Charles L. Branch, Jr., MD's portrait
Charles L. Branch, Jr., MD
Professor and Chairman, Department of Neurosurgery
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Winston-Salem, NC

About Charles L. Branch, Jr., MD

Doctor Branch is the Professor and Chairman, Department of Neurosurgery at Wake Forest University School of Medicine. Born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, he received his BA degree from Oklahoma Christian College in 1977 and his medical degree from University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in 1981. He completed his neurosurgical training at Wake Forest University in 1987. He completed a Clinical Fellowship in the Department of Neurological Surgery at the University of California in San Francisco.

In 1987, he returned to Wake Forest as a faculty member in the Department of Neurosurgery. In June, 2000, when Dr. David L. Kelly, Jr. stepped down as the Chair after 20-year tenure, Dr. Branch was appointed to the position of the Eben Alexander, Jr. Professor and Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery, a position that he currently holds.

A renowned international lecturer, Dr. Branch also has published 20 book chapters and over 40 manuscripts in peer reviewed journals. He has served on the editorial board of the Journal of Radiosurgery, Neurosurgical Focus, and Journal of Spinal Disorders. He recently completed his tenure as Editor-in-Chief of The Spine Journal, the official journal of the North American Spine Society. In addition, Dr. Branch has served as the Chair of Wake Forest University Physicians and recently served as a member of Governing Board of the School of Biomedical Engineering of Wake Forest University and Virginia Polytechnic Institute.

Dr. Branch's practice and research interests have focused on the treatment of spinal diseases and injuries, and brain tumors. Earlier in his career, Dr. Branch initiated and the developed the stereotactic brain tumor treatment program at Wake Forest. In addition, he was responsible for bringing Stereotactic Radiosurgery to Wake Forest in 1990. In 1999, he along with Dr. Ed Shaw, was instrumental in helping Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center to acquire the only Gamma Knife in the state of North Carolina. In 2003, along with Dr. Shaw, he co-founded the Brain Tumor Center of Excellence of Wake Forest University in order to further develop a major research initiative to cure brain cancer.

In 2007, his interest in the treatment of serious spine injuries in children and a relationship with Richard and Judy Childress, legendary NASCAR team owners, led to the development of the Childress Institute for Pediatric Trauma Research at Wake Forest University Health Sciences.

He is also a pioneer in the development of spinal fusion techniques that are recognized and used by spinal surgeons worldwide. Based upon work his father, Charles L. Branch began in the 1980's modifying the Cloward Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF) technique, Dr. Branch has dedicated much of his career to the enhancement and education of safer spine fusion techniques. He has been awarded 13 patents recognizing these unique fusion techniques and minimally invasive technology.

Current research effort centers on the impact and outcomes with minimally invasive lumbar fusion technology. In November 2009, Dr. Branch completed his service as President of the North American Spine Society, the largest multidisciplinary spine society in the world. Currently, he serves as the Chair of the American Board of Neurological Surgery.

Dr. Branch and his wife Lesa have five children and live on their farm and wildlife preserve in Advance, NC. Their son Byron, is currently a resident in Neurosurgery at the University of Texas in San Antonio. Daniel is currently engaged in basic science research with plans to enter the University of Texas Medical School at Galveston in 2010, and their daughter Leslie, also anticipating a career in medicine, is a third year medical student at Wake Forest School of Medicine. Two daughters are in their undergraduate years at Pepperdine University in Malibu, CA, where Dr. Branch also serves on the Board of Regents. Both Courtney and Emily have been recognized for their artistic talents and as athletes in softball and cross country track.

In addition to his land and wildlife conservation interests, Dr. Branch is active in his church as a Deacon and as the director of medical mission programs in Haiti, Guyana, Nigeria, and most recently Guatemala. He is a member of the Board of Regents of Pepperdine University in Malibu, California and also serves on the Governing Board of Eastern European Missions, facilitating Bible distribution and faith based humanitarian relief efforts in former Soviet bloc countries.

Publications

Journal Articles
Branch CL Jr, Albertson DA, Kelly DL Jr. Post-traumatic acalculous cholecystitis on a neurosurgical service. Neurosurgery 1983;12:98-101.

Branch CL Jr, Laster DW, Kelly DL Jr. Left atrial myxoma with cerebral emboli. Neurosurgery 1985;16:675-680.

Branch CL Jr, Challa VR, Kelly DL Jr. Aneurysmal bone cyst with fibrous dysplasia of the parietal bone. J Neurosurg 1986;64:331-335.

Branch CL Jr, Davis CH Jr. False aneurysms complicating carotid endarterectomy. Neurosurgery 1986;19:421-425.

Branch CL, Branch CL Jr. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion with the keystone graft: technique and results. Surg Neurol 1987;27:449-454.

Branch CL Jr, Laws ER Jr. Metastatic tumors of the sella turcica masquerading as primary pituitary tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1987;65:469-474.

Branch CL Jr, Britton BH, Kelly DL Jr. Neurological-otological treatment of acoustic tumors at the Wake Forest University Medical Center. NC Med J 1987;48:401-403.

Branch CL Jr, Lee KS, McWhorter JM. Cadaveric dura as a vascular patch graft in the canine carotid artery model. Surg Forum 1987;38:484-485.

Kelly DL Jr, Britton BH, Branch CL Jr. Cooperative neuro-otologic management of acoustic neuromas and other cerebellopontine angle tumors. South Med J 1988;81:557-561.

Elster AD, Branch CL Jr. Transalar sphenoidal encephaloceles: clinical and radiologic findings. Radiology 1989;170:245-247.

Lee KS, Gower DJ, Branch CL Jr, Kelly DL Jr, McWhorter JM, Bell WO. Surgical repair of aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery - a clinical series. Surg Neurol 1989;31:85-91.

Branch CL Jr, Kelly DL Jr, Davis CH Jr, McWhorter JM. Fixation of fractures of the lower cervical spine using methyl methacrylate and wire: technique and results in 99 patients. Neurosurgery 1989; 25:503 513.

Curling OD Jr, Branch CL Jr, Nicastro JF. Arthroscopically-guided transpedicular decompression of thoracolumbar burst fractures: a new technique. J Neurosurg 1990; 72:338A.

Branch CL Jr. Codman® Neurolase® CO2 microsurgical laser system surgical considerations. Neuro News 1990; 17.

Wilson TA, Branch CL Jr. Thoracic disk herniation. Am Fam Phys 1992;45(5):2162-2168.

Branch CL Jr, Coric D, Olds W, Ekstrand K. Stereotactic radiosurgery: a review of "Gamma" and "Linac knife" technology and the unit at the Wake Forest Medical Center. NCMJ 1992;53:395-399.

Ekstrand KE, Olds WW, Branch CL. A simple test phantom for stereotactic computed tomography. Med Phys 1993;20:391-393.

Wilson JA, Branch CL Jr. Neuromuscular blockade in head-injured patients with increased intracranial pressure: continuous versus intermittent use. J Neurosurg Anes 1994;6:139-141.

Branch CL Jr. Anatomic principles guiding surgery of degenerative lumbar spine disease. Clin Neurosurg 1994;41:258-269.

Rozzelle CJ, Wofford JL, Branch CL. Predictors of hospital mortality in older patients with subdural hematoma. J Am Ger Soc 1995;240-244.

Coric D, Branch CL Jr, Graham AW. Pedicle screw and plate/rod fixation of the thoracic and lumbar spine: Safety and efficacy in 113 patients. Neurological Surgery 1995; 6(2):85-94.

Coric D, Branch CL Jr, Wilson JA, Robinson JC. Arteriovenous fistula as a complication of C1-2 transarticular scrw fixation. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 1996;85:340-343.

Coric D, Branch CL Jr, Jenkins JD. Revision of anterior cervical pseudarthrosis with anterior allograft fusion and plating. J Neurosurg 1997;86:969-974.

Jenkins JD, Coric D, Branch CL Jr. A clinical comparison of one- and two-screw odontoid fixation. J Neurosurg 1998; 89:366-370.

Delcker A, Knappertz VA, Wilson J, Branch C, Bell T, Tegeler C. Transcranial 3D B-mode imaging in a case of cerebral hemorrhage. J Neuroimaging 1998; 8(3):173-175.

Branch CL Jr. Anterior cervical fusion: The case for fusion without plating. Clin Neurosurg 1999;45:22-24.

Wilson JA, Bowen S, Branch CL Jr., Meredith JW. Review of 31 cases of anterior thoracolumbar fixation with the anterior thoracolumbar locking plate system. Neurosurg Focus 1999; 7(1): 1-8.

Namen AM, Ely EW, Tatter SB, Case LD, Lucia MA, Smith A, Landry S, Wilson JA, Glazier SS, Branch CL, Kelly DL, Bowton DL, Haponik EF. Predictors of successful extubation in neurosurgical patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 163;2001:658-664.

Alexander JT, Branch CL Jr, Subach BR, Haid RW. Applications of a resorbable Interbody spacer via a posterior lumbar Interbody fusion technique. Orthopedics (Supplement) 25;2002:s1185-s1189.

Alexander JT, Branch CL Jr, Subach BR, Haid RW. Applications of a resorbable Interbody spacer via a posterior lumbar Interbody fusion technique. J of Neurosurg 97;2002: 468-472.

Austin RC, Branch CL Jr, Alexander JT. Novel bioabsorbable interbody fusion spacer-assisted fusion for correction of spinal deformity. Neurosurg Focus. 2002; 14:1-6.

Vaccaro AR, Singh K, Haid R, Kitchel S, Wuisman P, Taylor W, Branch C, Garfin S. The use of bioabsorbable implants in the spine. Spine J 2003;3:227-237.

Couture DE, Branch CL, Jr. Spinal pseudomeningoceles and cerebrospinal fluid fistulas. Neurosurg Focus 2003;15 (6): 1-5.

Couture, DE, Branch CL, Jr. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion with bioabsorbable spacers and local autograft in a series of 27 patients. Neurosurg Focus 2004;16 (3):1-5.

Schuler, TC, Subach, BR, Branch CL, Foley, KT, Burkus, JT, the Lumbar Spine Study Group. Segmental lumbar lordosis: manual versus computer-assisted measurement using seven different techniques. J SpinalDisord Tech 2004; 17:372-379.

Barnes B, Alexander JT, Branch CL, Jr. Postoperative level 1 anticoagulation therapy and spinal surgery: practical guidelines for management. Neurosurg Focus 2004;17(4):E5.

Branch CL Jr. Balance: a team effort [editorial]. Spine J. 2005;5(2):121-122.

Glassman, S., Gornet, M.F., Branch, C., Polly Jr., D, Peloza, J., Schwender, J.D., Carreon, L. MOS Short Form 36 and Oswestry Disability Index outcomes in lumbar fusion: a multicenter experience. The Spine J. 2006:6:21-26.

Balamucki CJ, Stieber VW, Ellis TL, Tatter SB, Deguzman AF, McMullen KP, Lovato J, Shaw EG, Ekstrand KE, Bourland JD, Munley MT, Robbins M, Branch C. Does dose rate affect efficacy? The outcomes of 256 Gamma Knife surgery procedures for trigeminal neuralgia and other types of facial pain as they relate to the half-life of cobalt. J Neurosurg. 2006 Nov;105(5):730-5.

Kim PK, Branch CL Jr: The lumbar degenerative disc: confusion, mechanics, management. Clin Neurosurg 2006;53:18-25.

Polly DW, Glassman SD, Schwender JD, Burkus JK, Branch C, Schaffrey C, Gornet M, and Lumbar Spine Study Group. SF-36 PCS benefit/cost ratio of lumbar fusion: comparison to other surgical interventions. Spine 2007; 32(11) Supplement:S20-S26.

Stieber V, Robbins M, deGuzman A, Tatter S, Ekstrand K, McMullen K, Branch C, Shaw E, Bourland JD, Lovato J, Munley M, Ellis T, et al: Determination of a clinical value for the repair half-time (T1/2) of the trigeminal nerve based on outcome data from gamma knife radiosurgery for facial pain . Radiat Res 2007;168(2):143-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR0620.

Branch CL: Neurosurgery and spine: a vital synergy--Chairperson address, 2007 Annual Meeting of Section of Disorders of Spine and Peripheral Nerves [editorial]. J Neurosurg Spine 2007;7(4):377-378. http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/SPI-07/10/377

Glassman SD, Branch CL Jr: Evidence-based medicine: raising the bar [editorial]. Spine J 2007;7(5):513-515. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2007.04.011

Stevens EA, Strowd R, Branch CL, Jr. Minimally invasive en bloc resection of a spinal hemangioblastoma. AANS Online Case Studies; E pub, 2008.

Branch CL Jr: 2009 Presidential Address: Building bridges. Spine J 2010;10(1):1-4.

Abtracts
Branch CL Jr., Davis CH Jr. False aneurysm complicating carotid endarterectomy. Neurosurgery 1985;16:726.

Branch CL Jr., Branch CL. The keystone PLIF: description and review of 182 ABSTRACTS: (Continued) cases with the spinous process as the bone graft in posterior lumbar interbody fusion. Neurosurgery 1985; 16:727-728.

Kelly DL Jr., Branch CL Jr. Cooperative neurootological management of acoustic neurinomas and other cerebellopontine angle tumors. Neurosurgery 1987;21:120.

Branch CL, Kelly DL, Alexander E, Davis CH, McWhorter JM. Fixation of lower cervical spine fractures using methyl methacrylate and wire: technique and results in 99 patients. Neurosurgery 1987;21:116.

Lee KS, Branch CL Jr., Kelly DL Jr., McWhorter JM. Aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery: a clinical study. Neurosurgery 1988;23:262.

Curling OD, Branch CL Jr., Nicastro JF. Arthroscopically guided transpedicular decompression of thoracolumbar burst fractures: a new technique. J Neurosurg 1990; 72:338A.

Rozzelle CJ, Wofford JL, Branch CL. Factors influencing outcome of subdural hematoma in the elderly. Clin Res 1993;41:530A.

Jenkins JD, Branch CL, Kelly DL. A comparison of anterior cervical instrumentation systems. North American Spine Society, Proceedings, 1995; 215.

Branch CL: Neurosurgery and spine: a vital synergy--Chairperson address, 2007 Annual Meeting of Section of Disorders of Spine and Peripheral Nerves [editorial]. J Neurosurg Spine 2007;7(4):377-378. http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/SPI-07/10/377

Glassman SD, Branch CL Jr: Evidence-based medicine: raising the bar [editorial] . Spine J 2007;7(5):513-515. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2007.04.011

Jenkins JD, Branch CL, Kelly DL. A comparison of anterior cervical instrumentation systems. North American Spine Society, Proceedings, 1995; 282.

Coric D, Branch CL. Pedicle screw plate/rod fixation: safety and efficacy in 113 patients. North American Spine Society, Proceedings, 1995; 300.

Robinson JC, Branch CL Jr. Acquired thoracic stenosis. North American Spine Society, Proceedings, 10th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, October 18-21, 1995; 319.

Tatter SB, Namen AM, Ely EW, Lucia MA, Case DL,, Landry S, Haponik EF, Wilson JA, Glazier SS, Branch, CL Jr., Kelly DL Jr. Predictors of successful extubation in neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgery 2000; 47(2): 536 (abstract).

Alexander J, Branch C Jr. Recombinant human bone morphogenic protSD stem-2 in a posterior lumbar interbody fusion construct. Spine J 2002;2(5 Suppl 1):48. [abstract].

Ramsey AF, Ekstrand K, Lovato J, Stieber V, Huang T, Bourland J, Deguzman A, Branch C, Ellis T , Tatter S. Edema following Gamma-Knife radiosurgery for intracranial meningiomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002;54(2 Suppl):146-147. [abstract]

Ellis TL, Deguzman AF, Shaw E, Tatter SB, Ekstrand K, Bourland JD, Branch C, Munley MT, Huang TW, Stieber VW. The Outcome Of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery For Facial Pain Varies By Pre-Treatment Burchiel Classification Pain Type: Results From 256 Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Procedures For Facial Pain [Abstract]. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;63(2 Suppl 1):S104-S105.

Ellis TL, Deguzman AF, Tatter SB, Bourland JD, Munley M, Ekstrand K, Shaw EG, Branch C, Huang TW, Stieber VW. The Effect Of Dose Rate On The Outcomes Of 256 Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Procedures For Facial Pain [Abstract]. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;63(2 Suppl 1):S106-S107.

Abitbol JJ, Glassman S, Polly D, Shaffrey C, Branch C, and Burkus K. Age stratified outcome analysis of surgical decompression and fusion for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis [Abstract]. 2007 International Society of the Study of the Lumbar Spine, Hong Kong, China. June 10-14, 2007. 2007 World Spine IV: The Fourth Interdisciplinary Congress on Spine Care, Istanbul, Turkey. July 29-August 1, 2007. (in review, International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Paradise Island, Bahamas. July 11-14, 2007. 2007 North American Spine Society, Austin, TX. October 23-27.)

Berven S, Glassman SD, Gornet M, Branch CL, Dimar JL, Hu SS. The Discriminate Validity of the SF-36 in Lumbar Spine Surgical Candidates [Abstract]. 2007 American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, San Diego, CA. February 14-18, 2007.

Book Chapters
Branch CL Jr., Kelly DL Jr., Lynch GC. Surgical exposure of peripheral nerves. In: Wilkins RH, Rengachary SS, eds. Neurosurgery. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985:1846-1863.

Kelly DL Jr., Branch CL Jr. Acoustic neurinoma. In: Long DM, ed. Current therapy in neurological surgery. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Decker, 1989:65-67.

Branch CL, Branch CL Jr. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion--the keystone technique. In: Lin PM, ed. Lumbar interbody fusion. Rockville, MD: Aspen, 1989:211-219.

Branch CL, Branch CL Jr. Operative management of failed back syndrome. In: Youmans J, ed. Neurological Surgery, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, 1990:2731-2748.

Branch CL Jr. Multiple brain metastases: are they surgical lesions? In: Barrow DL, ed. Perspectives in neurological surgery. St. Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing, Inc., 1990:35-44.

Hadley MN, Branch CL Jr., Geisler FH, Sonntag VKH. Management of cervical spine instability. In: Barrow DL, ed. Perspectives in neurological surgery. St. Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing, Inc., 1990:45-75.

Branch CL Jr. Peripheral nerve tumors. In: Benzel EC, ed. Practical Approaches to Peripheral Nerve Surgery. Park Ridge, IL: American Association of Neurological Surgeons, 1992:197-208.

Branch CL Jr. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion. In: Hardy RW, Jr., ed. BOOK Lumbar Disc Disease, New York: Raven Press, 1992;187-200.

Lyerly MA, Branch CL Jr. Anatomy and radiology of thoracic and thoracolumbar trauma. In: Rea CL, Miller CA (eds.). Spinal Trauma: current Evaluation and Management. Park Ridge, IL: American Association of Neurological Surgeons, 1993;105-116.

Branch CL Jr. Ventral thoracic and lumbar spine anatomy. In: Benzel EC (ed.): Surgical Exposure of the Spine: An Extensile Approach. Park Ridge, IL: The American Association of Neurological Surgeons, 1995; 27-37.

Branch CL Jr., Kelly DL Jr., Lynch GC. Surgical exposure of peripheral nerves. In: Wilkins RH, Rengachary SS (eds). Neurosurgery, 2nd ed., vol. III. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996; 3147-3167.

Branch CL Jr. Stabilizing lumbar spondylolisthesis with decompression, fusion, and instrumentation. Al-Mefty O, Origitano TC, Harkey HL (eds.): Controversies in Neurosurgery. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 1996; 272-273.

Rajaraman V, Jackson CH, Branch CL Jr, Petrozza PH. Supratentorial and pituitary surgery. In: Albin MS, Melvin S (eds.): Textbook of Neuroanesthesia with Neurosurgical and Neuroscience Perspectives. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996; 931-957.

Branch CL Jr. The case for posterior lumbar interbody fusion. In: Loftus CM (ed.). Clinical Neurosurgery, Vol. 43. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1996; 252-267.

Jones DS, Wray SD, Branch CL Jr. Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Historical and technical Overview. In: Batjer, HH, Loftus CM (eds.): Textbook of Neurological Surgery: Principles and Practice, Vol. 2. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003; 2167-2171.

Jones DS, Branch CL.. History and over. In Haid RW Jr, McLaughlin MR, Fessler RG (eds.): Lumbar Interbody Fusion Techniques: Cages, Dowels, And Grafts, St. Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing, Inc, 2003:201-215.

McLaughling MR, Branch CL Jr, Haid RW Jr, Subach BR. Technique for impacted posterior lumbar interbody fusion. In Haid RW Jr, McLaughlin MR, Fessler RG (eds.): Lumbar Interbody Fusion Techniques: Cages, Dowels, And Grafts, St. Louis, MO:Quality Medical Publishing, Inc, 2003:216-226.

Kim PK, Branch CL Jr. The Lumbar Degenerative Disc: Confusion, Mechanics, Management. In Clinical Neurosurgery, Vol. 53. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins Co., 2006; 18-25.

Stevens EA, Branch CL, Jr. Fusion: posterior approaches. In: Phillips FM, Lauryssen C, eds. The Lumbar Intervertebral Disc. New York, NY: Thieme; June 2009.

Monograph
Branch CL, Gates RL, Susman JL, et al. Low back pain. Monograph, Edition No. 185, Homestudy Self-Assessment Program. Kansas City, MO: American Academy of Family Physicians, Oct. 1994;1-45.

Miscellaneous
Handbook of Physiology, Section I: The Nervous System. Vol. III, The Sensory Processes, Parts I and II. For: Surgical Neurology 1985;23:207. (Book Review)

Head Injury, 2nd ed.Cooper PR, ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1987. For: Surgical Neurology, 1987;477 478. (Book Review)

Branch CL Jr, McWhorter JM. Introduction. Neurosurgery 1988;22(1 pt 2):169.

Branch CL Jr. Observations on the selection of a neurosurgical residency training program: a resident's prospective. Neurosurgery 1988;22(1 pt 2):172.

Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery. Symon L, et al., eds. New York: Springer Verlag, 1988. For: Surg Neurol 1990;16:78. (Book Review)

Principles of Microsurgery for Lumbar Disc Disease. McCulloch JA. New York: Raven Press, 1989. For: Surg Neurol 1990;33:78 79. (Book Review)

Surgery of Spine Trauma. Meyer PR Jr., ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1989. For: J Neurosurg 1990;72:980-981. (Book Review)

 

Case Studies Presented by Charles L. Branch, Jr., MD

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis and Lower Extremity Pain in a 77-year-old Male

Presented by: C. Branch Jr., MD

The patient is a 77-year-old Caucasian male. He underwent recent elective quadruple coronary artery bypass graft 12 months prior with good recovery. He complains of bilateral buttock pain that radiates through his thighs and calves. Pain is exacerbated by standing and ambulation. He is unable to walk for more than 10 minutes or 2 to 3 blocks due to pain.

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Author's Statement

I, or an immediate family member, have a financial interest(s) or affiliation(s) with the following commercial companies whose products and / or services may be mentioned in the materials I have authored, edited or reviewed for presentation on Vertical Health, LLC’s websites.

Disclosed Relationships

Consultant
Medtronic Spine and Biologics
Other Financial or Material Support
Royalties: Medtronic Spine and Biologics
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