Frederick S. Frost, MD's portrait
Frederick S. Frost, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, OH

About Frederick S. Frost, MD

A board-certified specialist in physical medicine and rehabilitation and spinal cord injury medicine, Dr. Frost is a national expert in the field of spinal cord injury.

He holds a degree in English from the University of Illinois, and a medical degree from Northwestern University. After post-graduate training at Cook County Hospital and the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, he completed a fellowship in Spinal Cord Neurotrauma at the Midwest Regional Spinal Cord Injury System at Northwestern University in Chicago.

He led the Spinal Cord Program at MetroHealth Medical Center in Cleveland for 10 years, and was the Principal Investigator and Project Director of the Northeast Ohio Regional Model Spinal Cord System Grant awarded in 1995 by the National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Research. The grants that he has authored have garnered $2 million in research funding for spinal cord injury.

Dr. Frost has published extensively in the field of spinal cord injury, and he authored the chapter on Spinal Cord Injury Medicine in Braddom's Textbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, which is the leading reference worldwide in the field of PM&R. He also serves as Editor of Lin's Textbook of Spinal Cord Medicine, and is an elected member of the board of directors of the American Paraplegia Society.

Dr. Frost joined the Cleveland Clinic in 1997, where he is Director of Hospital Rehabilitation Services.

Publications

Peer-reviewed:

1. Frost F, Roach MJ, Kushner I, Schreiber P: Assessment of Inflammatory C-Reactive Protein and Cytokine Levels in Asymptomatic Persons with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 Feb;86(2):312-14.

2. Frost F: Skin Care of Hospitalized Patients with Acute Spinal Cord Injury. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine 1999 22(2): 133-138.

3. Frost F, Brennan D, Roach MJ: Options for Community Placement for Disabled Persons Living in the Inner City. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation .1999;4(9):113-121.

4. Frost F: Gastrointestinal Complications of Spinal Cord Injury. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation. 1998;4(2) 56-80.

5. Frost F: Pitfalls in managing routine medical problems of patients with spinal cord injury. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 1997. 64(7) 352-355.

6. Frost F: The Role of Rehabilitation in the Care of the SCI Patient, In Urologic Clinics of North America: Bodner, D., Ed., Saunders, New York. August 1993.

7. Frost F, McCarthy W: Duplex Scanning for Venous Thrombosis: Use in the Rehabilitation Setting. Am J Phys Med Rehabil Vol 70:1:3-5, 1991.

8. Frost F, Hartwig D, Jaeger R, Wu Y, Yarkony G, Elliott R: Electrical Stimulation of the Lumbosacral Dermatomes: Effect on Rectal Manometry and Bowel Emptying. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 74:696-702, 1993.

9. Frost F, Nanninga J, Penn R, Savoy A, Wu Y: Intrathecal Baclofen Infusion: Effect on Bladder Management Programs in Patients with Myelopathy. Amer J. Phys Med Rehabil Vol 68:3 112-115 June 1998

10. Nanniga J, Frost F, Penn R: Intrathecal Pharmacotherapy: Effect on Bladder Management Programs. J Urology Vol 142, July: 101-3, 1989.

11. Roth E J, Frost F, Brander V: Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome in Quadriplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 72: 6:417-8, 1991.

12. Bodner D, Leffler B, Frost F: The Role of Intravcavernous injection of Vasoactive Medications for the Restoration of Erection in the Spinal Cord Injured Males: A Three Year Follow-Up. Paraplegia Vol 30: 118-20, 1992.

13. Overholser J, Schubert D, Foliart R, Frost F: Assessment of Emotional Distress Following a Spinal Cord Injury. Rehabilitation Psychology Vol 38: 3-5, 1993.

14. Lin VWH, Wolfe V, Frost FS, Perkash I. Micturition by Functional Magnetic Stimulation, J Spinal Cord Injury Med 20:218-226 1997.

15. Shroer W, Lacey S, Frost F, Keith M. Carpal Instability in the Weight Bearing Upper Extremity, JBJS 78(A), No.12 December 1996.

16. Lin VW Nino-Murcia M Frost F Wolfe V Perkash I. Functional magnetic stimulation of the colon in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82:167-73.

17. Roach MJ, Frost F, Creasey,G. Social and Personal Consequences of Acquired Bowel Dysfunction for Persons with Spinal Cord Injury, J Spinal Cord Injury Med 23(4) 263-69 Winter 2000.

18. Yu DT. Chae J. Walker ME. Kirsteins A. Elovic EP. Flanagan SR. Harvey RL. Zorowitz RD. Frost FS. Grill JH. Feldstein M. Fang ZP. Intramuscular neuromuscular electric stimulation for poststroke shoulder pain: a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 85(5):695-704, 2004 May.

19. Chae J, Yu D, Walker ME, Kirstens M, Elovic EP, Flanagan, SR, Harvey RL, Zorowitz R, Frost FS,., Grill JH, Fang, ZP. Intramuscular Electrical Stimulation for Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain 12-mo Follow Up of a Multi-center Randomized Clinical Trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 Nov ;84:832-842

Non Peer-Reviewed Articles:

1. Frost F: Rehabilitation and Fear. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 80(12) 942-944. (Invited Editorial)

Published Abstracts:

1. Frost F, Nanninga J, Penn R, Savoy S, Wu Y,: "The Effect of Intrathecal Baclofen Infusion on Urodynamic Studies of the Neurogenic Bladder." Oral presentation; American Spinal Injury Association National Conference, May 1988. American Paraplegia Society Award; Invited for presentation at the American Paraplegia Society Annual Conference, Las Vegas, September 1988. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 11(3) 56 1988

2. Frost F, McCarthy W,: "Duplex Scanning for Venous Thrombosis: Use in the Rehabilitation Setting." (Poster) Annual Meeting, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Seattle, 1988. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 69 A-782, 1988.

3. Frost F, Nanninga J, Penn R, Savoy S, Wu Y,: "Intrathecal Parmacotherapy: Effect on Bladder Management Program." (Poster-Award) Annual Meeting, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Seattle, 1988. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol. 69 A-763, 1988.

4. Frost F, Harwig D, Jaeger R, Wu Y, Yarkony G, Roth E,: "Electrical Stimulation of the Lumbosacral Dermatones: Effect on Rectal Manometry and Bowel Emptying." (Oral Presentation) American Spinal Injury Association Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, 1989. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 13 A-5, 1989.

5. Frost F, Hartwig D, Jaegers R, Yarkony G, Wu Y,: "Electrical Stimulation of the Sacral Dermatomes: Effect on Rectal Manometry and Bowel Function." (Poster) Annual Meeting American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, San Antonio, 1989. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol. 70, No. 11, 1989.

6. Frost F, Davidoff G, Babirad G: "Rehospitalization after Spinal Cord Injury: A One Year Cross Sectional Analysis of 411 Patients with Variable Risk of Medical Complications." (Oral Presentation) American Spinal Injury Association Annual Meeting, Seattle 1991. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 14:2:84, 1991.

7. Frost F, Zimmermann K, Babirad G: "Quality of Life and Use of Diazepam in Spinal Cord Injured Patients." (Oral Presentation) Annual Meeting American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Washington, DC 1991. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 72:A-781, 1991.

8. Frost F: "The True Cost of Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Co-Morbidity Analysis in 131 Acute Hospital Readmissions." (Oral Presentation) American Spinal Cord Injury Association, Annual Conference, San Diego, 1993. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 16:2 92, 1993.

9. Frost F, Rosen B, Begley J, Lee S: "Gastrostomy and Jejunostomy Tube Placement in the Acute Management of SCI: Evidence of Over-Utilization." (Poster) American Paraplegia Society, Annual Meeting Las Vegas. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 16:4 282, 1993.

10. Frost F: Failure to Thrive in Chronic SCI: Co-Mobidity Analysis in 131 Acute Hospital Readmissions." (Oral Presentation) Thirty-Ninth Annual Conference of the American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 16:4, 250, 1993.

11. Frost F, Begley J, Leffler E: "Bowel Habits After Spinal Cord Injury: A Survey of 108 Persons More Than Ten Years Post Injury" (Poster) Annual Meeting, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Miami. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 74:11 1272, 1993.

12. Frost F, Lee S, Zimmermann K, Maynard F: Incidence and Cost of Emergency Department Visits in a Large Outpatient SCI Population. (Poster) Annual Meeting, American Spinal Injury Association Philadelphia April 1994. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 17:2 107. 1994.

13. Frost F, Rosen B, Begley J, Lee S. Judicious use of Surgical Feeding Tubes in SCI Acute Care. (Poster) Annual Meeting, American Spinal Injury Association Philadelphia April 1994. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 17:2 121 1994.

14. Frost F, Lee S, Zimmermann K, Maynard F: Incidence and Cost of Emergency Department Visits in a Large Outpatient SCI Population. (Poster) Fortieth Annual Conference of the American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas, September 1994. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 17:4 229 October 1994.

15. Frost F, Washington W, Wuolle K, Freehafer A: Restoration of Hand Function in Tetraplegia: A Survey of Patient Satisfaction Ten Years After Tendon Transfer Surgery. (Poster) Fortieth Annual Conference of the American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas, September, 1994. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 4 231 October 1994.

16. Frost F, Keith M, Scullin H, Bryden A, Wuolle K: Training of Tetraplegic Persons with new Upper Extremity Tendon Transfers: A Cost-Sensitive Program, (Poster) Fortieth Annual Conference of the American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas, September 1994. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 17:4 230 October 1994/

17. Frost F, Maynard F, Sundaresan V: Screening for Deep Venous Thrombosis in Asymptomatic SCI Patients: A Clinical evaluation of impedance plethysography (Oral Presentation) American Spinal Injury Association Annual Meeting, Orlando 1994. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 18:2 115 April 1995.

18. Frost F, Scheatzle P, Begley J. External Fixation of a Mandibular Fracture in a Patient with a Halo Vest: Pulmonary, Nurtitional and Psychological Implications. (Poster) American Spinal Injury Association Annual Meeting, Orlando 1994. J. Am Paraplegia Soc18:2 156 April 1995.

19. Frost F, Nock B, Lee S: Ischial Pressure Sores Following Treatment of Lower Extremity Trauma in Chronic SCI, (Poster) American Spinal Injury Association Annual Meeting, Orlando 1994. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 18:2 156 April 1995.

20. Frost F, Washington W, Wuolle K, Freehafer A: Restoration of Hand Function in Tetraplegia: A Survey of Patient Satisfaction Ten Years After Tendon Transfer Surgery. (Poster) American Spinal Injury Association Annual Meeting, Orlando 1994. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 18:2 157 April 1995.

21. Frost F, Keith M, Scullin H, Bryden A, Wuolle K: Training of Tetraplegic Persons with new Upper Extremity Tendon Transfers: A Cost-Sensitive Program, (Poster) American Spinal Injury Association Annual Meeting, Orlando 1994. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 18:2 155 April 1995.

22. Frost F, DeVos E, Zimmerman K, Maynard F, Sundaresan V: Screening for Deep Venous Thrombosis in Asymptomatic SCI Patients: A Clinical evaluation of impedance plethysography (Poster) American Paraplegia Society Annual Meeting, Las Vegas 1995. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 18:4 301 October 1995.

23. Frost F, Carson F, Mortenson D, Campbell J. A Tongue Operated Controller for Mobility and Environmental Control Equipment. (Poster) American Paraplegia Society Annual Meeting, Las Vegas 1996. J. Am Paraplegia Soc October 1996 19(4) 296.

24. Frost F, Garza E, Spirnak P. Scrotal Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Complication of Sitting of Ischial Pressure Sores. (Poster) American Paraplegia Society Annual Meeting, Las Vegas 1996. J. Am Paraplegia Soc October 1996 19(4) 296.

25. Frost F. Spinal Cord Injury Research in the United States. Special Interest Group Forum / Spinal Cord Injury American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Annual Meeting, Chicago October 1996.

26. Frost F, Roach M, Schreiber P, Kushner I: Sepsis In Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: The Role Of Inflammatory Cytokines And C-Reactive Protein (Crp) Lerner Institute Research Day / Cleveland Clinic Foundation October 1 1998 Published Abstracts.

27. Frost F, Rayes E, Oakley T. Modified Pelvic Inlet Radiographs: Utilization in Routine Spinal Cord Injury Urologic Testing. (Oral Presentation) American Paraplegia Society Annual Meeting, Las Vegas 1996. J. Am Paraplegia Soc October 1996 19(4) 272.

28. Frost F, Roach M, Schreiber P, Kushner I: Measurement of Inflammatory Cytokines and C-Reactive Protein in Healthy Persons with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury. American Spinal Injury Association - International Medical Society of Paraplegia Annual Meeting. May 2002 Vancouver. 2002. J. Am Paraplegia Soc (25) supplement (S5).

29. Frost F. Deshpande K. Abston D. Sahgal V. Functional outcomes of cardiac transplant patients treated in an acute rehabilitation setting. Oral presentation: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, September 2001.

30. Frost F. Deshpande K. Abston D. Sahgal V. Functional outcomes of cardiac transplant patients treated in an acute rehabilitation setting. Cleveland Clinic Research Day. October 25, 2001. Published Abstracts.

31. Frost F, Josef Endredi, MD, Vinod Sahgal, MD : American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation ,Chicago October 2003 Functional outcomes of liver transplant patients treated in an acute rehabilitation setting American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , Chicago October 2003. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - September 2003 (Vol. 84, Issue 9, Page E11).

32. Frost F, Brandt C: Ventilatory compromise caused by gastric distension: relief by low-profile button gastrostomy . Poster. American Paraplegia Society Annual Meeting. Las Vegas September 2004. J Spinal Cord Med Vol27 (4) October 2004.

33. Frost F: The immune system and inflammatory resposnse in persons with spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Devel Vol 41: 1 (S) 6 2004.

34. Frost F. Bowel Management after spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Devel Vol 41: 1 (S) 30. 2004.

35. Frost F, Reger S, Endredi J, Sahgal V: Transportation Technology Utilization by Persons with Disabilities: Retrospective Analysis of a Proprietary Client Database. Platform Presentation: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Phoenix October 2004 Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - September 2004 (Vol. 85, Issue 9, Page e48).

36. Frost F, Reger S, Endredi J, Sahgal V: Transportation Technology Utilization after Spinal Cord Injury: Study of Aftermarket Vehicle Modifications. Poster Abstract: American Paraplegia Society Annual Meeting: Las Vegas NV Sept 6, 2005. J. Spinal Cord Med Vol 28:4 363.

37. Frost F, Roach MJ, Kushner I, Assessment of C-Reactive Protein, TNF and IL6 Levels in Asymptomatic Persons with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Poster presentation: TNF & Beyond: Treatment of Autoimmune & Inflammatory Disorders Summit, Cleveland OH August 26-28, 2005.

38. Roth E J, Frost F, Brander V: "Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome." (Poster) Annual Meeting, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol. 69 A-748, 1988.

39. Roth, E, Yarkony g, Heinemann A, Lovell L, Frost F: "Functional Outcome of Traumatic Lumbar Paraplegia." (Oral Presentation)1 10th Congress International Federation of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Toronto, April 1988. Publsihed Abstracts.

40. Flis M OTR/L, Frost F MD, Babirad J MSA: "Fabrication of a Penile Fixator for Intracavernous Injection of Impotent Males with Spinal Cord Injury" Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America, Annual Conference, Washington, DC 1990. Published Abstracts.

41. Quadri M, Shoos L, Frost F, Altose M.D: "Effects of Chest Wall Vibration on the Sensation of Inspiratory Volume and Pressure in Quadriplegics. Am Rev Respir Dis 141:551 (Supp) 1990.

42. Zimmermann K, Frost F, Babirad G: "A Logistic Regression Analysis of Diazepam Use in Spinal Cord Injury: Association with Quality of Life Measures." (Oral Presentation) American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas 1992. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 16:2 58, 1993.

43. Abella G, Frost F, Behrens A: "Shoulder Hemiarthroplasty for Pain Control in a patient with C-5 Quadriplegia; Special Considerations." (Poster) American Spinal Injury Association, Annual Meeting Toronto 1992. J. Am Paraplegia Soc, 15:2:134, 1992.

44. Babinec M, Frost F: "Computer Use in Occupational Therapy to Achieve Physical Goals: Providing The Third Hour for Spinal Cord Injured Patients." (Poster) American Paraplegia Society, Annual Meeting Las Vegas, September 1992. J. Am Paraplegia Soc, 15:2:134, 1992.

45. Babirad J, Frost F, Flis M: "Pitfalls in Van Modification for Persons with Quadriplegia: Six Case Examples of Failed Client/Technology Interface." (Poster) American Spinal Injury Association, annual Meeting Toronto 1992. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 15:133, 1992.

46. Begley J, Zimmermann K, Frost F: "Candiduria in Spinal Cord Injured Patients with Indwelling Catheters: A Population Study." (Oral Presentation) American Paraplegia Society, Annual Meeting Las Vegas. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 16:1 68, 1993.

47. Schroer W, Keith M, Lacey S, Frost F: "Carpal Instability in the Weight Bearing Upper Extremity." (Oral Presentation) American Paraplegia Society, Annual Meeting Las Vegas, 1993. Journ Amer Paraplegia Soc. 16:4, 254, 1993. Also presented: American Society for Surgery of the Hand Annual Meeting Cincinnati 1994.

48. Scott M, Frost F, Supinski G, Gonzalez M: "The Effect of Body Position and Abdominal Binders on Pulmonary Function in Chronic Tetraplegic Subjects more than Fifteen Years Post Injury." (Oral Presentation) American Paraplegia Society Annual Meeting Las Vegas, 1993. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 16:2 116, 1993.

49. Babinec M, Frost F, Lee S: "Documentation Methods Justifying Computer Training as a Reimbursable Occupational Therapy Modality." (Poster) American Paraplegia Society, Annual Meeting Las Vegas, 1993. J. Am Paraplegia Soc. 16:4, 272, 1993.

50. Nock B, Frost F, Lee S: Ischial Pressure Sores Following Treatment of Lower Extremity Trauma in Chronic SCI, (Poster) Fortieth Annual Conference of the American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas, September 1994. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 17:4 230 October 1994.

51. Lin V, Frost F, Bodner D: Functional Magnetic Stimulation of the Bladder in Paraplegia. (Oral Presentation) Fortieth Annual Conference of the American Paraplegia Soc. September 1994. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 17:4 211 October 1994.

52. Bryden A, Wuolle K, Frost F, Keith M, Scullin H. Training of Tetraplegic Persons with New upper Extremity Tendon Transfers: A Cost-Sensitive Program (Poster) Fortieth Annual Conference of the American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas, September 1994. J. Am Paraplegia Soc 17:4 230 October 1994.

53. Yu DT, Chae J, Walker ME, Kirsteins M; Elovic EP; Flanagan SR, Harvey RL, Zorowitz RD; Frost F, Grill JH; Feldstein M; Fang ZP, Intramuscular electric stimulation for poststroke shoulder pain: 12-month follow-up of a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 84:9. September 2004

Books (Editor):

1. Lin VWH, Frost FS, Perkash I, Lindblom L. Spinal Cord Medicine. Demos Medical 2002.

Book Chapters:

1. Frost F, Pien L: The Immune System and Inflammatory Response in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury. In Spinal Cord Injury Medicine. Vernon W. H. Lin Ed. Demos Medical Publishing, New York 2002.

2. Frost F; "Spinal Cord Injury Medicine" in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Randall Braddom Ed. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 2000.

3. Frost F: "Disorders of the Bowel and Bowel Emptying" in Medical Management of Long Term Disability, David Green, Ed., Aspen Publishers, Rockville, Maryland 11-37, 1990.

4. Frost F: Bowel Management after Spinal Cord Injury, In Spinal Cord Injury: Medical Management and Rehabilitation, Gary Yarkony Ed., Aspen Publishers. Rockville, Maryland 1994.

Other:

1. Spinal Cord Medicine: American J. Phys Med Rehabil 82:5 May 2003 (349) (book review)

2. "Antihypertensive Therapy, Nifedipine and Autonomic Dysreflexia". Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 83 Sept 2002. (letter to the editor)

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