistent Synovitis of the Knee. Clin. Orthop. 215:7074, 1987

6. An, Howard S., Simpson, J. M., and Jackson, W.T.: "Acute Anterior Compartment Syndrome in the Thigh: A Case Report and Review of Literature" J. Orthop. Trauma 1, 180, 1987

7. An, Howard S., Jackson, W. T., Ebraheim, N., and Hawthorne, K.: "Case Report: Transient Simultaneous Sciatic and Femoral Nerve Palsy Secondary to Iliacus and Gluteal Hematomas Following Heparinization for Pulmonary Embolus in a Patient with Posterior Hip Dislocation" J. Orthop. Trauma 1, 174, 1987

8. An, Howard S., Jackson, W.T.: Osteolysis of pubic Symphysis Simulating Malignancy: A Case Report and Review of Literature. Orthopaedics. 11,951954,1988

9. Ebraheim, N. A., An, Howard S., Jackson, W.T., et al: Scapulothoracic Dissociation J. Bone Jt. Surg 70A:428433, 1988

10 An, Howard S., Southworth, S., W. T. Jackson.: Cigarette Smoking and Dupuytren's contractures. J. Hand Surg 13A, 872874, 1988

11. An, Howard S., Hawthorne, K., and Jackson, W.T.: Cigarette Smoking and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. J. Hand Surg 13A, 458460, 1988

12. An, Howard S., Vonderbrink, J., Ebraheim, N.A., Shiple, F., and Jackson, W.T.: Scapulothoracic Dissociation in a child with Normal Neurovascular Status J. Orthop. Trauma 2,3638,1988.

13. An, Howard S., Wojcieszek, Joanne.: Simultaneous Intertrochanteric and Subcapital Fracture of the Hip: A Case Report and Review of Literature. Orthopaedics 12:721723, 1989.

14. An, Howard S., Ebraheim, Nabil: The Value of Internal Oblique Radiographic Views in Posterolateral Grafting of the Tibia. Clin. Orthop. 219:209, 1989

15. An, Howard S., Loder, R.T.: Intraarticular Entrapment of Olecranon Fracture in a Child. Orthopaedics 12:289291, 1989

16. Ebraheim, N.A. and An, Howard S.: RoyCamille plating of the Posterior Cervical Spine: Techniques and indications. J. Orthop. Trauma 3:1923, 1989.

17. Simpson, M. J., Ebraheim, N. A., An, Howard S., and Jackson, W.T.: Posterolateral Bone Graft of the Tibia. Clin. Orthop. 251:200206, 1990

18. An, Howard S., Vaccaro, A., Simeone, F., and Balderston, R.: Herniated Disc Disease in Patients over 50 years. J. Spin. Dis. 3:143146, 1990

19. Frogameni, A. and An, Howard S.: A Comparative Study between Coventry wedge osteotomy and MaQuet Dome osteotomy of the proximal tibia for varus Gonarthrosis. Amer. J. Knee Surg. 3:161167, 1990

20. Kupcha, P and An, Howard S., and Cotler J.: Gunshot injuries of the spine. Spine 15:10581063, 1990

21. Vaccaro AR, Cotler JM, An HS, Horenstein PA: Anterior surgical exposure of the cervicothoracic juncture for decompression and fusion of the unstable spine. Jefferson Orthop J. 19:2633, 1990

22. Ebraheim, N. A., Rusin., J., An, Howard S., et al: CT Guided Percutaneous Fixation for High Grade Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: A New Technique. Orthopaedics. 14:859864, 1991

23. An, Howard S., Mikhail, W. E., Jackson, W.T., Tolin, Brad, Dodds, George A.: Effects of Hypotensive Anesthesia, Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Methylmethacrylate on Bleeding in Total Hip Patients. J. Arthroplasty 6:245250, 1991

24. An, Howard S., Vaccaro, A., Dolinskas, C., Balderston, R., and Cotler, J.: Distinction between Spinal Infection and Spinal Tumors by MRI. Spine 16:S334338, 1991

25. An, Howard S., Vaccaro A., Cotler JM: Low Lumbar Burst Fractures: Comparison among Body Cast, Harrington Rods, Luque Rods, or Steffee Plates. Spine 16:S440444, 1991

26. An, Howard S., Renner K., and Gordin, R.: Anatomic Consideration for PlateScrew Fixation of the Cervical Spine. Spine 16:S548551, 1991

27. An, Howard S., Simpson, M. J., Ebraheim, N. A. et al: Low Lumbar Burst Fractures. Orthopaedics 15:367373,1992

28. Vaccaro, A. R., An, Howard S., Lin, S., Cotler, J., and Balderston, R. A.: Noncontiguous injuries of the spine. J. Spin. Dis. 5:320329, 1992

29. An, Howard S.: Internal fixation of the cervical spine. Sem. Spin. Surg. 4: 142152, 1992

30. Vaccaro, A. R., An, Howard S., Cotler, J. M., and Glowacki, K.: Dislocation of the Cervical Spine due to Trauma after a Previous Upper Thoracic Fusion for Scoliosis: a Case Report. Jefferson Orthopaedic Journal, 1992

31. An, Howard, S., Munk, Richard: Osteomyelitis of the Posterior Element of the Cervical Spine in an Infant: A Case Report and Review of Literature" Orthopaedics 16:618620, 1993

32. Cotler, J. Herbison G. J., Nasuti, J. F., Ditunno, J. F., An, Howard S., and Wolff B.E.: Closed reduction of traumatic cervical spine dislocation using traction weights up to 140 pounds. Spine 13:386390, 1993

33. Vaccaro, A. R., An, Howard S., Cotler, J. M., Ahmad S., Jordan A.G.: Recurrent Cervical Subluxations in a Patient with Gout and Endstage Renal Disease: Orthopaedics 16:12731276, 1993.

34. Simpson J. M., Silveri C., Simeone F. A., An, H. A.: Thoracic disc herniations. Reevaluation of the posterior approach using a modified costotransversectomy. Spine 18:18721877, 1993.

35. Albert Todd, Levine, M., An, Howard S., Cotler, J.M.: Concurrent Thoracolumbar fractures and sacral fractures. Spine 18:12851291, 1993

36. An, Howard S., Evanich, C., Nowicki, B., Haughton V.: Ideal thickness of SmithRobinson anterior cervical interbody graft. Spine 18:20432047,1993.

37. An, Howard S., Haughton, V.: Imaging considerations of lumbar spinal stenosis. Sem. CT, Ultras, and MRI. 14:414424, 1993

38. Hasegawa, T., An, Howard S., Haughton, V.: Anatomic considerations of lumbar spinal stenosis. Sem. CT, Ultras, and MRI. 14:404413, 1993

39. Albert, T, Balderston RA, Heller JG, Herkowitz HN, Garfin SR, Tomany K, An, HA, Simeone FA: Upper lumbar disc herniation. J. Spin. Dis. 6:351359, 1993

40. Simpson J. M., Silveri C., Simeone F. A., Balderston B. A., An H. A.: Results of laminectomy in diabetic patients with lumbar herniated disc or stenosis. J. Bone Joint Surg 75A:18231829, 1993

41. Haughton V. M., Nguyen C. M., Ho, KC, An, H. S.: MRI contrast enhancement: An experimental study in postlaminectomy epidural fibrosis. Amer J Neurorad 14:997-1002, 1993.

42. Craft D .V., Cotler J. M., Bauerle W. B., An H. S.: Halo management of displaced type II odontoid fractures. Jefferson Orthopaedic Journal 22: 53-61, 1993.

43. An, Howard S., Glover J. M: Spinal stenosis: Historical perspectives, classifications, and pathoanatomy. Sem. Spin. Surg. 6:69-77, 1994.

44. Nguyen C, An HS, Khang-Cheng H, Haughton VM, Hasegawa T: Utility of high-dose contrast enhancement for detecting recurrent herniated intervertebral disks. Amer J Neuroradiology 15:1291-1297, 1994

45. An, Howard S., Vaccaro A., Cotler JM: Spinal Disorders at the Cervicothoracic Junction. Spine 15:2557-2564, 1994

46. An, Howard S., Silveri, C. P., Simpson J. M., Simmons C., File, P., Simeone F. A., and Balderston R. A.: Comparison of Smoking habits between Patients with surgically Confirmed Herniated Lumbar and Cervical Disease and Controls. J Spin Dis 7:369-373, 1994

47. An, Howard S., Nguyen, C., Nguyen, C., Ho, K.C.: GadoliniumMRI in the canine spine model: Contrast enhancement and kinematics in the herniated disc versus scar in dogs. Spine 19:2089-2094, 1994

48. An Howard S., Xu R., Lim TH, McGrady L, Wilson C.: Prediction of bone graft strength using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Spine 19:2358-2363, 1994

49. Lim, T.H., An, Howard S., Evanich, C., Hasanoglu, C., Wilson, C.: Effect of bone mineral density on the pullout strength of the vertebral screw J. Spin Dis 8:121-125, 1995

50. Hasegawa, T., An, Howard S., Haughton, V.M, Nowicki, B.: Lumbar foraminal stenosis: Critical heights of the intervertebral discs and foramina: A cryomicrotome study in cadavera. J Bone Joint Surg 77A: 32-38, 1995

51. Nguyen C, Haughton VM, Ho KC, An HS, Myklebust JB, Hasegawa T, Xu R, Harb JM: Contrast enhancement in spinal nerve roots: an experimental study. Amer J Neuroradiol 16:265-268, 1995

52. Vaccaro AR, Rizzolo SJ, Balderston RA, Allardyce TJ, Garfin SR, Dolinskas C, An HS: Placement of pedicle screws in the thoracic spine. Part II: an anatomical and radiographic assessment. J Bone Joint Surg 77A:1200-1205, 1995

53. Lim T. H., An Howard S., Hasegawa T., McGrady L., Hasanoglu K.Y., Wilson C. R.: Prediction of fatigue screw loosening in anterior spinal fixation using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Spine 20:2565-2569, 1995

54. An Howard S., Lynch K, Toth J: Comparison between allograft and autograft in adult posterolateral lumbar spine fusion. J Spin. Dis. 8:131-135, 1995

55. Toth JM, An HS, Lim TH, Lundberg W, Ran Y, Weiss N, Xu R, Lynch K: Evaluation of porous calcium phosphate ceramics for anterior cervical interbody fusion in a caprine model. Spine 20:2203-2210, 1995

56. An HS, Simpson JM, Glover JM, Stephany J: Comparison between allograft plus demineralized bone matrix vs. autograft in anterior cervical fusion. A prospective randomized multi-center study. Spine 20:2211-2216, 1995

57. An H. S., Andreshak T., Nguyen C., Williams A., Daniels D.: Can we differentiate Metastatic disease and compression fractures of the spine by MRI: A clinical and canine study. Spine 20:1776-1782, 1995

58. An HS, Lim TH, JW You, Hong JH, Eck J, McGrady L: Biomechanical evaluation of anterior thoracolumbar instrumentation. Spine 20:1979-1983, 1995

59. An HS: Internal fixation of the cervical spine: current indications and techniques. J Amer Acad of Orthop Surg. 3:194-206, 1995

60. Inufusa A, An HS, Lim Th, Haughton VM, Nowicki BH: The relationship between facet joint morphology and flexion-extension movement. Kawasaki Med Journal 22:15-22, 1996

61. Ebraheim NA, An HS, Xu R, Ahmad M, Yeasting RA: The quantitative anatomy of the cervical nerve root groove and the intervertebral foramen. Spine 21:1619-1623, 1996

62. Lim TH, Eck J, An HS, Ahn J, Hong J, You J, McGrady L: Biomechanics of transfixation in pedicle screw instrumentation. Spine 21:2224-2229, 1996

63. Inufusa A, An HS, Glover JM, McGrady L, Lim TH, Riley LH III: The ideal amount of lumbar foraminal distraction for pedicle screw instrumentation. Spine 21:2218-2223, 1996

64. Inufusa A, An HS, Lim TH, Hasegawa T, Haughton VM, Nowicki BH: Anatomic changes of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramen associated with lumbar segmental instability. Spine 21:2412-2420, 1996

65. Hasegawa T, Mikawa Y, Watanabe R, An HS: Morphometric analysis of the lumbosacral nerve roots and dorsal root ganglion by MRI. Spine 21:1005-1009, 1996

66. Nowicki BH, Haughton VM, Schmidt TA, Lim TH, An HS, Riley LH, Yu L, Hong JW: The effect of disc degeneration on the incidence of occult lumbar lateral spinal stenosis. Amer J Neurorad 17:1605-1614, 1996

67. Nguyen CM. Ho KC. An H. Riley LH 3d. Rongming X. Haughton VM. Ionic versus nonionic paramagnetic contrast media in differentiating between scar and herniated disk. American Journal of Neuroradiology. 17(3):501-5, 1996

68. Vaccaro A, An HS, Betz R, Cotler JM, Balderston RA: Initial management of Spinal Cord Injury. Instructional Course Lectures. Amer Acad Orthop Surg. 46:113-125, 1997

69. Lim TH, An HS, Ahn JY, You J, Hong J, Eck J, McGrady L: Biomechanical comparison between anterior fixation vs. posterior fixation in an unstable calf spine model. Spine 22:261-266, 1997

70. An HS, Coppes MA: Internal Fixation of the Cervical Spine. Clin. Orthop. 335:101-111, 1997

71. Eck J, Lim TH, An HS, Harris G, Haughton VM: A non-invasive three-dimensional spinal motion analysis method. Spine 22:1996-2000, 1997

72. Humphreys SC, An HS, Eck JC, Lim TH: Oblique MRI as a useful adjunct in evaluation of cervical foraminal impingement. Loyola Orthopaedic Journal 6:4-7, 1997

73. Hasegawa T, Mikawa Y, Watanabe R, An HS: Natural history of the nucleus pulposus in lumbar disc herniation: computed tomographic assessment and clinical evaluation. Neuro-Orthopaedics. 20:95-104, 1997

74. Andreshak, TA, An HS, Hall J, Stein B: Lumbar spine surgery in the obese patient. J Spin. Dis. 10:376-379, 1997

75. Nguyen-minh C. Riley L 3rd. Ho KC. Xu R. An H. Haughton VM. Effect of degeneration of the intervertebral disk on the process of diffusion. Ajnr: American Journal of
Neuroradiology. 18(3):435-42, 1997

76. Jenis LG, An HS: Anterior Thoracolumbar Instrumentation for Tumor or Trauma
Semin Spine Surg 9:250-257, 1998

77. Hasegawa T, An HS, Inufusa A, Mikawa Y, Watanabe R: Compositional influences for regression of the a sequestered herniated lumbar disc in a canine model. Neuro-Orthopaedics 22:69-75, 1998

78. An HS, Benoit PR: A new saline injection technique to confirm pedicle screw path. a cadaveric study. Amer J Orthop 27:362-365, 1998

79. Humphreys SC, An HS, Lim TH, Eck J: Oblique MRI as a useful adjunct in evaluation of
cervical foraminal impingement J Spin Dis. 11:295-299, 1998

80. Schmidt TA, An HS, Lim TH, Nowicki BH, Haughton VM: The Stiffness of lumbar spinal
motion segments with a high-intensity zone in the anulus fibrosus. Spine 23:2167-
2173, 1998

81. An HS: Cervical Spine Trauma. Spine 23:2713-2729, 1998

82. Nguyen-minh C. Haughton VM. An HS. You JW. Wook S. Ho K.: Contrast media of high and low molecular weights in the detection of recurrent herniated disks. Amer J Neuroradiol 19(5):889-93, 1998.

83. Nguyen-minh C. Haughton VM. Papke RA. An H. Censky SC. Measuring diffusion of solutes into intervertebral disks with MR imaging and paramagnetic contrast medium.
Amer Journal of Neuroradiology. 19(9):1781-4,1998

84. Southern E. An Hs: Classification, diagnoses, radiographs, natural history, and
conservative treatment of spondylolisthesis. Sem Spine Surg 11:2-13, 1999

85. Lim TH, Jeon CH, An HS: Biomechanical considerations for spondylolisthesis. Sem
Spine Surg 11:14-21, 1999

86. Jenis LG, An HS: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion for spondylolisthesis. Sem Spine
Surg 11:56-66, 1999

87. Jenis L, Dunn EJ, An HS: Metastatic disease of the cervical spine. Clin Orthop 359:89-
103, 1999

88. Fujiwara A, Tamai K, Yamato M, An H, Yoshida H, Saotome K, Kurihashi A: The
relationship between facet joint osteoarthritis and disc degeneration of the lumbar spine:
an MRI study. Eur. Spine J. 8:396-401, 1999

89. An HS, Simpson JM, Stein R: Outpatient laminotomy and discectomy. J Spin. Dis
12:192-195, 1999

90. Humphreys SC, An HS, Glover MJ, Eck JC, McGrady LM, Inufusa A, Lim TH:
A comparison between threaded cages vs. Posterior pedicle screw instrumentation in terms of foraminal distraction and lumbar lordosis. J Muscul. Res 2:315-323, 1999

91. An HS, Butler J: Lumbar Spinal Stenosis; historical Perspectives, Classification, and
Pathoanatomy of lumbar spinal stenosis. Sem Spine Surg 11:184-190, 1999

92. An HS, Wise, J, Xu R: Anatomy of the cervicothoracic junction: A study of cadaveric
dissection, cryomicrotomy, and magnetic resonance imaging. J Spine Dis 12:519-525,
1999

93. Haughton VM. Lim TH. An H. Intervertebral disk appearance correlated with stiffness of lumbar spinal motion segments: American Journal of Neuroradiology. 20(6):1161-5, 1999

94. Jenis L, An HS: Foraminal Stenosis. Spine. 25:389-394, 2000

95. Haughton VM, Schmidt T, Keele K, An HS, Lim TH: Flexibility of the lumbar spinal motion segments correlated to type of tears in the annulus fibrosus. J Neurosurg 92:81-86,2000

96. Tanaka N, Fujimoto Y, An HS, Ikuta Y, Yasuda M,: Anatomic relation among the nerve roots, intervertebral foramina, and intervertebral discs of the cervical spine.
Spine 25:286-291,2000

97. Fujiwara A, Tamai K, An HS, Shimizu K, Yoshida H, Saotome K: The interspinous ligament of the lumbar spine: MR images and their clinical significance. Spine 25:358-
364,2000

98. Fujiwara A, Yoshida H, Saotome K, Lim TH: An HS: Anatomy of the iliolumbar ligament. Europ Spin Dis (in press)

99. Jenis L, An HS, Prato C: C4 Radiculopathy: clinical presentation and surgical treatment. J Spin Dis (in press)

100. Jenis L, An HS: Prospective evaluation of electrical stimulation on instrumented
lumbar fusion Spine (submitted)

101. An HS, Jenis L, Gordin R; Foraminal Stenosis: surgical treatment and outcome. Spine
(submitted)

102. Lee SW, Lim TH, An HS, You JW; Biomechanical effect of anterior grafing devices on the
Rotational stability of the spinal constructs. J Spine Dis (in press)

103. Natarajan RN, Chen BH, An HS, Andersson G: Anterior cervical fusion-a finite element
model study on the motion segment stabililty including effect of osteoporosis. Spine (in press)

104. Natarajan RN, Chen BH, An HS, Andersson G: Biomechanical comparison of surgical procedures for cervical radiculopathy. Spine (submitted)

105. Kwon, Lim TH, An HS: The effect of endplate thickness and osteoporosis on the strength
of bone graft-endplate strength. Spine (in press)

106. Jenis L, An HS, Simpson JM: Prospective comparison between Smith-Robinson and reverse Smith-Robinson anterior grafting methods in anterior cervical fusion (in preparation)

107. Yoshida H, An HS, Nowicki BH, Haughton VM: The accuracy of MRI in detecting the radial tear of the anulus fibrosus: A MRI and cryomicrotome study. J Spinal Dis (submitted)

108. Lim TH, Patwardhan AG, Hong JH, An HS, Riley LH III, Hodges S, Zindrick MR: Effect of instrumented fusion on the biomechanics of adjacent segment - an in vivo canine study. Spine (submitted)

109. Toth JM, An HS, Lim TH, Yoshida H, Roh J, Pagedas MT: Augmentation of reinforced porous 50/50 HA/TCP with rhBMP-2 for Cervical interbody fusion in a caprine model. Spine (submitted)

110. Tanaka, An HS, Haughton VM, Lim TH, Hong JH, Nowicki B, You L, Yoshida H: The relationship between disc degeneration and kinematic characteristics of the lumbar motion segment. J Bone Joint Surg (submitted)

111. Haseqawa T, An HS, Inufusa A, Mikawa Y, Watanabe R.: Effect of age on Inflammatory responses and nerve root injuries following lumbar disc herniaton; an experimental study in a canine model. Spine (in press)

112. An HS, Wise J, G. Wang., Tae-Hong Lim, H. Yoshida, Jason Eck, and L. McGrady:Biomechanical Evaluation of Modern Posterior Constructs for an Unstable Burst Fracture Calf Spine Model: Special References of Hook Configurations and Pedicle Screws. J Spin Dis (submitted)

113. Koh YD, An HS, You JW, Lim TH, Eck J: Biomechanical comparison between modern anterior vs. posterior plate screw fixation in unstable flexion-distraction and corpectomy model (in preparation)

114. Hodges SD, Humphreys MD, Eck JC, An HS, Stein B: A single stage anterior decompression with simultaneous posterior instrumentation for treatment of epidural abscess. (in preparation)

115. Hasegawa T, Inufusa A, Mikawa Y, Watanabe, An HS: Membranous formation surrounding herniated disc in lumbar epidural space: a clinical and animal model study J Spin Dis (submitted)

116. You JW, Lim TH, An HS: Relationship between disc degeneration and morphology of the intervertebral foramen in the cervical spine (in preparation)

117. An HS., Stein R, Roe J: Blood conservation methods in spine surgery. Am J Orthop (submitted)

118. An HS, Andreshak T: Use of gadolinium MRI for assessing anterior cervical fusion. Am J Orthop (submitted)

Books and Editorship:

1. An, Howard S.: Synopsis of Orthopaedics N. Y., Thieme Medical Publisher, 1992

2. Balderston, R. A., and An, Howard S.: Complications in Spine Surgery W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1991

3. An, Howard S., and Cotler, J. M.: Spinal Instrumentation. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins., 1992

4. An, Howard S., and Simpson, J. M.: Surgery of the Cervical Spine. London, Martin Dunitz Publisher, Inc. and Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins 1994

5. An, Howard S., Riley L. H. III: An Atlas of the Surgery of the Spine., London, Martin Dunitz Publisher, Inc. . and Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven 1998

6. An, Howard S.: Principles and Techniques of the Surgery of the Spine, Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins 1998

7. An, Howard S.: Synopsis of Spine Surgery, Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins 1998

8. An, Howard S., and Cotler, J. M.: Spinal Instrumentation (second edition). Baltimore, Lippincott-Williams and Wilkins., 1999

9. An Howard S.: Spondylolisthesis. Guest editor for Seminars in Spine Surgery, Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, Inc., 1999

10 An Howard S.: Orthopaedic Knowledge Update VI (Spine Section Editor). Rosemont, Illinois American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 1999

11. Cotler J, Simpson JM, An HS: Surgery of the Traumatic Spine. Baltimore, Lippincott-Williams and Wilkins 2000

12. An, Howard S.: Spine section editor for Evart's Operative Orthopaedics, McGraw-Hill (in press)

Chapters and Reviews:

1. An, Howard S., Balderston R. and Rothman R. H.: A Critique on Microdiscectomy in Microsurgery of the Lumbar Spine Edited by Williams R.W., McCulloch, J. and Young, P. Aspen Publishers, 1990, p.241243

2. An, Howard S., and Balderston, R.: Juvenile Kyphosis in The Spine. edited by Rothman, R. H., and Simeone, F. A. (third edition) W. B. Saunders, 1992, pp. 485500

3. An, Howard S., and Balderston: Complications of Scoliosis, Kyphosis and Spondylolisthesis Surgery" Balderston, R. A., and An, Howard S.: Complications in Spine Surgery: W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1991

4. An, Howard S., and Simeone F.A.: Complications of Cervical Disc Surgery Balderston, R.A., and An, Howard S.: Complications in Spine Surgery: W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1991

5. An, Howard S., Booth R., Rothman, R, H.: Complications of Lumbar Disc Surgery and Spinal Stenosis" Balderston, R. A., and An, Howard S.: Complications in Spine Surgery: W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1991

6. An, Howard S., Balderston, R. A., and Simeone, F. A.: Complications of Spinal Tumor Surgery" Balderston, R. A., and An, Howard S.: Complications in Spine Surgery: W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1991

7. An, Howard S., Cotler, J. M., and Balderston R. A.: Complications in the Treatment of Thoracolumbar Fractures. Balderston, R. A., and An, Howard S.: Complications in Spine Surgery: W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1991

8. Simpson, J. M., An, Howard S., Balderston, R. A.: Complications in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis" Balderston, R. A., and An, Howard S.: Complications in Spine Surgery: W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1991

9. An, Howard S.: Surgical Exposure and Fusion Techniques of the Spine. Spinal Instrumentation. An, H. S., Cotler J.M. (eds.), Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1992

10 An, Howard S.: Spinal Instrumentation of the Posterior Cervical Spine. Spinal Instrumentation: An, H. S., Cotler J.M. (eds.), Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1992

11. Albert T, An, Howard S., Cotler, J. M.: Harrington Instrumentation and Modifications. Spinal Instrumentation: An, H. S., Cotler J.M. (eds.), Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1992

12. Thometz, J., An, H. S.: Luque Instrumentation. Spinal Instrumentation: An, H. S., Cotler J.M. (eds.), Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1992

13. Cotler J. M., Simpson J. M., An, H. S.: Principles of Spine Instrumentation and Complications. Spinal Instrumentation An, H. S., Cotler J.M.(eds.), Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1992

14. Vaccaro A, An HS, Cotler JM: Steffee Spinal Plates. An, H. S., Spinal Instrumentation: Cotler J.M. (eds.), Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1992

15. An, Howard S.: Anatomy. Surgery of the Cervical Spine: An, HS, Simpson, JM, (eds), London, England, Martin Dunitz and William and Wilkins, 1994

16. An, Howard S.: Surgical Approaches. Surgery of the Cervical Spine: An, HS, Simpson, JM, (eds), London, England, Martin Dunitz, and William and Wilkins, 1994

17. Simpson J. M., An, Howard S.: Cervical Disc Disease: Pathogenesis, clinical syndromes, differential diagnosis, and conservative treatment. Surgery of the Cervical Spine: An, HS, Simpson, JM, (eds), London, England, Martin Dunitz and Williams and Wilkins, 1994

18. An, Howard S., Simpson, J. M: Instrumentation of the Cervical Spine. Surgery of the Cervical Spine: An, HS, Simpson, JM, (eds), London, England, Martin Dunitz and Williams and Wilkins, 1994

19. Carrera G., An, H.S.: Radiology of the Cervical Spine. Surgery of the Cervical Spine: An, HS, Simpson, JM, (eds), London, England, Martin Dunitz and Williams and Wilkins, 1994

20. Black, B., An, H.S., Simpson J.M.: Cervical Spine Injuries in Skeletally Immature Patients. Surgery of the Cervical Spine: An, HS, Simpson, JM, (eds), London, England, Martin Dunitz and Williams and Wilkins, 1994

21. Andreshak T., An, Howard S.: Complications of Cervical Spine Surgery. Surgery of the Cervical Spine: An, HS, Simpson, JM,(eds), London, England, Martin Dunitz and Williams and Wilkins, 1994

22. Andreshak T., An, Howard S.: Posterior exposures of the cervical Spine. in Surgical Approaches to the Spine: Balderston BA, Albert TA (eds), Philadelphia, WB Saunders 1997

23. An, Howard S.: Low lumbar fractures and Occupational rehabilitation. In Monograph: Thoracolumbar spine fractures without neurologic deficit: Stauffer S. (editor), Park Ridge, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1993

24. Haughton VM, An HS, Lim TH, Nowicki BH: New Horizons in Imaging. in
Low-Back-Pain A Scientific and Clinical Overview. (eds. Weistein JN, Gordon SL). Rosemont, IL, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, pp. 643-662,
1996
25. An, Howard S., Glover M.: Complications and Revision Surgery for Adult Spine Deformities In The Textbook of Spinal Surgery: Bridwell, K, DeWald, R. (eds.), Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott, Inc. 1997

26. An Howard S: Clinical presentation of cervical neck pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy. In The Cervical Spine (3rd ed): Sherk H et al (eds.) Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott , 1998

27. An HS, Xu R: Posterior cervical spine procedures: In Atlas of Surgery of the Spine. An HS, Riley L, III (eds.) London, Martin Dunitz, Inc. 1998

28. Vaccaro A, An HS: Anterior exposures of the cervicothoracic junction. In Atlas of Surgery of the Spine. An HS, Riley L ,III (eds.) London, Martin Dunitz, Inc. 1998

29. An HS, Simeone FA: Laminotomy, laminectomy, and discectomy of the lumbar spine. In Atlas of Surgery of the Spine. An HS, Riley L ,III (eds.) London, Martin Dunitz, Inc. 1998

30. An HS, Ghanayem AJ, Zdeblick TA, Kaneda K: Anterior instrumentation of the lumbar spine: Zielke, TSRH, Z plate, Kaneda rod, University plate. In Atlas of Surgery of the Spine. An HS, Riley L, III (eds.) London, Martin Dunitz, Inc. 1998

31. An HS: Posterior instrumentations of the lumbar spine. In Atlas of Surgery of the Spine. An HS, Riley L, III (eds.) London, Martin Dunitz, Inc. 1998

32. An HS, Garfin S: Patient positioning and halo-vest application. In Atlas of Surgery of the Spine. An HS, Riley L, III (eds.) London, Martin Dunitz, Inc. 1998

33. An HS: Anterior approaches and fusion techniques of the lower cervical spine. In Atlas of Surgery of the Spine. An HS, Riley L, III (eds.) London, Martin Dunitz, Inc. 1998

34. An HS: Anterior instrumentations of the cervical spine. In Atlas of Surgery of the Spine. An HS, Riley L. III (eds.) London, Martin Dunitz, Inc. 1998

35. Simpson JM, An HS: Posterior exposures and fusion techniques of the thoracic spine. In Atlas of Surgery of the Spine. An HS, Riley L. III (eds.) London, Martin Dunitz, Inc. 1998

36. An HS: Posterior lumbar fusion techniques. In Atlas of Surgery of the Spine. An HS, Riley L. III (eds.) London, Martin Dunitz, Inc. 1998

37. An HS, Riley L: Anterior exposures and fusion techniques of the thoracolumbar spine. In Atlas of Surgery of the Spine. An HS, Riley L. III (eds.) London, Martin Dunitz, Inc. 1998

38. An HS: Minimally invasive procedures of the spine. In Atlas of Surgery of the Spine. An HS, Riley L. III (eds.) London, Martin Dunitz, Inc. 1998

39. An HS: Cervical root entrapment. Hand Clinics 12:719-730, Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1996

40. An HS: Cervical spondylosis. Oxford Textbook of Orthopaedic and Trauma. Buckwalter et al (eds.) Oxford University Press. (in press)

41. An HS and Jenis L: Lumbar stenosis. Evart's Operative Orthopaedics, Pellegrini V (editor) Appleton-Lange (in press)

42. An HS, Humphreys SC: Juvenile Kyphosis. The Spine (edited by Rothman, R. H., and Simeone, F. A. (4th edition) W. B. Saunders, 1999

43. An HS: Instrumentation for degenerative disorders of the cervical spine. The Spine (edited by Rothman, R. H., and Simeone, F. A. (4th edition) W. B. Saunders, 1999

44. An HS.: Anatomy of the Spine. Principles and Techniques of Spine Surgery. (edited by Howard S. An), Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins 1998

45. An HS: Surgical approaches and fusion techniques of the spine. Principles and Techniques of Spine Surgery. (edited by Howard S. An), Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins 1998

46. Lim TH, An HS: Spinal biomechanics. Principles and Techniques of Spine Surgery. (edited by Howard S. An), Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins 1998

47. Andreshak TA, AN HS: Lumbar spinal stenosis. Principles and Techniques of Spine Surgery. (edited by Howard S. An), Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins 1998

48. An HS, Coppes M: Cervical spine implants. Principles and Techniques of Spine Surgery. (edited by Howard S. An), Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins 1998

49. Humphreys SC, An HS: Posterior instrumentations of the thoracolumbar spine. Principles and Techniques of Spine Surgery. (edited by Howard S. An), Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins 1998

50. An HS, Glover JM: Anterior instrumentations of the thoracolumbar spine. Principles and Techniques of Spine Surgery. (edited by Howard S. An), Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins 1998

51. An HS, Jenis L: Lumbar Burst Fractures. in Controversies in Spine Surgery. edited by Zdeblick T, Benzel E, Anderson P, Stillerman C (Quality Medical Publishing, Inc.) 1998

52. An HS, Jenis L: Bone Graft Sources for Posterolateral Fusion of the Lumbar Spine: Spine: State of the Art Reviews 11:277-286, 1997

53. An HS: Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Spine. Cotler J, Simpson JM, An HS: Surgery of the Traumatic Spine. Baltimore, Lippincott-Williams and Wilkins 1999

54. Jenis L., An HS: Trauma of the Lumbosacral Spine. Failed Spine Surgery edited by Boden S. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven 1999

55. Coppes MA, An HS: Posterior cervical lateral mass plating. Posterior Cervical Spine Surgery in Principles and Techniques in Spine Surgery (Dillin WH, Simeone FA, editors). Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven 1998

56. Jenis L, An HS: Cervical Disc Disease. Operative Orthopaedics (Chapman M, Editor) Lippincott-Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia (in press)

57. An HS: Surgical exposures and fusion techniques of the Spine. Spinal Instrumentation -second edition. (An HS, Cotler JM, eds.) Lippincott-Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.

58. Lim, TH, An HS. Biomechanics of spinal instrumentation. Spinal Instrumentation -second edition. (An HS, Cotler JM, eds.) Lippincott-Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.

59. Toth J, An HS. Biomaterials, Bone Graft Substitutes, and Osteoinductive Substances in
in Spinal Surgery. Spinal Instrumentation -second edition. (An HS, Cotler JM, eds.) Lippincott-Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.

60. An HS, Humphreys C. Principles of spinal instrumentation in degenerative disorders of the cervical spine. Spinal Instrumentation -second edition. (An HS, Cotler JM, eds.) Lippincott-Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.

61. Jenis L, An HS: Principles of spinal instrumenation in degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. Spinal Instrumentation -second edition. (An HS, Cotler JM, eds.) Lippincott-Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.

62. An HS: Posterior lower cervical spinal instrumentation. Spinal Instrumentation -second edition. (An HS, Cotler JM, eds.) Lippincott-Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.

63. An HS: Anterior lower cervical spinal instrumenation. Spinal Instrumentation -second edition. (An HS, Cotler JM, eds.) Lippincott-Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.

64. An HS: Posterior thoracolumbar spine instrumentations. Spinal Instrumentation -second edition. (An HS, Cotler JM, eds.) Lippincott-Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.

65. Vanickhorn J, Vaccaro A, An Hs: Transpedicular Screw instrumentation. Spinal Instrumentation -second edition. (An HS, Cotler JM, eds.) Lippincott-Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.

66. An Hs, McGuire R: University Plate. Spinal Instrumentation -second edition. (An HS, Cotler JM, eds.) Lippincott-Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.

67. An HS: Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Spine. Surgery of the Spinal Trauma. (Cotler, JM, Simpson JM, An HS, Silveri CP) Lippincott Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2000

68. Jenis L, An HS: spondylolisthesis. In Orthopaedics (Fitzgerald RH, Kaufer H, Malkani A, eds.) Mosby, (in press)

Book Reviews, Editorials, Invited Reviews/Discussions, Letters to Editor:

1. An, Howard S.: Does isometric strength of the back muscle prevent back injuries?. J Musculoskel Med, 1990

2. An, Howard S.: Back pain in a postpolio syndrome. J. Musculoskel. Med., 1992

3. An, Howard S.: Book Review "Microsurgery of the Cervical Spine By Paul H. Young New York, Raven Press", Microsurgery 13:106,1992

4. An, Howard S.: Clinical Opinion (Spinal tumor). J. Spin. Dis.,1994

5. An, Howard S.: Clinical Opinion (Pathologic fracture) J Spin Dis, 8:173,1995

6. An, Howard S., Boden SD, Simmons EH, Zdeblick TA, Zindrick MR: Stauffer ES (moderator): Contemporary Orthopaedics (Symposium on Low-Back-Pain Associated with Degenerative Disc Disease), 32:310-319, 1996

7. Lenke L, An HS, Labelle H, Hall J: 1995 Scoliosis Society European travelling Fellowship. Spine, 1996

8. An, Howard S.: Clinical Opinion (Thoracic stenosis). J Spin. Dis. 9:446, 1996

9. An Howard S.: Clinical Opinion (Resection of Massive Retroperitoneal Tumor Extending into L5 Vertebral Body: Controversies in Surgical Management). J Spin Dis 10: 176-181, 1997

11. An Howard S.: Current Status of Chemonucleolysis. New Developments in Medicine Drug Therapy. 6(4):51-52, 1998.

12. An Howard S.: Point of View Discussion on Lateral mass plating of the Cervical Spine. Spine 23:1698, 1998

13. An HS, Fehlings MG: Summary statement on mechanisms of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy. Spine 23:2737, 1998

Published Abstracts:

1. Ebraheim NA, An HS, Jackson WT: Scapulothoracic dissociation. Orthop Trans 11(3), 457, 1987

2. An HS, Mikhail WE, Jackson WT: Effects of Hypotensive Anesthesia, Nonsteroidal Anti- inflammatory Drugs and Methylmethacrylate on Bleeding in Total Hip Patients. Orthop Trans 12:724, 1988

3. An HS, Ebraheim NA, Jackson WT, Simpson JM, Burgess, A.: Posterolateral Bone Grafting for Grade 3 Open Fractures and Nonunions of the Tibia Orthop Trans 12:657, 1988

4. Kupcha P, An, HS, Cotler JM: Gunshot injuries to the cervical spine. Orthop Trans 14:694,1990

5. An, HS, Vaccaro A, Simeone F: Herniated disc disease in patients over 50. Orthop Trans. 15:239, 1991

6. An, HS, Vaccaro A, Balderston R, Cotler J: Distinction between Spinal Infection and Spinal Tumors by MRI. Orthop Trans 15:244, 1991

7. Albert T, An HS, Cotler JM, Levine M: Concurrent Thoracolumbar fractures and sacral fractures. Paraplegia 15:244, 1991

8. An HS, Vaccaro A, Lin S, Cotler JM: Noncontiguous fractures of the spine. Orthop Trans 15:245, 1991

9. An, HS, Vaccaro A, Cotler JM, Cardelia M: Relationship between canal diameter and neurological deficits in thoracolumbar fractures. Orthop Trans 15:260, 1991

10 An, HS, Vaccaro A, Cotler JM, Lin S: Low Lumbar Burst Fractures: Comparison among Body Cast, Harrington Rods, Luque Rods, or Steffee Plates. Orthop Trans 15:244, 1991

11. Albert T, Balderston RA, Herkowitz HN, Garfin SR, An HS, Simeone FA: Upper lumbar disk herniations. Orthop Trans 15:241, 1991

12. Albert TJ, An, Howard S., Cotler, J., and Levine, M.: Concurrent Thoracolumbar fractures and sacral fractures. Orthop Trans. 15:244, 1991

13. An HS, Vaccaro A, Cotler JM: Spinal Instabilities at the CervicoThoracic Junction. J Amer Parapleg Soc 14:80, 1991

14. Craft DV, Cotler JM, Bauerle WB, An, HS: A rational approach to the management for type II and type III odontoid fractures. Orthop Trans 16:320,1992

15. Lin S, Vaccaro AR, An HS: Noncontiguous injuries of the spine. Trans. Orthop. 16:686, 1992

16. Cotler J, Nasuti JF, Ditunno JF, An HS, Herbison GJ: Rapid closed reduction of traumatic cervical spine dislocation using traction weights up to 130 pounds. J Amer Parapleg Soc 15:1992

17. An HS, Benoit P, Nguyen C: A new saline injection technique to confirm pedicle screw path: a cadaveric study. Orthop Trans 17(2), 269, 1993

18. An, HS, Jones R, Lynch, K: Prospective comparison of autograft versus allograft for spinal fusion in the same patient. Orthop Trans 17(2), 295, 1993

19. An HS, Jones R, Hackbarth D.: Sacral lesions presenting as low-back-pain. Orthop Trans 17(2), 332, 1993

20. An HS, Skryzinski M: Complications associated with sacral fixation using the pedicle screw. Orthop Trans 17(2), 336, 1993

21. Thometz J, An HS: Comparison between standing active side bending scoliosis films with forced supine side bending films. Orthop Trans 17(1), 132, 1993

22. Simpson JM, Silveri CP, Balderston RA, Simeone FA, An HS: Lumbar spine surgery in patients with diabetes mellitus. Trans. Orthop. 17:1085, 1993

23. Craft DV, Cotler JM, Bauerle WB, An HS: Halo management of displaced type II odontoid fractures. Trans. Orthop. 17:1079, 1993

24. An HS, Silveri CP, Simpson JM, Simeone FA, Balderston RA; Cigarette smoking and intervertebral disc disease. Trans. Orthop. 17:929, 1993

25. An H. S., Andreshak T., Nguyen C., Williams A., Daniels D.: Can we differentiate Metastatic disease and compression fractures of the spine by MRI: A clinical and canine study. J Amer Parapleg Soc 17:98, 1994

26. An HS, Thiel B, Nguyen C, Haughton VM: Magnetic resonance imaging and CT artifacts in the postoperative cervical spine. Trans Orthop 17:329, 1994.

27. Toth JM, Lim TH, An HS, Xu R, RAn Y, McGrady LM: Comparison of compressive strength of iliac bone grafts and porous calcium phosphate ceramics for spinal fusion. Trans Orthop 18: 579, 1994

28. An HS, Evanich CJ, Nowicki B, Haughton VM; Ideal thickness of Smith-Robinson graft for anterior cervical fusion: a cadaveric study with CT correlation. Trans Orthop 18:355, 1994 29.Craft DV, Cotler JM, Bauerle WB, An HS: A rational approach to the management of type II and III odontoid fractures. Trans Orthop 18: 266, 1994

30. An HS, Xu R, Lim TH, McGrady L, Wilson C: Prediction of pelvic bone graft strength using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trans Orthop 18:707, 1994

31. Hasegawa T, An HS, Haughton VM, Nowicki B: Critical dimensions of foraminal stenosis: a cryomicrotome study of lumbar intervertebral foramen. Trans Orthop 18:833, 1994.

32. An HS, Lynch KL, Toth JM: Prospective comparison of autograft versus allograft for spinal fusion in the same patient: Differences among freeze-dried, frozen, and mixed grafts. Trans Orthop 18:838, 1994

33. An HS, Haughton VH, Nguyen C, Ho KC: High dose gadolinium-MRI in the canine spine model: Contrast enhancement and kinematics in the herniated disc vs. scar. Trans Orthop 18:847, 1994

34. Evanich CJ, An HS, Lim TH: Strength of anterior lumbar vertebral screw fixation in relation to bone mineral density. Trans Orthop 18:953, 1994

35. Andreshak TA, An HS, Hall J: Lumbar spine surgery in the obese patient. Trans Orthop 18:1099, 1994

36. An HS, Lim TH, You JW, Hong JH: Biomechanical comparison between anterior fixation vs. posterior fixation in an unstable calf spine model. J Spinal Cord Med. 18:145, 1995

37. Lim TH, An HS, Eck JC, Ahn JY: Biomechanics of cross-linking devices in pedicle screw instrumentation. J. Spinal Cord Med. 18:145, 1995.

38. Lim TH, Hasegawa T, An HS, McGrady L, Hasanoglu KY: Prediction of anterior lumbar screw loosening using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Orthop Trans 19:80, 1995

39. An HS, Simpson JM, Glover JM, Stephany J: Comparison between allograft plus demineralized bone matrix vs. autograft in anterior cervical fusion: A prospective randomized multi-center study. Orthop Trans 19:181, 1995

40. An HS, Toth JM, Lim TH, Lundberg W, Ran Y, Weiss N, Xu R, Lynch K: Effect of porosity of a 50/50 HA/TCP calcium phosphate ceramic for anterior cervical fusion in a goat model. Orthop Trans 19:182, 1995

41. Riley L, III, Ibraheim MA, Haughton VM, Nguyen C, An HS: Effect of maturation and charge on MRI contrast enhancement of the intervertebral disc: a rabbit model. Trans Orthop 19:197, 1995.

42. Lim TH, An HS, Eck J, Ahn JY: Biomechanics of cross-linking devices in pedicle screw instrumentation. Orthop Trans 19:621, 1995

43. An HS, Lim TH, You JW, Hong JH: Biomechanical comparison between anterior fixation vs. posterior fixation in an unstable calf spine model. Orthop Trans 19:628, 1995

44. Inufusa A, An HS, Lim TH, Haughton VM, Nowicki BH: Changes of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramen associated with lumbar segmental instability. Trans Orthop 19:640, 1995

45. An HS, Lederman ES, Lyle C: Transpedicular thoracic vertebral biopsy. Trans Orthop 19:695, 1995

46. Lim TH, Eck JC, An HS, et al: Biomechanics of transfixation in pedicle screw instrumentation. Trans Orthop 20:226, 1996-97

47. Hasegawa T, Mikawa Y, Watanabe R, An HS: Morphometric analysis of the lumbosacral
nerve roots and dorsal root ganglion. Trans Orthop 20:353, 1996-97

48. Inufusa A, An Hs, Hasegawa T, Lim TH, Haughton VH, Nowicki B: Changes of the intervertebral foramen associated with flexion-extension movements: a cryomicrotome study. Trans Orthop 20:353, 1996-97

49. An HS, Simpson MJ, Stein R: Outpatient laminotomy and discectomy without the use of microscope or endoscopy: a prospective multi-center study. Trans Orthop 20:1025, 1996

50. Lim TH, Eck J, An HS, McGrady LM: A non-invasive three-dimensional in vivo motion analysis of the spine. Trans Orthop 20:1052, 1996-97
51. Hasegawa T, Inufusa A, Mikawa Y, Watanabe R, An HS: Natural history of the nucleus pulposus in lumbar disc herniation - computed and clinical evaluation. Trans Orthop 20:1057, 1996-97

52. Yoshida H, An HS, Nowicki BH, Haughton VM: The accuracy of MRI in detecting the radial tear of the anulus fibrosus: An MRI and cryomicrotome study. Trans Orthop 20:1058, 1996-97

53. Humphreys SC, An HS, McGrady L, Lim TH, Glover M, Inufusa A: A comparison between anterior threaded cages vs. posterior pedicle screw instrumenation in terms of foraminal distraction and lumbar lordosis. Trans Orthop 20:1062, 1996-97

54. Toth JM, Lim TH, An Hs, Yoshida H, Roh J, Pagedas MT, Eck JC, Nguyen CM: Enhancement of cervical spine fusion with reinforced porous 50/50 Ha/betaTCP loaded with rhBMP-2 in a caprine model. Trans Orthop, 21:790-791,1997-1998

55. Jenis LG, An HS, Snibbe J, Clawson J: The effect of knee-chest postioning on lumbar lordosis in instrumented fusions. Trans Orthop 22:220-221, 1998-1999

56. Jenis LG, An HS, Simpson JM, Young B; A prospective comparison of the standard and reverse Smith-Robinson cervical grafting techniques-Radiographic and clinical outcomes. Trans Orthop 22:525, 1998-1999

57. An HS, Toth JM, Beller R, You JW, Lee SW, Kho A, Lim TH, Nguyen CM: Evaluation of a calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate for interbody fusion. Trans Orthop 22:501-502, 1998-1999

Articles Written by Howard S. An, MD

Spinal Tumors: Diagnostic Process

Radiographs (x-rays) are initially obtained and a bone scan may be ordered early to rule out tumors or infections.

Spinal Tumors: Benign and Malignant Types

There are several types of benign and malignant spinal tumors. These abnormal growths generally develop slowly and may worsen over time unless treated.

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation

Watch this fascinating video about a cervical spine surgery option: anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with instrumentation. This video was produced by spine surgeons at Rush Medical College in Chicago, IL.

Kyphosis: Treatment and Recovery

Early treatment of kyphosis is especially important to the adolescent patient. Left untreated, the curve progression can lead to significant problems later during adulthood.

Reemplazo de Disco Artificial

Existen múltiples opciones de tratamiento conservador y de invasión mínima para el manejo de la enfermedad por degeneración de disco sintomática.

Artificial Disc Replacement

Orthopaedic surgeons have been engaged in research to offer an alternative to lumbar spinal fusion surgery; artificial spinal disc replacement.

Charité Artificial Disc and Degenerative Disc Disease

Although conventional treatment for a severely degenerated disc is spinal fusion, artificial disc replacement is becoming an alternative option.

Symptoms of Spinal Tumors

Most patients with spinal tumors first come to the doctor because of back pain, specifically non-mechanic back pain (constant pain that doesn't get better by changing positions or resting). Read about other common tumor symptoms

Spinal Tumors: Treatments

A spinal tumor is a very serious medical condition. If diagnosed early, patients have a better chance of a full recovery.

Spinal Tumors

Article about spinal tumors, covering the differences between primary and secondary tumors. Knowing the type of tumor, where it's located in the spine, and if it's cancerous helps decide on the best course of action for treatment.

Surgical Management of Thoracolumbar Deformity in Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing Spondylitis is a form of chronic arthritis. In severe cases, a surgical procedure called an osteotomy, which involves the removal and/or resection of bone is utilized to correct the deformity.

How Doctors Treat Spondylolisthesis

Sometimes spondylolisthesis doesn't require treatment. If the vertebra isn't expected to slip more, you may just need to rest and stop doing activities that cause pain. However, if you need surgery, here's important information to know.

Herniated Disc Treatment

Learn about herniated disc treatment options. Includes both non-surgical and surgical treatments: medications, physical therapy, discectomy, and more. Written and reviewed by spine surgeons.

Kyphosis: Description and Diagnosis

Kyphosis is a progressive disorder that can affect children or adults in the thoracic or cervical spine. This disorder may cause a deformity described as humpback or hunchback. Read about possible causes and tests doctors use to diagnosis kyphosis.

Case Studies Presented by Howard S. An, MD

Adolescent High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis

Presented by: P. Louie MD, H. An MD
A 14-year-old healthy, high-level gymnast who presented with 1-year history of insidious low back pain, with recent (past few months) onset of pain and tingling down her left leg to the dorsum of the left foot.

Severe Sagittal Imbalance and Lumbar Spinal Stenosis in a Patient with Multiple Medical Comorbidities

Presented by: A. Jorgensen MD, H. An MD
The patient is a 50-year-old male with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), on dialysis, and presents with a 10-year history of low back pain. He was a successful engineer. However, he had to go on disability starting two years ago due to progression of his symptoms.

C1-C2 Instability in Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Presented by: H. An MD, T. Cha MD, MBA

A 50-year-old female presents with a chief complaint of neck pain. The pain is in the base of the neck with radiation to bilateral posterior shoulders. It worsens with movement.

Cervical Chondrosarcoma

Presented by: D. Park MD, H. An MD

Doctors Daniel K. Park and Howard S. An present primary chondrosarcoma; a rare condition and few reports exist beyond this case.

Articles Reviewed by Howard S. An, MD

Spinal Stenosis Center

Visit the SpineUniverse Spinal Stenosis Center for doctor-written and reviewed information on lumbar and cervical spinal stenosis.

Spondylosis: How Doctors Treat Spinal Osteoarthritis

Spondylosis can often be treated without spine surgery. A surgeon explains how doctors diagnose this degenerative process, including what happens in physical and neurological exams. Article also discusses non-surgical treatments for spondylosis.

Spinal Stenosis: Non-operative Treatment

Few patients require spine surgery to treat the symptoms caused by spinal stenosis. There are several non-surgical treatment options, and you can learn more about them in this article.

The Truth about Cortisone Shots

Cortisone injections are a valuable treatment for a variety of spinal conditions. Many people have fears about its use. Today, with a careful assessment of the benefits, cortisone is a very useful and effective tool in treating back pain.

Types of Cortisone Injections

Cortisone falls into a group of chemicals called steroids. However, cortisone is very different from anabolic steroids sometimes abused by athletes.

Spondylosis

The degenerative process of spondylosis (spinal osteoarthritis) may impact the cervical, thoracic, and/or lumbar regions of the spine. This natural part of aging affects the intervertebral discs and facet joints, and it may cause pain. Learn more about it in this article.

What is Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis can be present at birth, develop during childhood or later in life. The disorder may result from the physical stresses to the spine from carrying heavy things, weightlifting, gymnastics, and general wear and tear.

Spinal Stenosis: Neck and Back Nerve Compression

Spinal stenosis usually affects the cervical (neck) or lumbar (low back) spine. Progressive degenerative changes in the spine can sometime cause this disorder to develop.

Herniated Discs: Definition, Progression, and Diagnosis

This informative article explains herniated discs in easy-to-understand language. Learn what a herniated disc really is, how we develop them, where we can feel pain from them, and how doctors diagnosis them.

Financial Disclosures

SpineUniverse, a Vertical Health, LLC website, is committed to ensuring that the medical information it presents is accurate, balanced, objective, and trustworthy. 

To help achieve this goal, SpineUniverse requires all authors, editors, and reviewers to disclose any financial relationships or affiliations they have with companies whose products or services may be mentioned in the content they author, edit, or review.

The intent of this policy is to identify any perceived, potential, or real conflicts of interest so that readers can make their own judgments about the value of information being presented.

Author's Statement

I, or an immediate family member, have a financial interest(s) or affiliation(s) with the following commercial companies whose products and / or services may be mentioned in the materials I have authored, edited or reviewed for presentation on Vertical Health, LLC’s websites.

Disclosed Relationships

Grants/Research Support
National Institute of Health, Apatech Inc., Synthes Inc., Smith-Nephew Inc., Orthopaedic Research Education Foundation
Consultant
Depuy Spine Inc., Life Spine., Smith-Nephew Inc.
Stock/Shareholder
Anulex Inc., U&I Inc., Spinal Kinetics, Pioneer Inc.
Other Financial or Material Support
Endowed Chair from Rush University Medical Center
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