Brian R. Subach, MD's portrait
Brian R. Subach, MD
Neurosurgeon/Spine Surgeon
Virginia Spine Institute
Reston, VA

About Brian R. Subach, MD

Dr. Brian R. Subach completed his undergraduate degree with honors from Kalamazoo College in Michigan before graduating from the University of Michigan Medical School with distinction in 1993. By that time he had achieved the Edgar A. Kahn Award for excellence in Surgery, the C. Gardner Child Award for excellence in Neurosurgery, and was inducted into the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. He went on to complete a seven-year Neurosurgery Residency at the University of Pittsburgh and was given the Department's Resident Teaching Award for his performance. He received additional training in cerebrovascular surgery at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas before going on to complete a post-graduate Fellowship in complex spinal surgery at the Emory Clinic in Atlanta. He is a diplomat of the National Board of Medical Examiners, a fellow in the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and is Board Certified by both the American Board of Neurological Surgeons (ABNS) and the American Board of Spinal Surgery (ABSS).

Dr. Subach has written extensively regarding both his clinical and laboratory investigations. To date he has authored more than 50 articles in peer reviewed journals, edited 15 textbooks, and has given hundreds of invited lectures at national and international meetings. He is currently a member of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS), and the North American Spine Society (NASS). He participates in the AANS/CNS Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care, is active in the Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, and is the Chairman-Elect for the Young Neurosurgeons Committee of the AANS and a member of the AANS Washington Committee. He is the current Chairman of the NASS Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery course and has been a longtime member of the American Medical Association.

Dr. Subach left his appointment as Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery at the Emory University Medical School Department of Neurosurgery in 2003 and has joined the Virginia Spine Institute in Reston, Virginia. His interests include artificial disc technology, minimally invasive techniques, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and resorbable spinal implants.

Publications

Publications in Refereed Journals:
1. Bharucha VA, Peden KW, Subach BR, Narayanan V, and Tennekoon GI: Characterization of the cis-acting Elements of the Mouse Myelin P2 Promoter. J. Neurosci. Res. 36(5):508-19, 1993.

2. Welch WC, Subach BR, Pollack IF, Jacobs GW: Frameless stereotactic guidance for surgery of the upper cervical spine. Neurosurgery 40: 958-964, 1997.

3. Resnick DK, Subach BR, Marion DW: The significance of carotid canal involvement in basilar cranial fracture. Neurosurgery 40: 1177-1181, 1997.

4. Al-Hindi H, Subach BR, Hamilton RL: Case of the month - 7-year-old girl with seizures. Brain Pathology 7: 1023-1024, 1997.

5. Subach BR, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC: The management of petroclival meningiomas by stereotactic radiosurgery. Neurosurgery 42: 437-445, 1998.

6. McLaughlin MR, Subach BR, Jannetta PJ, Lunsford LD: The origin and evolution of the University of Pittsburgh Department of Neurological Surgery. Neurosurgery 42: 893-898, 1998.

7. Subach BR, McLaughlin MR, Albright AL, Pollack IF: Current management of pediatric atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation. Spine 23:2174-2179, 1998.

8. Pollock BE, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, Sekula R, Subach BR, Foote RL, Flickinger JC: Vestibular schwannoma management. Part II. Failed radiosurgery and the role of delayed microsurgery. J Neurosurg 89:949-955, 1998.

9. Kondziolka D, Subach BR, Lunsford LD, Bissonette DJ, Flickinger JC: Outcomes after gamma knife radiosurgery in solitary acoustic tumors and Neurofibromatosis Type 2. Neurosurgical Focus 5(3): Article 2, 1998.

10. McLaughlin MR, Jannetta PJ, Clyde BL, Subach BR, Comey CH, Resnick DK: Microvascular decompression of cranial nerves: lessons learned after 4400 operations. J Neurosurg 90:1-8, 1999.

11. Subach BR, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Bissonette DA, Flickinger JC, Maitz AH: Stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of acoustic neuromas associated with neurofibromatosis-type II. J Neurosurg 90:815-822, 1999.

12. Subach BR, Witham TF, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Bozik M, Schiff D: Morbidity and survival after BCNU wafer implantation for recurrent glioblastoma: A retrospective case-matched cohort series. Neurosurgery 45, 17-23, 1999.

13. Subach BR, Morone MA, Haid RW Jr., McLaughlin MR, Rodts GE, Comey CH: Management of acute odontoid fractures with single screw anterior fixation. Neurosurgery 45:812-20, 1999.

14. McLaughlin MR, Zhang JY, Subach BR, Haid RW Jr, Rodts GE: Laparoscopic anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Technical note. Neurosurgical Focus Vol. 7, December 1999.

15. Rodts GE, McLaughlin MR, Zhang JY, Subach BR, Haid RW Jr: Laparoscopic anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Clin Neurosurg 47:514-27, 2000.

16. McLaughlin MR, Haid RW, Rodts GE, Subach BR: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion: indications, technique, and results. Clinical Neurosurgery, Volume 47; 514-527, 1999.

17. Rodts GE, Haid RW Jr, McLaughlin MR, Subach BR: Neuro-navigation of the spine: current therapies and emerging technology. Spinal Surgery (Japan) 14(3):171-182, 2000.

18. Shilpakar SSK, McLaughlin MR, Haid RW, Rodts GE, Subach BR: Management of acute odontoid fractures: technical note and complication avoidance. Neurosurg Focus 8 (6): article 3, 2000.

19. Lee JYK, Lunsford LD, Subach BR, Kondziolka D, Bissonette DJ: Brain surgery with image guidance: Current recommendations based on a 20-year assessment. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2000;(75):35-48.

20. Spiro RM, Subach BR, Marion DW, Kimball D, Bullian LA: Outcome Expectations in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Associated with Fixed, Dilated Pupils and Radiographic Evidence of Transtentorial Herniation. Neurosurgery 46:812-20, 2000.

21. Duma CM, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, Subach BR, Jacques DB: Gamma knife radiosurgery of cavernous sinus meningiomas: Results of a two-institution, 10-year experience. Neurosurgery 46:707-12, 2000.

22. McLaughlin MR, Rodts GE, Haid RW, Subach BR: Current techniques in image guided spine surgery. Contemporary Neurosurgery: 22 (16):1-6, 2000.

23. Subach BR, Haid RW Jr., Rodts GE Jr., McLaughlin MR: Do current outcomes data support the technique of lumbar interbody fusion? Clinical Neurosurgery, Volume 48, 204-18, 2000.

24. McLaughlin MR, Haid RW, Rodts GE, Subach BR: Overview of frameless stereotactic techniques for lumbar spine surgery. Seminars Neurosurg 11:165-176, 2000.

25. Wahlig JB, McLaughlin MR, Subach BR, Haid RW Jr., Rodts GE: Management of low back pain. The Neurologist 6(6):326-337, November, 2000.

26. Subach BR, Haid RW, Rodts GE, Kaiser MG: Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2): Overview and update. Neurosurgical Focus 10 (4): Article 3, 2001.

27. Haid RW, Subach BR, McLaughlin MR, Rodts GE, Wahlig JB: C1-2 transarticular screw fixation for atlantoaxial instability: a six-year experience. Neurosurgery 49:65-70, 2001.

28. Mummaneni PV, Rodts GE, Subach BR, Birch BD, Haid RW: Management of thoracic disc disease. Contemporary Neurosurgery 23(23): November 1, 2001.

29. Mayr MT, Subach BR, Comey CH, Rodts GE, Haid RW: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: outcomes of anterior corpectomy and instrumented fusion. J Neurosurg 2002 Jan;96 (1 suppl):10-6.

30. Barnes B, Haid RW, Rodts GE, Subach BR, Kaiser MG: Early results using the Atlantis anterior cervical plating system. Neurosurgical Focus, 2002.

31. Mummaneni PV, Rodts GE, Sasso RC, Traynelis VC, Subach BR, Fiore A, Haid RW: Posterior cervical fusion using a new polyaxial screw and rod system: technique and preliminary results. Neurosurgical Focus, 2002.

32. Tang G, Subach BR, Rodts GE, Haid RW: Management of infection following implantation of anterior spinal cages. Seminars in Spine Surgery, December 2002.

33. Kaiser MG, Haid RW Jr., Subach BR, Rodts GE: Anterior cervical plating enhances arthrodesis after discectomy and fusion with cortical allograft. Neurosurgery 2002 Feb;50(2):229-36; discussion 236-8.

34. Kaiser MG, Haid RW Jr., Subach BR, Miller JS, Smith CD, Rodts GE: Comparison of the mini-open versus laparoscopic approach for anterior lumbar interbody fusion: A retrospective review. Neurosurgery 2002 Jul;51(1):97-103; discussion 103-5.

35. Fiore AJ, Haid RW, Rodts GE, Subach BR, Mummaneni PV, Riedel CJ, Birch BD: Atlantal lateral mass screws for posterior spinal reconstruction. Neurosurg Focus 12(1):Article 5, 2002.

36. Kaiser MG, Haid RW Jr., Subach BR, Barnes B, Rodts GE: Anterior cervical plating enhances arthrodesis after discectomy and fusion with cortical allograft. Neurosurgery 2002 Feb; 50(2):229-36 ;discussion 236-8.

37. Barnes B, Rodts GE, Haid RW, Subach BR, McLaughlin MR : Allograft implants for posterior lumbar interbody fusion : results comparing cylindrical dowels and impacted wedges. Neurosurgery 2002 Nov ; 51(5) :1191-8, discussion 1198.

38. Narayan P, Haid RW, Subach BR, Comey CH, Rodts GE : Effect of spinal disease on successful arthrodesis in lumbar pedicle screw fixation. J Neurosurg (Spine)2002;97(3 suppl.):277-280.

39. Mummaneni PV, Lin FJ, Haid RW, Rodts GE, Subach BR, Miller JS : Current indications and techniques for anterior approaches to the lumbar spine. Contemp Neurosurg 2002 :24 (10) :1-8.

40. Mummaneni PV, Lin FJ, Haid RW, Rodts GE, Subach BR, Miller JS : Current indications and techniques for anterior approaches to the lumbar spine. Contemp Spine Surg 2002 :3 (8) :57-64.

41. Alexander JT, Branch CL, Subach BR, Haid RW : Applications of a resorbable interbody spacer via a posterior lumbar interbody fusion technique. Orthopedics 2002 Oct ;25(10 suppl):s1185-9; discussion s1189.

42. Alexander JT, Branch CL, Subach BR, Haid RW :Applications of a resorbable interbody spacer in posterior lumbar interbody fusion. J. Neurosurg 2002 Nov ;97(4 Suppl) :468-72. Review.

43. Mummaneni PV, Haid RW, Subach BR, Rodts GE : Ventral Plus Dorsal Techniques for Thoracolumbar Arthrodesis. Techniques in Neurosurgery. Thoracolumbar Trauma. 8(2):83-92, June 2003.

44. Schuler TC, Subach BR, Branch C, Foley K, Burkus JK : Segmental lumbar lordosis : manual versus computer-assisted measurement using seven different techniques. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2004 Oct;17(5):372-9.

45. Subach BR, Schuler TC, Hasz MW : Structural failure of cervical allograft cancellous spacers. In review, Journal of Neurosurgery-Spine, 2004.

46. Subach BR, Schuler TC, Burkus JK : Technical Note : Anterior lumbar interbody implants : the importance of interdevice distance. In review, Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, 2004.

47. Subach BR, Schuler TC : To the Editor re : Fairbank et al. Randomised controlled trial to compare surgical stabilisation of the lumbar spine with an intensive rehabilitation programme for patients with chronic low back pain : the MRC stabilisation trial. Br. Med. J. 2005 ; 330 :1233. 29 June 2005.

48. Schuler TC, Burkus JK, Gornet MF, Subach BR, Zdeblick TA: The correlation between preoperative disc space height and clinical outcomes after anterior lumbar interbody fusion. J Spinal Disord Tech 18(5);396-401.2005

Contributed Publications:
1. Subach BR, Papadopoulos SM: The Rheumatoid Cervical Spine. In The Practice of Neurosurgery, Tindall, Barrow, Cooper (eds.), Williams and Wilkins 1995.

2. Subach BR, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D: Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Pineal Region Tumors. in Progress in Neurosurgery; Gamma Knife Brain Surgery. Lunsford LD (ed.), Karger, 1998.

3. McLaughlin MR, Haid RW Jr, Rodts GE, Subach BR: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion: indications, technique and results, Chapter 29, in Clinical Neurosurgery: Proceedings of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons, Howard MA, Elliott JP, Haglund MM, McKhann GM, (eds). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Boston, MA, Vol. 47, pp 5155-27, 1999.

4. Rodts GE, McLaughlin MR, Zhang J, Subach BR, Haid RW Jr: Laparoscopic anterior lumbar interbody fusion, Chapter 32, in Clinical Neurosurgery: Proceedings of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons, Howard MA, Elliott JP, Haglund MM, McKhann GM, (eds). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Boston, MA, Vol. 47, pp 541-556, 1999.

5. Subach BR, Marion DM: Intensive Care Management of Cranial Trauma. in Textbook of Neurological Surgery. Batjer and Loftus (eds.), 2002.

6. McLaughlin MR, Haid RW Jr, Rodts GE, Subach BR: Overview of frameless stereotactic techniques for lumbar spine surgery. Seminars in Neurological Surgery 2002.

7. Subach BR, Haid RW, Rodts GE, Fiore A, Mummaneni PV, Petraglia CA: Fractures, stenosis, and sports: guidance for participation. Chapter 49, in Clinical Neurosurgery: Proceedings of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.,2002;49:518-527.

8. Kaiser MG, Subach BR, Rodts GE, Haid RW: Chapter 22. Cervical burst fractures. In Neurosurgery, 3rd edition. Wilkins and Rengachary (eds.), 2002.

9. Subach BR, Haid RW, Rodts GE, Kaiser MG: Techniques of ventral thoracic and lumbar spinal stabilization. In Neurosurgery, 3rd edition. Wilkins and Rengachary (eds.), 2002.

10. Haid RW, Subach BR, Rodts GE (editors.): Progress in Neurological Surgery: Advances in Spinal Stabilization., S. Karger Publishers, Farmington, CT, 2003.

11. Kaiser MG, Subach BR, Rodts GE: Operative Approach Selection: Anterior vs Posterior. in Haid RW, McLaughlin MR, Fessler RG (eds): Lumbar Interbody Fusion Techniques - Cages, Dowels, and Grafts. Quality Medical Publishing, St. Louis, Missouri, 2003.

12. McLaughlin MR, Branch CD, Haid RW, Subach BR: Technique for impacted posterior lumbar interbody fusion. in Haid RW, McLaughlin MR, Fessler RG (eds): Lumbar Interbody Fusion Techniques - Cages, Dowels, and Grafts. Quality Medical Publishing, St. Louis, Missouri, 2003.

13. Subach BR, Haid RW, Rodts GE, Petraglia CA: Bone Morphogenetic Protein (rhBMP-2): Experimental review and clinical update. In Haid RW, Subach BR, Rodts GE (eds.) Progress in Neurological Surgery: Advances in Spinal Stabilization. S. Karger Publishing, Farmington, CT, 2003.

14. Kaiser MG, Haid RW Jr., Subach BR, Rodts GE: Laparoscopic versus 'Mini-open' Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion. In Haid RW, Subach BR, Rodts GE (eds.) Progress in Neurological Surgery: Advances in Spinal Stabilization. S. Karger Publishing, Farmington, CT, 2003.

15. Subach BR, Schuler TC: Posterior Atlantoaxial Screw Fixation. In Wolfla C and Resnick DK (eds.) Neurosurgical Operative Atlas 2E: Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Thieme Medical Publishing, New York, NY, 2005.

Published Abstracts:
1. Subach BR, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC: Stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of petroclival meningiomas. Skull Base Surgery, 1996.

2. Resnick DK, Subach BR , Marion DW: Vascular complications associated with basilar skull fracture. Neurosurgery 39:653, 1996.

3. Subach BR, Welch WC, Pollack IF, Jacobs GW: Frameless stereotactic guidance for surgery of the upper cervical spine. Neurosurgery 39:648, 1996.

4. Subach BR, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC: Stereotactic radiosurgery as an alternative to microsurgery in the management of petroclival meningiomas. Neurosurgery 39:648, 1996.

5. Welch WC, Subach BR, Pollack IF, Jacobs GW: Frameless stereotactic guidance for surgery of the upper cervical spine. North American Program on Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June, 1997.

6. Clyde BL, Subach BR, Jho HD, Lunsford LD: Multimodal therapy of brainstem cavernous malformations at the University of Pittsburgh. Skull Base Surgery 8:8, 1998.

7. Lunsford LD, Pollock BE, Kondziolka D, Sekula R, Subach BR, Flickinger JC: Failed radiosurgery and the role of microsurgery for acoustic neuromas. J Neurosurg 88:395A, 1998.

8. Duma CM, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, Subach BR, Jacques DB: Gamma knife radiosurgery of cavernous sinus meningiomas: Results of a two-institution, 10-year experience. J Neurosurg 88:385A, 1998.

9. Pollock BE, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, Subach BR: Vestibular schwannoma management. Part II: Failed radiosurgery and the role of delayed microsurgery. J Neurosurg 88:396A, 1998.

10. Subach BR, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D: Will radiosurgery replace microsurgery for pineal region tumors? J Neurosurg 88:385A, 1998.

11. Subach BR, McLaughlin MR, Albright AL, Pollack IF: Current management of pediatric atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation. Neurosurgery 43:676, 1998.

12. Subach BR, Witham TF, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Bozik M, Schiff D: Morbidity and survival after BCNU wafer implantation for recurrent glioblastoma: A retrospective case matched cohort series. Neurosurgery 43:678, 1998.

13. Subach BR, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Bissonette DA, Flickinger JC, Maitz AH: Stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of acoustic neuromas associated with neurofibromatosis-type II. J Neurosurg 90:411A, 1999.

14. Spiro RM, Subach BR, Marion DW, Kimball D, Bullian LA: Outcome Expectations in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Associated with Fixed, Dilated Pupils and Radiographic Evidence of Transtentorial Herniation. Neurosurgery 45:706, 1999.

15. Subach BR, Mclaughlin MR, Haid RW, Rodts GE: C1-2 transarticular screw fixation for atlantoaxial instability: a six-year experience. J Neurosurg 92:579, 2000.

16. Haid RW Jr., Subach BR, Rodts GE Jr., McLaughlin MR: Do current outcomes data support the technique of lumbar interbody fusion? Congress of Neurological Surgeons. San Antonio, Texas, October 2000.

17. Subach BR, Haid RW, Rodts GE: Bone morphogenetic proteins: overview, update, and FDA status. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Phoenix, Arizona, February 2001.

18. Subach BR, Haid RW, Rodts GE: Resorbable Polymers in Spine Surgery. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Orlando, February 2002.

19. Subach BR, Haid RW, Rodts GE: The use of a resorbable polymer in an impacted PLIF. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves. Orlando, February 2002.

20. Mummaneni PV, Haid RW, Subach BR, Rodts GE: Principles of spinal deformity: Evaluation of adult thoracolumbar deformity and non-operative treatment options. Southern Neurosurgical Society, 2003.

21. Mummaneni PV, Haid RW, Subach BR, Rodts GE: Cervical pedicle subtraction osteotomy for chin on chest deformity- Technique and results. Southern Neurosurgical Society, 2003.

22. Subach BR, Glassman S, Polly DW, et al: The Effect of Previous Discectomy on Outcome after Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery. 12th International Meeting for Advanced Spinal Techniques, 2005.

23. Subach BR, Glassman S, Polly DW, et al: The Effect of Previous Discectomy on Outcome after Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery. Scoliosis Research Society, Miami, October 2005.

Articles Written by Brian R. Subach, MD

Cervical Sports Injuries: The Stinger

A stinger, sometimes called a burner, is an injury that occurs when the head or neck is hit to one side causing the shoulder to be pulled in the opposite direction.

Laparoscopic Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Technical Note

A case study from Emory University on the use of anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

Articles Reviewed by Brian R. Subach, MD

Back Care on Airplanes

Taking a long plane ride soon and worrying about comfort? This article gives practical tips that will help you take care of your back and neck.

5 Ways to Manage Back Pain

Low back pain is common, but if you have it, know that it does not have to control your life. Find out 5 quick and easy ways to relieve back pain today.

Use Good Body Mechanics to Help Keep Your Spine Safe

This article offers excellent tips that can be incorporated into your daily life and help you improve your body mechanics. Good posture, which comes from correct body mechanics, can help minimize the risk of injury to your spine.

Body Mechanics and Your Spine: Tips 7 - 10

Tips 7 through 10 to help you improve your body mechanics and keep your spine safe.

Body Mechanics and Your Spine: Tips 4 - 6

Take a lesson in body mechanics from the professionals - the golf professionals that is. Learn how they keep their focus on back-saving movements.

Spinal Structure and Body Mechanics

The spine is a complex structure that is prone to normal degenerative processes that can affect the spine's structural integrity.

Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar Discography Information

Discography confirms or denies the disc(s) as a pain source. Learn how the procedure is performed and its importance in planning spine surgery.

Back Care for Nurses

Nursing easily tops the list of occupations that are most associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. This page has information and statistics discussing the importance of back care in nursing.

Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbosacral Low Dose Intrathecal Contrast Enhanced CAT Scan

Similar to a myelogram, contrast dye is injected into the low back to enhance images of the spinal canal and nerve roots.

6 Leading Causes of Sciatica

From a spine surgeon: what are the most common causes of sciatica? And more specifically: what's causing your sciatic nerve pain?

Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbosacral Medial Branch Block Information

An injection to block the medial branch nerves temporarily stops the transmission of pain signals from the spinal joints to the brain.

A Head's Up on Posture: Don't Be a Slouch!

Poor posture is not only a bad habit, but it can impact your spine, leading to back pain and neck pain. This article describes easy ways to incorporate good posture at home, work, and during everyday activities. Learn how good posture can help you prevent back pain and neck pain.

Back Care for Dentists and Surgeons

Doctors and Dentists are not immune from back pain related to being on their feet all day. This article outlines some ways that health care professionals can tackle their back pain head on.

Body Mechanics and Your Spine: Tips 1 - 3

To prevent painful back and neck injuries, make sure you have both good posture and good body mechanics. Combined, they can keep you from hurting your spine. Learn 3 easy tips for how to protect your back and neck.

Ergonomics Rules: OSHA?s Final Ergonomics Standard

Back injuries account for 1 in 4 occupational injuries involving days away from work. Learn more about the workplace ergonomic standards brought into effect by OSHA on January 6, 2001.

Financial Disclosures

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Author's Statement

I, the undersigned, declare that neither I nor members of my immediate family have a financial interests or affiliation with commercial companies whose products and / or services may be mentioned in the materials I have authored, edited or reviewed for presentation on Vertical Health, LLC’s websites.
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